Microwave Antennas and Radar. Maria Leonora Guico Tcom nd Sem Lecture 8

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Microwave Antennas and Radar. Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8"

Transcription

1 Microwave Antennas and Radar Maria Leonora Guico Tcom nd Sem Lecture 8

2 G P P directional isotropic Antenna Basics Isotropic Dipole High gain directional 0 db i 2.2 db i 14 db i

3 Antenna performance half-power beam width Sample calculation Parabolic antenna for sat com Beam Width 3dB BW 70 D[ m] [ m]

4 Microwave Antennas Conventional antennas can be adapted to microwave use The small wavelength of microwaves allows for additional antenna types e.g. high-gain antennas of reasonable size The parabolic dish is a reflector not an antenna but we saw that it is most practical for microwaves. Most common feed antenna for use with parabolic dish is the horn.

5 Horn Antennas Not practical at low frequencies because of size Can be E-plane, H-plane, pyramidal or conical Moderate gain, about 20 dbi Horn antennas have excellent gain and directivity The longer the horn, the greater the gain and directivity

6

7 Types of Horn Antennas Flared in one dimension Sectoral Flared in two dimensions Pyramidal Conical

8 Gain and directivity are a function of the horn s dimensions Most important are the length, aperture area and flare angle The length is usually 2λ to 15λ, at the operating frequency The greater the aperture area, the higher the gain and directivity Flare angles range from 20 to 60 Horn Antennas

9 Slot Antenna Slot in the wall of a waveguide acts as an antenna Slot should have length g /2 Slots and other basic antennas can be combined into phased arrays with many elements that can be electrically steered

10 Low Frequency Antennas At frequencies less than 2 GHz, standard antennas are used (Dipole, Yagi, etc.) One variation is to use a corner reflector Better reflection than a rod reflector (Yagi) Gain is db

11 Beam Width Beam width can be measured horizontally or vertically. Horizontal Beam Width Vertical Beam Width

12 Gain The Gain of a Pyramidal Horn (Power Ratio): G = 7.5d E d H λ 2 G = gain as a power ratio,wrt an isotropic radiator d E = E-plane aperture d H = H-plane aperture λ = wavelength To find the gain in decibels use db = 10 Log P

13 Beam Width (H-plane) Beam Width for a Pyramidal Horn is different in two directions In the H-plane, it is: θ H = 70 λ d H θ H = H-plane beamwidth in degrees λ = wavelength of operating frequency d H = H-plane aperture For a Pyramidal or Circular Horn, the vertical and horizontal beam widths are about the same

14 Beam Width (E- plane) Beam Width for a Pyramidal Horn is different in two directions In the E-plane, it is: θ E = 56 λ d E θ E = E-plane beamwidth in degrees λ = wavelength of operating frequency d E = E-plane aperture For a Pyramidal or Circular Horn, the vertical and horizontal beam widths are about the same

15 Example 1 A pyramidal horn antenna has an aperture (opening) of 58 mm in the E plane and 78 mm in the H plane. The operating frequency is 10 GHz. Calculate : a) its gain in dbi b) the beamwidth in the H plane c) the beamwidth in the E plane

16 Solution to Example 1 a) At 10 GHz the wavelength is: λ = c/f = 3 x 10 8 /10 GHz = 0.03 m G = 7.5d E d H = 7.5 x x = 37.7 λ G (in dbi) = 10 Log 37.7 = 15.8 dbi b) θ H = 70 λ d H = 70 x 0.03/0.078 = c) θ E = 56 λ d E = 56 x 0.03/0.058 = 29 0

17 Bandwidth Horns operate over a wide frequency range The bandwidth of a typical horn is approximately 10% of the operating frequency At 10 GHz, the bandwidth is approximately 1 GHz This is a very large bandwidth and can accommodate almost any modulating signal

18 Parabolic Antennas Using a horn in conjunction with a parabolic reflector provides higher gain and directivity Energy radiated by the horn is focused by the reflector into a narrow beam Beam widths of only a few degrees are typical with a parabolic reflector

19 Can be used for transmit and receive Any common antenna type (dipole, etc) can be used with a parabolic reflector Most parabolic reflectors are designed so that the diameter is no less than λ at the lowest operating frequency Parabolic Antennas

20 Beam Width The Beam Width of a Parabolic Reflector is: B = 70 D/λ (degrees) D = diameter of reflector (m) λ = wavelength of operating frequency Beam Width is inversely proportional to diameter

21 Gain The Gain of a Parabolic Reflector (Power Ratio): G = 6 D λ [ ] 2 G = gain, expressed as a power ratio D = diameter of dish, m λ = wavelength, m To find the gain in decibels use db = 10 Log P

22 Radar Radar stands for Radio Detection And Ranging Two main types Pulse radar locates targets by measuring time for a pulse to reflect from target and return Doppler radar measures target speed by frequency shift of returned signal It is possible to combine these 2 types

23 Radar Cross Section Indicates strength of returned signal from a target Equals the area of a flat conducting plate facing the source that reflects the same amount of energy to the source

24 Radar Equation Expression for received power from a target P R 2 P G T r 4 where P R = received power in watts λ = free-space wavelength P T = transmitted power in watts G = antenna gain as a power ratio σ = radar cross section of the target in square meters r = range (distance to the target) in meters

25 Pulse Radar Direction to target found with directional antenna Distance to target found from time taken for signal to return from target R = ct 2 where R = distance to the target c = velocity of light t = time taken for the echo to return

26

27 Maximum Range Limited by pulse period If reflection does not return before next pulse is transmitted the distance to the target is ambiguous R max = ct 2

28

29 Minimum Range If pulse returns before end of transmitted pulse, it will not be detected R min = ct P 2 A similar distance between targets is necessary to separate them

30 Doppler Radar Motion along line from radar to target changes frequency of reflection Motion toward radar raises frequency Motion away from radar lowers frequency

31

32 Doppler Effect The equation for Doppler effect is: where f D = Doppler shift in hertz f D 2v r c f i v r = relative velocity of the source and target in meters per second along a line between them (positive if the two are getting closer ) f i = incident frequency in hertz c = velocity of light in m/s

33 Limitations of Doppler Radar Only motion towards or away from radar is measured accurately If motion is diagonal, only the component along a line between radar and target is measured

34 Stealth Used mainly by military planes, etc to avoid detection Avoid reflections by making the aircraft skin absorb radiation Scatter reflections using sharp angles

Antenna Glossary Before we talk about specific antennas, there are a few common terms that must be defined and explained:

Antenna Glossary Before we talk about specific antennas, there are a few common terms that must be defined and explained: Antenna Basics Introduction Antennas are a very important component of communication systems. By definition, an antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic

More information

RADIATION PATTERNS. The half-power (-3 db) beamwidth is a measure of the directivity of the antenna.

RADIATION PATTERNS. The half-power (-3 db) beamwidth is a measure of the directivity of the antenna. RADIATION PATTERNS The radiation pattern is a graphical depiction of the relative field strength transmitted from or received by the antenna. Antenna radiation patterns are taken at one frequency, one

More information

Antenna Basic Concepts

Antenna Basic Concepts ANTENNA An antenna is a device to transmit and/or receive electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are often referred to as radio waves. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently

More information

Rec. ITU-R F.699-5 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R F.699-5 *

Rec. ITU-R F.699-5 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R F.699-5 * Rec. ITU-R F.699-5 1 RECOMMENATION ITU-R F.699-5 * REFERENCE RAIATION PATTERNS FOR LINE-OF-SIGHT RAIO-RELAY SYSTEM ANTENNAS FOR USE IN COORINATION STUIES AN INTERFERENCE ASSESSMENT IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE

More information

Two primary advantages of radars: all-weather and day /night imaging

Two primary advantages of radars: all-weather and day /night imaging Lecture 0 Principles of active remote sensing: Radars. Objectives: 1. Radar basics. Main types of radars.. Basic antenna parameters. Required reading: G: 8.1, p.401-40 dditional/advanced reading: Online

More information

EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas

EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas Loaded antennas /4 antennas are desirable because their impedance is purely resistive. At low frequencies, full /4 antennas are sometime impractical (especially in mobile applications).

More information

Antenna Deployment Technical Brief

Antenna Deployment Technical Brief ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

More information

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Phone (603) 627-7877 FAX: (603) 627-1764 Email: sbest@cushcraft.com

More information

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits Paging services (Edition May 2002) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained in these guidelines is intended

More information

Applications in EMC testing. Outline. Antennas for EMC Testing. Terminology

Applications in EMC testing. Outline. Antennas for EMC Testing. Terminology Antennas for EMC Testing Zhong Chen ETS-Lindgren 1301 Arrow Point Drive Cedar Park, TX 78613 Zhong.Chen@ets-lindgren.com Outline EMC Terms and Definitions Typical EMC Antennas Calibration of EMC Antennas

More information

Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications

Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications M. Dogan 1, 3,K. Özsoy 1, 2, and I.Tekin 1, 1 Electronics Engineering, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Vestek Electronic

More information

Designing Log Periodic Antennas

Designing Log Periodic Antennas Designing Log Periodic Antennas By Glen Dash, Ampyx LLC, GlenDash at alum.mit.edu Copyright 2000, 2005 Ampyx LLC Lightweight and precise, the log periodic has become a favorite among EMC engineers. In

More information

WSR - Weather Surveillance Radar

WSR - Weather Surveillance Radar 1 of 7 Radar by Paul Sirvatka College of DuPage Meteorology WSR - Weather Surveillance Radar It was learned during World War II that electromagnetic radiation could be sent out, bounced off an object and

More information

Antennas. Antenna Design Kit. M. Kesteven ATNF 25/September/2001. The primary elements of a synthesis array. The Antenna Structure

Antennas. Antenna Design Kit. M. Kesteven ATNF 25/September/2001. The primary elements of a synthesis array. The Antenna Structure Antennas The Antenna Structure The primary elements of a synthesis array M. Kesteven ATNF 25/September/2001 * Backup structure * Reflector surface(s) shape accuracy construction * Two axis Mount Antenna

More information

Various Technics of Liquids and Solids Level Measurements. (Part 3)

Various Technics of Liquids and Solids Level Measurements. (Part 3) (Part 3) In part one of this series of articles, level measurement using a floating system was discusses and the instruments were recommended for each application. In the second part of these articles,

More information

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits General radio services (operating above 0 MHz) (Edition May 0) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained

More information

Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking

Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking Larry B Kuechle, Advanced Telemetry Systems, Inc. Isanti, Minnesota 55040 lkuechle@atstrack.com The receiving antenna is an integral part of any radio location

More information

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

More information

Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra Wide Band Applications On WR-137 & WR- 62 Waveguides

Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra Wide Band Applications On WR-137 & WR- 62 Waveguides International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 3 Issue 7ǁ July 2014 ǁ PP.11-17 Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn

More information

Antenna Considerations. The space available for an antenna The proximity to neighbours The operating frequencies you will use The output power Money

Antenna Considerations. The space available for an antenna The proximity to neighbours The operating frequencies you will use The output power Money Antennas A good antenna works A bad antenna is a waste of time & money Antenna systems can be very inexpensive and simple They can also be very, very expensive Antenna Considerations The space available

More information

Chapter 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC HORN ANTENNAS Paul Wade N1BWT 1994,1998

Chapter 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC HORN ANTENNAS Paul Wade N1BWT 1994,1998 Chapter 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC HORN ANTENNAS Paul Wade N1BWT 1994,1998 A horn antenna is the ideal choice for a rover station. It offers moderate gain in a small, rugged package with no adjustments needed,

More information

Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS. Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 ANTENNA BASICS

Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS. Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 ANTENNA BASICS Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 Introduction Antenna gain is essential for microwave communication since it helps both transmitting and receiving, it is doubly

More information

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Document ID: 82068 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions Basic Definitions and Antenna Concepts Indoor Effects Omni Antenna Pros

More information

This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples.

This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples. Antenna Basics This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples. What Do Antennas Do? Antennas transmit radio

More information

San Jose State University. Antenna Project. EE172 Extra Credit Project

San Jose State University. Antenna Project. EE172 Extra Credit Project San Jose State University Antenna Project EE172 Extra Credit Project Ivan Moon, Teera Songatikamas, and Ryan Wall 12/20/2009 ABSTRACT Two antennas will be designed, constructed, and tested to operate at

More information

Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda Antenna

Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda Antenna International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.31-37 Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda

More information

Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com

Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Introduction The pillbox or cheese antenna is made of two parallel plates which are connected to the narrow strip of parabolic

More information

Antennas & Propagation. CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman

Antennas & Propagation. CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman Antennas & Propagation CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman Introduction An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors o Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space o Reception

More information

5. ANTENNA TYPES. Figure 5. The vertical dipole and its electromagnetic equivalent, the vertical monopole

5. ANTENNA TYPES. Figure 5. The vertical dipole and its electromagnetic equivalent, the vertical monopole Antennas can be classified in several ways. One way is the frequency band of operation. Others include physical structure and electrical/electromagnetic design. The antennas commonly used for LMR both

More information

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Overview To optimize the overall performance of a WLAN in an outdoor deployment it is important to understand how to maximize coverage

More information

Antennas 101 The Basics. Ward Silver NØAX

Antennas 101 The Basics. Ward Silver NØAX Antennas 101 The Basics Ward Silver NØAX The Basics - 1 Antennas radiate (or receive) because electrons are accelerated (or are caused to accelerate) in the antenna s elements Radio or electromagnetic

More information

Analysis of the G3LTF Dual Band Feed for 23cm and 13cm Paul Wade W1GHZ 2004 w1ghz@arrl.net

Analysis of the G3LTF Dual Band Feed for 23cm and 13cm Paul Wade W1GHZ 2004 w1ghz@arrl.net Analysis of the G3LTF Dual Band Feed for 23cm and 13cm Paul Wade W1GHZ 2004 w1ghz@arrl.net In the March 2004 edition of the RSGB Microwave Newsletter, G3LTF described 1 a dual band feed for the 23 cm and

More information

CHAPTER 4. Electromagnetic Spectrum

CHAPTER 4. Electromagnetic Spectrum ELEC4504 Avionics Systems 9 CHAPTER 4. Electromagnetic Spectrum 4.1. Electromagnetic (EM) Waves In free space (or the atmosphere) the electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field and both are

More information

Antennas. Your total source for everything wireless.

Antennas. Your total source for everything wireless. Antennas Your total source for everything wireless. TerraWave Solutions Antennas Table of Contents Click to jump to specific section. >> TerraWave 900 MHz Antennas 900 MHz Panel Antenna.... Page 3 900

More information

Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device. Application: Radiation

Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device. Application: Radiation Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device Application: adiation Introduction An antenna is designed to radiate or receive electromagnetic

More information

SIDE MOUNTED DIPOLE ANTENNA AV1314

SIDE MOUNTED DIPOLE ANTENNA AV1314 UHF : AV1314 SIDE MOUNTED DIPOLE ANTENNA AV1314 AV1314 380 470 MHz (AV1314-H) 340 440 MHz (AV1314-L) 300 350 MHz (AV1314-A) 280...320 MHz (AV1314-300) 90 MHz (AV1314-H) 100 MHz (AV1314-L) 50 MHz (AV1314-A)

More information

Antenna Trainer EAN. www.edibon.com. Technical Teaching Equipment INTRODUCTION

Antenna Trainer EAN. www.edibon.com. Technical Teaching Equipment INTRODUCTION Antenna Trainer EAN Technical Teaching Equipment Products Products range Units 3.-Communications INTRODUCTION Antennas are the main element of aerial communications. They are the transition between a transmission

More information

Basic Antenna Theory and Application

Basic Antenna Theory and Application Project Number: SNM MQP 0414 Basic Antenna Theory and Application A Major Qualifying Project Report: Submitted to the Faculty of the WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE in partial fulfillment of the requirements

More information

Compact Dual-Linear Polarized Wideband Antenna for VHF/UHF band.

Compact Dual-Linear Polarized Wideband Antenna for VHF/UHF band. Compact Dual-Linear Polarized Wideband Antenna for VHF/UHF band. Olivier Clauzier, Franck Colombel, Mohamed Himdi, Patrick Potier, Cyrille Le Meins To cite this version: Olivier Clauzier, Franck Colombel,

More information

Understanding Range for RF Devices

Understanding Range for RF Devices Understanding Range for RF Devices October 2012 White Paper Understanding how environmental factors can affect range is one of the key aspects to deploying a radio frequency (RF) solution. This paper will

More information

Antennas. About CST. Complete Technology for Antenna Simulation. Edoardo Genovese, CST AG. edoardo.genovese@cst.com

Antennas. About CST. Complete Technology for Antenna Simulation. Edoardo Genovese, CST AG. edoardo.genovese@cst.com 1 Antennas Complete Technology for Antenna Simulation Edoardo Genovese, CST AG edoardo.genovese@cst.com www.cst.com CST workshop series 2010 February 10 1 About CST founded in 1992 160 employees world-wide

More information

Datasheet. airmax 2x2 PtP Bridge Dish Antenna. Models: RD-2G24, RD-3G26, RD-5G30, RD-5G30-LW, RD-5G34. Powerful Performance for Long-Range Links

Datasheet. airmax 2x2 PtP Bridge Dish Antenna. Models: RD-2G24, RD-3G26, RD-5G30, RD-5G30-LW, RD-5G34. Powerful Performance for Long-Range Links airmax 2x2 PtP Bridge Dish Antenna Models: RD-2G24, RD-3G26, RD-5G30, RD-5G30-LW, RD-5G34 Powerful Performance for Long-Range Links Robust Design and Construction for Outdoor Use Seamless Integration with

More information

Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning

Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning Much can be learned about how an antenna performs from its patterns. This paper describes many of the common antenna parameters that can be understood from the patterns.

More information

is the power reference: Specifically, power in db is represented by the following equation, where P0 P db = 10 log 10

is the power reference: Specifically, power in db is represented by the following equation, where P0 P db = 10 log 10 RF Basics - Part 1 This is the first article in the multi-part series on RF Basics. We start the series by reviewing some basic RF concepts: Decibels (db), Antenna Gain, Free-space RF Propagation, RF Attenuation,

More information

Research activity of the Antenna Group at the Public University of Navarra

Research activity of the Antenna Group at the Public University of Navarra Research activity of the Antenna Group at the Public University of Navarra Iñigo Ederra CST Workshop, Pamplona 2010/09/22 Antenna Group Created in 1999 Formed by: 6 Ph.D. 5 Ph.D. students 3 Researchers

More information

Features. Applications. Description. Blockdiagram. K-LC1a RADAR TRANSCEIVER. Datasheet

Features. Applications. Description. Blockdiagram. K-LC1a RADAR TRANSCEIVER. Datasheet Features 24 GHz K-band miniature transceiver 180MHz sweep FM input (n.a. for K-LC1a_V2) Dual 4 patch antenna Single balanced mixer with 50MHz bandwidth Beam aperture 80 /34 15dBm EIRP output power 25x25mm

More information

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1091. (Question ITU-R 88/8)

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1091. (Question ITU-R 88/8) Rec. ITU-R M.1091 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1091 REFERENCE OFF-AXIS RADIATION PATTERNS FOR MOBILE EARTH STATION ANTENNAS OPERATING IN THE LAND MOBILE-SATELLITE SERVICE IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE 1 TO 3 GHz

More information

AV106 BASESTATION ANTENNA SERIES

AV106 BASESTATION ANTENNA SERIES GSM 1800, DECT : AV106 SERIES AV106 BASESTATION ANTENNA SERIES AV106 AV109 and AV112 series contain excellent basestation antenna solutions for GSM 1800 and DECT networks. The -3 db beamwidths are 60º,

More information

Chapter 4 Solution to Problems

Chapter 4 Solution to Problems Chapter 4 Solution to Problems Question #1. A C-band earth station has an antenna with a transmit gain of 54 db. The transmitter output power is set to 100 W at a frequency of 6.100 GHz. The signal is

More information

Periodic Wave Phenomena

Periodic Wave Phenomena Name: Periodic Wave Phenomena 1. The diagram shows radar waves being emitted from a stationary police car and reflected by a moving car back to the police car. The difference in apparent frequency between

More information

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors MediaRobotics Lab, February 2010 Proximity detection is dependent on the object of interest. One size does not fit all For non-contact distance measurement,

More information

CHAPTER4 GENERAL ASPECTS OF MUTUAL

CHAPTER4 GENERAL ASPECTS OF MUTUAL CHAPTER4 GENERAL ASPECTS OF MUTUAL ADMITTANCE OF CPW-FED TWIN SLOTS ON CONDUCTOR-BACKED TWO-LAYER SUBSTRATES 4.1 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS The present chapter is concerned with an exploratory investigation

More information

AP1 Waves. (A) frequency (B) wavelength (C) speed (D) intensity. Answer: (A) and (D) frequency and intensity.

AP1 Waves. (A) frequency (B) wavelength (C) speed (D) intensity. Answer: (A) and (D) frequency and intensity. 1. A fire truck is moving at a fairly high speed, with its siren emitting sound at a specific pitch. As the fire truck recedes from you which of the following characteristics of the sound wave from the

More information

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

More information

Sample Solution to Problem Set 1

Sample Solution to Problem Set 1 College of Computer & Information Science Spring 21 Northeastern University Handout 3 CS 671: Wireless Networks 19 February 21 Sample Solution to Problem Set 1 1. (1 points) Applying low-pass and bandpass

More information

Volts/m For EMC and Antenna Measurement

Volts/m For EMC and Antenna Measurement Application Note #0430 September 2012 Revised: Volts/m For EMC and Antenna Measurement Application Note Image courtesy of Wikipedia Commons This note describes the concept of electric field strength in

More information

New Method for Optimum Design of Pyramidal Horn Antennas

New Method for Optimum Design of Pyramidal Horn Antennas 66 New Method for Optimum Design of Pyramidal Horn Antennas Leandro de Paula Santos Pereira, Marco Antonio Brasil Terada Antenna Group, Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Brasilia - DF terada@unb.br

More information

HALF-WAVE PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA OPTIMIZATION

HALF-WAVE PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA OPTIMIZATION HALF-WAVE PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA OPTIMIZATION Parker Singletary, Carson Smith Advisor: Dr. Gregory J. Mazzaro Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering The Citadel, The Military College of South

More information

Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking. The Radio Physics of WiFi. By Ron Vigneri

Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking. The Radio Physics of WiFi. By Ron Vigneri Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking By Ron Vigneri The Radio Physics of WiFi The standard for wireless LANs (WLANs) was completed in 1997 with the release of the IEEE 802.11 specification

More information

A Dual-Band Beam-Switched Slot Array for GSM 900/1800MHz

A Dual-Band Beam-Switched Slot Array for GSM 900/1800MHz Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference 2006 A Dual-Band Beam-Switched Slot Array for GSM 900/1800MHz Yijun Liu, Zhongxiang Shen, Boyu Zheng and Weihua Tan School of Electrical and Electronic

More information

The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam

The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam This document contains every question from the Extra Class (Element 4) Question Pool* that requires one or more mathematical

More information

Technician Licensing Class

Technician Licensing Class Technician Licensing Class Antennas Presented by Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings) About Ham Radio Call Signs Control Mind the Rules Tech Frequencies

More information

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC ANNOUNCES THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIRBORNE Ku-BAND ANTENNA SUBSYSTEM FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC ANNOUNCES THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIRBORNE Ku-BAND ANTENNA SUBSYSTEM FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE No. 2330 Product Inquiries: Media Contact: Yutaka Kamada Oliver Cox Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Tel: +81-3-3218-2391 Tel: +81-3-3218-2346 Yutaka.Kamada@hq.melco.co.jp

More information

Basic Wire Antennas. Part II: Loops and Verticals

Basic Wire Antennas. Part II: Loops and Verticals Basic Wire Antennas Part II: Loops and Verticals A loop antenna is composed of a single loop of wire, greater than a half wavelength long. The loop does not have to be any particular shape. RF power can

More information

I. Wireless Channel Modeling

I. Wireless Channel Modeling I. Wireless Channel Modeling April 29, 2008 Qinghai Yang School of Telecom. Engineering qhyang@xidian.edu.cn Qinghai Yang Wireless Communication Series 1 Contents Free space signal propagation Pass-Loss

More information

EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission. Prof. Murat Torlak

EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission. Prof. Murat Torlak Path Loss Radio Wave Propagation The wireless radio channel puts fundamental limitations to the performance of wireless communications systems Radio channels are extremely random, and are not easily analyzed

More information

Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna

Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna Shahpure Sana 1, Bharate Rajashri 2, Prof. Jadhav D.A. 3 1,2 BE, Dept. of E&TC, Brahmdevdada Mane Institute of Technology, Dist. Solapur (Maharashtra)

More information

2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna

2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna P a g e 1 EE 172 Extra Credit Project 2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna Created by Mario Delgadillo Maringan Pardamean Panggabean P a g e 2 Abstract This report will define antenna theory and design as it relates

More information

Chapter 11 PARABOLIC DISH FEEDS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Paul Wade N1BWT 1997,1998

Chapter 11 PARABOLIC DISH FEEDS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Paul Wade N1BWT 1997,1998 Chapter 11 PARABOLIC DISH FEEDS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Paul Wade N1BWT 1997,1998 Achieving optimum performance from a microwave dish antenna requires that the feed antenna be matched to the parabolic reflector.

More information

Sensor and Simulation Notes. Note 479. October 2003. A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna

Sensor and Simulation Notes. Note 479. October 2003. A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna Sensor and Simulation Notes Note 479 October 2003 A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna Leland H. Bowen and Everett G. Farr Farr Research, Inc. Dean I. Lawry Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed

More information

HUMAN EXPOSURE TO EMR: ASSESSMENT OF AMATEUR RADIO STATIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ACA REQUIREMENTS

HUMAN EXPOSURE TO EMR: ASSESSMENT OF AMATEUR RADIO STATIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ACA REQUIREMENTS HUMAN EXPOSURE TO EMR: ASSESSMENT OF AMATEUR RADIO STATIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ACA REQUIREMENTS May 2005 Version 2.0 PO Box 78 BELCONNEN ACT 2616 Telephone (02) 6219 5555 Facsimile (02) 6219 5353 www.aca.gov.au

More information

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key 1. Helium neon laser light (63..8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central imum on a screen 1.00 m from the slit? 7 6.38 10 sin θ.11

More information

Modulated Metasurface Antennas

Modulated Metasurface Antennas ASI, ROMA, 4 Novembre, 13 Acknowledgements A Toccafondi (Associate Professor) M. Albani (Assistant Professor) Modulated Metasurface Antennas S. Maci Dept. Information Engineering and Math Science, University

More information

LOW GAIN BASE STATION ANTENNA AV1312-1A

LOW GAIN BASE STATION ANTENNA AV1312-1A SPECIALS : AV1312-1A LOW GAIN BASE STATION ANTENNA AV1312-1A AV1312-1A 118 144 MHz 26 MHz 50 Ω DC grounded 1,5 max/depending on mounting 2 dbi E-plane 3 db beamwidth 70 H-plane 3 db beamwidth 200 /depending

More information

LOW GAIN FM ANTENNA AV1311-95

LOW GAIN FM ANTENNA AV1311-95 FM/TV : AV1311-95 LOW GAIN FM ANTENNA AV1311-95 AV1311-95 88 108 MHz 1,5 max Vertical 2 dbi E-plane 3 db beamwidth 70 H-plane 3 db beamwidth 200 /depending on mounting 6 db/depending on mounting 0,5 kw

More information

A Novel GPS Survey Antenna

A Novel GPS Survey Antenna A Novel GPS Survey Antenna Waldemar Kunysz, NovAtel Inc. BIOGRAPHY Waldemar Kunysz obtained a BSEE from the Technical University of Nova Scotia in 1989. From 1991 to 1995 he worked on phased array antennas

More information

A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies. Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz

A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies. Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz Topics General introduction to radiolocation Manual DF techniques Doppler DF Time difference

More information

FDTD Analysis of Site Free Space VSWR in Test Site Used for Disturbance Measurement above 1 GHz

FDTD Analysis of Site Free Space VSWR in Test Site Used for Disturbance Measurement above 1 GHz 九 州 工 業 大 学 学 術 機 関 リポジトリ Title FDTD analysis of site free space VS disturbance measurement above 1 GHz Author(s) Kuwabara N; Midori M; Kawabata M Issue Date 9-8 URL http://hdl.handle.net/8/368 9 IEEE.

More information

We ve Bent The Rules. AR s Bent-Element Approach Provides A Size Reduction Of Up To 75%, Along With Great Performance.

We ve Bent The Rules. AR s Bent-Element Approach Provides A Size Reduction Of Up To 75%, Along With Great Performance. Antennas 76 We ve Bent The Rules. AR s Bent-Element Approach Provides A Size Reduction Of Up To 75%, Along With Great Performance. AR is doing incredible things with antennas. For starters, we ve advanced

More information

MATLAB Implementation of Yagi-Uda Antenna using circuit theory approach

MATLAB Implementation of Yagi-Uda Antenna using circuit theory approach MATLAB Implementation of Yagi-Uda Antenna using circuit theory approach Karthik.K Student, Department of Telecommunication Engineering BMS College of Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, India T.Anushalalitha

More information

Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained

Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained 2G 3G Aerial Second Generation Mobile Phone System. See GSM See Third Generation Mobile Phone System. Device designed to radiate and receive electromagnetic energy. Antenna

More information

AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008 AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

More information

Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits

Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION Chapter 50: Non-ionizing Radiation Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits Product ID: 94 Revision ID: 1736 Date published: 30 June 2015 Date effective: 30 June 2015

More information

Weather Radar Basics

Weather Radar Basics Weather Radar Basics RADAR: Radio Detection And Ranging Developed during World War II as a method to detect the presence of ships and aircraft (the military considered weather targets as noise) Since WW

More information

Helical Feed Antennas Paul Wade W1GHZ 2002 w1ghz@arrl.net

Helical Feed Antennas Paul Wade W1GHZ 2002 w1ghz@arrl.net Helical Feed Antennas Paul Wade W1GHZ 22 w1ghz@arrl.net Helical antennas have long been popular in applications from VHF to microwaves requiring circular polarization, since they have the unique property

More information

ASTRA 3B HORN ANTENNA DESIGN

ASTRA 3B HORN ANTENNA DESIGN ASTRA 3B HORN ANTENNA DESIGN Jorge Teniente and Carlos del-río Grupo de Antenas, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía s/n, 31006 Spain, Email: jorge.teniente@unavarra.es, carlos@unavarra.es

More information

physics 1/12/2016 Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Traveling Waves

physics 1/12/2016 Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Traveling Waves Chapter 20 Lecture physics FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS a strategic approach THIRD EDITION randall d. knight Chapter 20 Traveling Waves Chapter Goal: To learn the basic properties of traveling waves. Slide

More information

All specifications are subject to change without notice. The latest specifications are available at www.kathrein-scala.com.

All specifications are subject to change without notice. The latest specifications are available at www.kathrein-scala.com. ISO 9001 Quality and ISO 14001 Environmental Management Kathrein-Scala is an ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified company and is in voluntary compliance with EU Directive 02-95-EC for Reduction of Hazardous

More information

Project Documentation EKTSDG-010000 Target Simulator Doppler Generator

Project Documentation EKTSDG-010000 Target Simulator Doppler Generator Project Documentation EKTSDG-010000 Target Simulator Doppler Generator Project Number: SMS Project Number: Project Title: Handheld Radar Target Simulator Doppler Generator Keyword(s): Electronic Radar

More information

Printed Dipole Antenna

Printed Dipole Antenna Printed Dipole Antenna Reto Zingg Abstract In this project a printed dipole antenna is being designed. Printed dipole antennas are of interest, when an electronic product, which is implemented on a printed

More information

Antennas & Transmission Lines

Antennas & Transmission Lines 4 Antennas & Transmission Lines The transmitter that generates the RF 1 power to drive the antenna is usually located at some distance from the antenna terminals. The connecting link between the two is

More information

APPLICATION NOTE AP050830

APPLICATION NOTE AP050830 APPLICATION NOTE AP050830 Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers Pro-Wave Electronics Corp. E-mail: sales@pro-wave.com.tw URL: http://www.prowave.com.tw The purpose of this application note

More information

Bar Code. RADAR TECH (COMM1007) Three hours June 2010 Final Examination

Bar Code. RADAR TECH (COMM1007) Three hours June 2010 Final Examination Faculty of Information and Engineering Technology Prof. Dr. Abdelmegid Allam Bar Code RADAR TECH (COMM1007) Three hours June 2010 Final Examination Please read carefully before proceeding. 1. The duration

More information

WAVEGUIDE-COAXIAL LINE TRANSITIONS

WAVEGUIDE-COAXIAL LINE TRANSITIONS WAVEGUIDE-COAXIAL LINE TRANSITIONS 1. Overview Equipment at microwave frequencies is usually based on a combination of PCB and waveguide components. Filters and antennas often use waveguide techniques,

More information

JITAI Technology Co., LTD. Your 1 st Partner. Product Catalog. Microwave Passive Device Design and Manufacture

JITAI Technology Co., LTD. Your 1 st Partner. Product Catalog. Microwave Passive Device Design and Manufacture Technology Co., LTD. Your 1 st Partner Product Catalog Microwave Passive Device Design and Manufacture CONTENTS Rotary Joints Single Channel Rotary Joints Microwave Passive Device Design and Manufacture

More information

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Lecture : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Attenuation (Loss)

More information

Doppler. Doppler. Doppler shift. Doppler Frequency. Doppler shift. Doppler shift. Chapter 19

Doppler. Doppler. Doppler shift. Doppler Frequency. Doppler shift. Doppler shift. Chapter 19 Doppler Doppler Chapter 19 A moving train with a trumpet player holding the same tone for a very long time travels from your left to your right. The tone changes relative the motion of you (receiver) and

More information

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 9 Sep 2013

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 9 Sep 2013 Design and Development of Tapered Spiral Helix Antenna B.Sai Yashodha #1, J.Ravindranadh *2 1 # Mtech Student, ECE Department, RVR&JCCE, GUNTUR 2 # Associate Professor, ECE Department, RVR&JCCE, GUNTUR

More information

Analysis of Radiation Patterns of Log-Periodic Dipole Array Using Transmission Line Matrix Model

Analysis of Radiation Patterns of Log-Periodic Dipole Array Using Transmission Line Matrix Model Analysis of Radiation Patterns of Log-Periodic Dipole Array Using Transmission Line Matrix Model Surender Daasari 1, Suresh Thallapelli 2 Department of ECE, Kamala Institute of Technlogy & Science, Singapuram,

More information