The Art of Ancient Rome

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1 The Art of Ancient Rome By the end of the sixth Century BC, under Etruscan rule, Rome became the largest and richest city in Italy. The Romans, however, were not happy under Etruscan rule, and in 509 BC they drove the Etruscans from the city and established a REPUBLIC. The Ancient Romans adored Greek art and it is only because of the faithful Roman copies that any Greek art survives. The art of the ancient Romans and their genius in engineering and architecture has directly influenced the art of modern civilizations.

2 ROMAN SCULPTURE Roman sculpture reflects the tremendous influence exerted by earlier Greek artists. Much of Roman art was directly copied from the Greeks. DIFFERENCES between Greek and Roman Sculpture: The Greeks preferred IDEALISTIC portraits The Romans wanted their sculptures to remind people of SPECIFIC individuals Remember Discobolos?? GREEK portraits were designed for spiritual purposes ROMAN portraits were meant to decorate public and private buildings, and to promote the state and government A roman portrait creates a feeling that the viewer is looking at a real person, imperfections and all!! Romans felt that a person s character could be best shown through FACIAL FEATURES and EXPRESSION That s why they often commissioned just the head, called a BUST rather than a sculpture of the whole body The Greeks, in contrast, considered a bust to be INCOMPLETE

3 Title: Bust of the Roman Emperor Vittelius Period: Roman Artform: Sculpture (Bust) Medium: Stone

4 ROMAN SCULPTURE Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, AD. Bronze. Rome. Stands at what was once the center of Roman government An exceptional example of balance and weight distribution Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, AD. Bronze. Rome. This sculpture would have been used for propagandistic purposes Propaganda is a specific type of message directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. Marcus Aurelius was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors" who governed the Roman Empire from 96 to 180. Why does this sculpture impress the viewer? Would this affect the viewer s opinion of Marcus Aurelius?

5 Title: Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius Period: Roman Artform: Sculpture Medium: Bronze

6 Greek Roman Construction Material Marble. Concrete. Preferred architectural order: Doric, Ionic. Corinthian. Most famous temple: Dedicated to: Parthenon.! Athena. Pantheon. "All the gods" (7 planetary gods). Location: Athens. Rome. Ceremonies took palace: Outside, in front of temple. Inside.

7 ROMAN ARCHITECTURE The Pantheon, Rome, Italy, A.D Look Familiar? Remember, the Romans loved to copy the Greeks! The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon, from Greek Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the Gods") is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome, but which has been a Christian church since the 7th century. The interior of the Pantheon is well illuminated, although there are no windows. (A round opening at the top of the domed roof lets in light)

8 Title: The Pantheon Period: Roman Artform: Architecture Medium: Granite and marble

9 ROMAN ARCHITECTURE The Arch of Constantine Triumphal Arch = An arch erected to celebrate a war victory A triumphal arch, erected c. 315 CE to commemorate the triumph of Constantine I at war Largest and most elaborate of the triumphal arches After a victory the general and his officers would ride their horses through the arches The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments and is meant to praise the emperor Another example of PROPOGANDA

10 Title: The Arch of Constantine Period: Roman Artform: Architecture Medium: Stone

11 ROMAN ARCHITECTURE The Baths Roman emperors were constantly building and rebuilding the cities of their empires As long as their was money to do so, the emperors had baths (left), circuses, forums and amphitheatres constructed for the enjoyment of the people The emperors hoped to maintain their popularity this way! The Latin word for the baths was Thermae The BATHS were among the most popular of the public buildings. Baths were more than just municipal swimming pools; they were vast enclosed structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, shops, restaurants, and pleasant walkways THEY CAN BE COMPARED TO OUR MODERN DAY SHOPPING MALLS!

12 Title: The Baths Period: Roman Artform: Architecture Medium: Marble and Stone

13 ROMAN ARCHITECTURE The Colosseum In the largest match, up to spectators watched up 5000 pairs of gladiators and 5000 animals being slaughtered in a single event! Buildings for sporting events were erected to hold chariot races, armed contest (took place at the Colosseum, left), and in the 3rd Century BC, Gladiator matches GREEK to ROMAN: The Colosseum consists of 4 stories constructed of stone, brick, and The best seats (first tier) were reserved for the Emperor and concrete. On the third level are state officials, the upper class sat in the second tier while the CORINTHIAN columns, on the general public crowded into the upper tiers second level are IONIC columns, Beneath the floor were compartments and passages for: caged and on the lowest level are animals, barracks for gladiators, and storage for the machinery DORIC columns that raised and lowered stage sets

14 Title: The Colosseum Period: Roman Artform: Architecture Medium: Concrete (first invented in Rome) and Stone

Name: Date: Period: Gardener s Notes Unit 7 - Chapter 10: Roman Art

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