Activity 8: Invertebrates Part 1 (Exercise 36, 37, 38)

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1 Name Bio 182-General Biology Activity 8: Invertebrates Part 1 (Exercise 36, 37, 38) Answer the questions in the space provided. You must submit this document on the date scheduled for this activity. Exercise 36. Pg 385. Look at the sponges on display including Euplectella, Grantia etc. Look at the information in the laboratory manual regarding Grantia and answer the following questions. (You do not need to look at prepared slides.) Question 1. Do any features of Grantia clearly distinguish this organism as an animal? If so, what? Question 2. Are choanocytes significant to a fundamental process for sponges? What is the process, and how are choanocytes significant? Question 3. How do spicules help sponges survive in their environment? Question 4. A. Do sponges appear to have organs or organ systems? Question 4. B. What is the advantage of a folded or convoluted wall in sponges? Question 4. C. What function other than support might spicules serve? Question 4. F. Are spicules significant to a fundamental process for sponges? In what way? Cnidaria (Coelentarata): Look at the generalized life cycle of Cnidarian s and the examples on display and answer the following question.

2 Question 5. A. Are cnidocytes significant to fundamental processes for cnidarians? In what ways? Question 5. B. How could polymorphism contribute to the evolutionary success of cnidarians in their environment? Procedure 36.2 Observe Hydra parts 1-2. Do this procedure and answer the following questions. Question 6. A. How do Hydra respond to a tap on their surface? Question 6. B. What tissues must exist for this response? Question 6. D. What specialized cells of tentacles aid in capturing prey? Obelia: Examine the prepared slides of Obelia hydra and medusa, and answer the following questions. Question 7. A. What structures determine whether a polyp of Obelia is a gastrozooid (feeding polyp) rather than a gonozoid (reproductive polyp)? Question 7. B. How do gonozoids obtain their food in this colonial organism? Question 7. C. Gonozoids continue the reproductive cycle by budding medusae. About how many maturing medusae are visible in a typical gonozoid?

3 Look at the examples of Hydrozonans, Scyphozoans, and Anthozoans on display and be able to identify them. Note their characteristics, and look at the life cycle of the Aurelia. Note that the Medusa is the dominant life form. Think about the primary differences between sea jellies, sea anemones and corals. Take notes on the specimens. Think about the Cnidarians you have observed and the information given in this exercise, and answer the following questions. Question 10. B. What is the advantage of a partitioned gastrovascular cavity? Question 10. C. Describe how fragmentation contributes to the evolutionary success of the Anthozoans in their environment. Question 11. A. Draw and describe the life cycle of the typcial Cnidarian ( pg 390).

4 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Procedure 37.1 (1-6) Observe Planaria. Question 1. A. What features of Dugesia distinguish its head from its tail? Question 1. B.What is the difference between the eyes of most animals you are familiar with and the eyespots of Dugesia? Question 1. D. How is Dugesia adapted for directional movement? Question 1. H. Where is the feeding tube located? Why is this unusual for bilaterally symmetrical organisms? Question 1. J. How could being monoecious contribute to evolutionary success of flatworms in their environment? Class Trematoda: Observe Fasicola preserved and prepared slide. Question 3.How could the production of large numbers of eggs contribute to the evolutionary success of flatworms in their environment? Class Cestoda: Examine the specimen of Taenia solium provided, and look at the prepared slide. Question 5. A. How does the scolex compare in size to a proglotid near the scolex? Near the posterior end? Question 5. B. Tapeworms have no digestive system or mouth. How then do they obtain food?

5 Question 5. C. Examine figure 37.8 and its caption carefully. Which proglottids, mature or gravid, occur closest to the scolex? Question 5. F. Tapeworms are specialized. Would you expect specialists to have a unique morphology? Why? Phylum Nematoda: Page 405. Look at the pictures and information provided as well as the demonstration slide on display in the laboratory, then answer the following questions. Question 6. B. What are the advantages of a digestive tract having a separate entrance and exit? Question 6. C. Female Ascaris are more numerous than males. Why might this be adaptive? Procedure Examine living nematodes. (Turbatrix) and look at the picture that show the body plan of these organisms. Question 7. A How would you describe the motion of a nematode? Question 7. B. How is the movement related to the movement of their muscle layers? Procedure Examine the Ascaris demonstration. Question 8.D. Are any sensory organs evident in Ascaris? Why would this be adaptive? Procedure Examine the slide of muscle tissue containing encysted larvae of Trichinella. How does a person catch trichinosis?

6 Exercise 38. Page 414. Phylum Mollusca: Look at the examples of mollusks provided. And carefully look at the drawings in your text, then answer the following questions. Also fill out the table provided on the next page. Question 1. C. In what ways would having a shell contribute to the survival and reproductive success of mollusks in their environment? Question 2. A. How does the foot of a bivalve differ from that of snails or chitons? Question 2. C. Is immobility a problem for filter-feeders such as oysters? Why or why not? Dissect the specimen of the squid provided, Draw the following structures from the handouts: Ctenidium, Ink sac, Eye, Fin, Tentacle/arm, Sucker Buccal mass, Digestive gland, Beak, Cecum. Then answer the questions that follow.

7 Question 3. A. What features of squid and octopuses are adaptations for predation? Question 3. B. Do all of the tentacles of a squid have suckers? Question 3. D. Find the mouth at the base of the tentacles. What is the shape and consistency of the jaws? You may need to make an incision to expose the mouth and jaws. Question 3. E. Why are sensory organs more prominent in cephalopods than in other classes of mollusks? Question 3. F. In what ways are image-forming eyes significant to fundamental processes for cephalopods? Table 38.2 A comparison of Major Characteristics of four classes of Mollusks. Shell Polyplacophora Gastropoda Bivalvia Cephalopoda Mantle Foot Locomotion Feeding Sensory Structures Phylum Annelida: Class Polychaeta: Examine the specimens of polychaets that are on display. Question 4. B. List several functions of parapodia and setae.

8 Class Oligocheata: Procedure Earthworm locomotion. Skip procedure. Video may be available. Question 5. C. What muscles allow the worm to change its length and thickness? Question 5. D. How does an earthworm s motion differ from that of a snake or nematode? Class Hirudinea: Procedure 38.6 parts1 and 2. Question 8. A. What is the difference in general body shape of leeches compared to oligochaetes or polychaetes? Question 8. B What functions other than feeding do suckers serve? Question 8. E. How could production of a packet-like spermatophore contribute to the evolutionary success of leeches in their environment?

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