Effects of N amount and timing of N injection fertilisation to cereals compared to broadcast surface application

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1 Effects of N amount and timing of N injection fertilisation to cereals compared to broadcast surface application Einfluss von N-Menge und Injektionszeitpunkt bei der N-Injektionsdüngung zu Getreide im Vergleich zu breitwürfiger Düngerausbringung Martin Kuecke Institute of Crop and Soil Science Julius Kühn Institute Federal Research Centre for cultivated Plants Braunschweig, Germany 9./1. Febr. 21 1

2 Content Introduction Effect of N injection fertilization after different precrops (masterthesis Ralf Reinhardt) Effect of N injection after different soil cultivation (masterthesis Katja Schiemenz) Nitrate concentrations in leachates after ammonium injection fertilisation Conclusions and perspective 9./1. Febr. 21 2

3 Spoke wheel injector for field experiments (3 m) 9./1. Febr. 21 3

4 Effect of liquid fertilizer N injection on winter wheat in relation to different precrops (Master thesis Rheinhardt 26) On Farm in Hoerden, Harz mountains, Northern Germany Soil type: Loam Split block design, 3 replicates Main treatments: previous crop (winter oil seed rape, winter wheat) Subunits: N amount (16 kg N ha -1 incl. N min, 21 kg N ha -1 incl. N min ) N application (Injection, surface banding, conventional spraying) Control without N fertilization Spraying and injection with urea ammonium nitrate solution (UAN) Mineral nitrogen content in the soil profile in spring was 95 kg N ha-1 after oils seed rape and 55 kg N ha-1 after wheat 9./1. Febr. 21 4

5 Climatic situation 25/26 in Hoerden mm/month C Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Febr. March April May June July Aug. month Precipitation (mm) Prec. Long-term Air temp. C Air Temp. Lon-term Air temperatures above long-term average between April and July Precipitation above long-term average in Mai 9./1. Febr. 21 5

6 Grain yield and protein content of winter wheat after CULTAN injection, surface banding and conventional fertilization (experiment Hörden 26, Reinhardt 27) 1 D A ABC A BC AB C C AB AB A B A AB 16 grain yield (85,5 % dm), dt ha D A BCD AB CD A BC C A BC AB ABC AB ABC % protein in dm 1 N Inj. 21 Inj. 16 Surf. b. 21 Surf. b. 16 conv. 21 conv. 16 N Inj. 21 Inj. 16 Surf. b. 21 Surf. b. 16 conv. 21 conv. 16 wheat after wheat wheat after rape grain yield protein Different letters indicate significant differences with p <,5; Tuckey-test, error bars indicate standard error of the avarage 9./1. Febr. 21 6

7 Seasonal variation of the mineral N concentrations in the soil of the depots (date of fertilization: ) days after application 23 days after application mg NO3 - N/kg TM-1 mg NH4 - N/kg TM-1 mg urea - N/kg TM-1 37 days after application mg N g TM Inj. 21 Surf. b. 21 Inj. 21 Surf. b. 21 Inj. 21 Surf. b Different letters indicate significant differences with p <,5; Tuckey-test, error bars indicate standard error of the avarage 9./1. Febr. 21 7

8 Seasonal variation of the content of mineral N in the soil between the N depots in the CULTAN plots, in the conventional plots and N plots (-3 cm) kg N min /ha kg NO3 - N/ha-1 kg NH4 - N/ha-1 kg urea - N/ha-1 Kg N min /ha (+ 155 kg N ha -1 in the depot ) +65 kg N/ha kg N/ha B B B A B B B A B B B A N Inj. 21 Surf. b. 21 conv. 21 N Inj. 21 Surf. b. 21 conv. 21 N Inj. 21 Surf. b. 21 conv Different letters indicate significant differences with p <,5; Tuckey-test, error bars indicate standard error of the avarage 9./1. Febr. 21 8

9 Content of mineral N in the soil after harvest and soil cultivation (rotary hoe) cm 3-6 cm Nmin kg N Inj. 21 conv. 21 N Inj. 21 conv. 21 wheat after wheat wheat after rape Different letters indicate significant differences with p <,5; Tuckey-test, error bars indicate standard error of the avarage 9./1. Febr. 21 9

10 Seasonal variation of the ph in the N depot soil after urea ammonium nitrate injection 8 7,5 in the depot soil in the soil between depots 7 ph 6,5 6 5,5 A B A B B A /1. Febr. 21 1

11 N uptake of winter wheat (after wheat) between N injection 21 surf. band. 21 conv. 21 Days after N fertilization 2 27 kg N ha A A A A A A A A A A A A C B B A A A C A A B A B B A A B A A A B Different letters indicate significant differences with p <,5; Tuckey-test, error bars indicate standard error of the avarage 9./1. Febr

12 N availability after CULTAN fertilization (conclusions) No effect of the N application method on yield and quality of winter wheat was detected. The N uptake rate of wheat was lower after fluid injection fertilization for 16 days compared to broadcast fertilization, but subsequently higher. There were no differences in N uptake at harvest. In the N depots, NH 4 contribution was still 5% even 23 days after injection. Urea was detectable in the depot only within 9 days after injection. After conventional fertilization, a high priming effect (inducing mineralization by ferilization) was observed, which resulted in a mineral nitrogen content of ~5 kg N ha -1. As expected, the mineral N content in the soil between the N depots was always lower than in the conventionally fertilized soil. 9./1. Febr

13 Experiment 25 Effect of CULTAN fertilization on yield and quality of winter wheat after different soil cultivation (master thesis Schiemenz 25) loamy sand winter wheat after corn soil cultivation experiment since 1999 (plough, mulching, direct seed) randomized block design, 4 repl. N treatments: (1) liquid ammonium sulfphate (AS) injection, (2) solid calcerous ammonium nitrate (CAN) application in 1 dose, broadcast (3) CAN application in 3 doses injection date: early (4.4.), late (2.4.) S-fertilization 5 kg S ha -1 in all treatments N-amounts: 15 kg N/ha -1, 3 doses splitted in 6, 3, 6 kg N ha -1 9./1. Febr

14 Climatic situation 24/25 in Braunschweig precipitation [mm] OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MARCH APR MAY JUN JUL AUG month 2, 18, 16, 14, 12, 1, 8, 6, 4, 2,, temperature [ C] prec. 24/5 prec. long-term temperature 24/5 temperature long-term extreme drought in the cornfilling period 9./1. Febr

15 Grain yield of winter wheat in relation to fertilization system and soil cultivation grain yield, dt/ha -1 (84,5 % dm) soil cultivation 28,5 64,3 65, 65,9 6,5 62,8 B A A A A A B # 57,3 53,4 5,1 plough mulch direct seed N AS, early AS, late CAN, early CAN, late CAN, 3 doses A A A 63,9 Ø 63,7 32,6 Ø 56,2 29,1 Ø 57,3 A B 57,2 59,4 52,7 57,2 6,1 A A A A A # = missing data due to experimental default Different letters indicate significant differences with p <,5; Tuckey-test, error bars indicate standard error of the avarage 9./1. Febr

16 Effect of AS injection (CULTAN) and soil cultivation on the Mn content of winter wheat (experiment Braunschweig 25) soil cultivation treatments Mn (ppm) in DM total plant, flowering final harvest shooting ears straw grain straw plough mulch direct seed N 38 A B 29 A 36 A B 23 B 26 B AS early 52 A 39 A 59 A 37 A 47 A AS late 41 A B 4 A 48 A B 32 A B 34 A B CAN early 38 A B 29 A 3 B 25 B 21 B CAN late 39 A B 37 A 41 A B 26 B 22 B CAN 3 doses 31 B 34 A 28 B 24 B 2 B N 39 A 28 A 26 A 21 B 19 A AS early missing data AS late 44 A 34 A 43 A 3 A 3 A CAN early 36 A 3 A 27 A 23 B 25 A CAN late 46 A 33 A 33 A 25 A B 21 A CAN 3 doses 34 A 3 A 28 A 2 B 21 A N 52 A 32 A 42 B 27 A 26 A AS early 58 A 28 A 67 A 35 A 39 A AS late 51 A 33 A 52 A B 35 A 39 A CAN early 49 A 26 A 37 B 29 A 33 A CAN late 55 A 32 A 49 A B 28 A 26 A CAN 3 doses 44 A 28 A 39 B 27 A 25 A 9./1. Febr

17 Conclusions Availability of micronutrients can be imporved by fluid ammonium injection 9./1. Febr

18 Leaching of nitrate in relation to fertilisation field monitoring program Continuous nitrate leaching measurements in 2 field experiment with seepage water samplers Lysimeter field: soil cultivation Mulch vs. plough Grosskamp field N amount early injection: Late injection: Application: N fertilisation broadcast vs. injection N2 as recommend N1= N2 minus 4 5 kg N ha -1 begin of growing season begin of tillering fluid injection (AS) broadcast, 3 doses (CAN) 9./1. Febr

19 Climatic situation 27 in Braunschweig precipitation [mm] temerature [ C] JAN FEB MARCH APR MAY JUN JUL AUG month prec. prec.long-term temp. temp. long-term Temperatures above average over the whole growth period, drought in April, high precipitation in May 9./1. Febr

20 Effect of N fertilization and soil cultivation in grain yield of wheat (lysimeter station Braunschweig 27) (main effects) (dt ha -1, 85,5% dm) aver. mulch 71,6 aver. plough 79,5 LSD soil cultivation. : 5, aver. conv. fertilization 73,4 aver. injection 77,6 LSD fertilization : 5, trial average 75,5 9./1. Febr. 21 2

21 mg NO 3 -N L -1 Seasonal trend of the nitrate-n concentrations in seepage water after broadcast N fertilisation (CAN) and injection fertilisation i Braunschweig, 27 to mid N1 7 N2 8 k N1 3 N N1 4 N w- wheat w- rye s-wheat N1 6 N N1 4 N early inj. late injection N N2 broadcast N2 inj. early N2 inj. Late 2 Error bars = standarddeviation Inj. 19 Inj date 9./1. Febr

22 Seasonal trend of the nitrate-n concentrations in seepage water after broadcast N fertilisation (CAN) and injection fertilisation Braunschweig, 27 to mid 29 mg NO 3 -N L N1 7 N2 8 k N1 3 N N1 4 N w- wheat w- rye s-wheat N1 6 N N1 4 N plough early injection. late injection N N2 broadcast N2 inj. early N2 inj. Late 2 plough harrow Inj. 19 Inj date 9./1. Febr

23 Seasonal trend of the nitrate-n concentrations in seepage water after broadcast N fertilisation (CAN) in 2 different amounts Braunschweig, 27 to mid 29 mg NO3-N L N1 7 N2 8 k 1437 N1 3 N N1 4 N w- wheat w- rye s-wheat N1 6 N N1 4 N plough N N1 broadcast N2 broadcast 2 plough harrow date 9./1. Febr

24 Summary and conclusions According to our experimental results, fluid fertilizer injection (CULTAN) to cereals is favourite especially in years with drought in early summer. Fluid fertilizer injection fertilization with liquid ammonium sulphate increased the micronutrient concentrations (metals) in wheat as a reaction of the ph decrease in the depot (and most likely in the rhizosphere). Variation of nitrate contentrations in seepage waters is up to 1 % var.coeff. and sometimes even more. We find highest nitrate concentrations beween September to March Usually (but not always), nitrate concentrations are lowest in zero N plots. During the growing season, we frequently find lower nitrate concentrations after N injection compared to broadcast N fertilisation, In winter, the data rows are inconsistant. Fertilisation effects are frequently overlapped by envrionmental effects 9./1. Febr

25 Thank you! 9./1. Febr

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