BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FORECAST

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1 A BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FORECAST Biomass gasification-combined cycle technology offers several advantages relative to direct combustion-steam cycle and other biomass power technologies. The principal advantage is the potential for higher power generation efficiency in the smaller size range appropriate for biomass power projects. This higher efficiency is important because the delivered cost of biomass fuel is often higher than that of fossil fuels, and biomass power projects are generally smaller (10-60 MWe) and hence encounter diseconomies of scale relative to than fossil fuel power projects ( MWe and larger for coal-based direct combustion and IGCC plants). The size of biomass power projects is limited by the maximum transport distance at which it is economic to harvest and transport biomass fuel to a power plant (50-75 miles) and the biomass crop production potential of the land area around the plant. Several U.S. and European groups are developing advanced technology, incorporating fluidized bed gasification, combustion turbine and steam turbine combined cycles, and ceramic filter hot gas cleanup systems to protect the combustion turbine from alkali deposits and corrosion. In 1994, a 6-MWe/9-MWth pressurized wood-gasification combined-cycle demonstration plant began operation in Sweden. However, there is some uncertainty about both the robustness of hot gas cleanup under the high tar and alkali environment of wood gas, and ammonia formation in the gasifier, with subsequent conversion of ammonia to NOx in the combustion turbine. Both issues are being addressed by several ongoing development programs. This section address the biomass gasification-combined cycle process description, technology status and worldwide experience, and technology forecast for the future. Biomass Gasification Process Description Two 100 MWe wood gasification-combined cycle power plants are addressed in the exhibits, one based on atmospheric and the other on pressurized technology. Figures A-1 and A-2 show process flowcharts for the plants, and Figures A-3 and A-4 summarize power plant design, performance, and cost data for the plants generated using the EPRI BIOPOWER model (1, 2). Both plants fire the same blend of urban wood, mill residue, in-forest waste, and agricultural crop residue, used in the wood-fired stoker and fluidized bed boiler cases.

2 The wood is first dried from 33 to 15 percent moisture and then injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with air, steam, and dolomite and gasified at 1600 deg F. The product gas is cleaned and fired in an industrial combustion turbine. The exhaust gases pass through a heat recovery steam generator to generate steam and released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric Pressure Biomass Gasification Power Plant The atmospheric pressure gasification power plant includes a flue gas-heated dryer, atmospheric pressure fluidized bed gasifier, wet scrubbing cleanup of gas, compression of gas to turbine inlet pressure, and an industrial combustion turbine (Figure A-1). The product gas is cooled to about 500 deg F, cleaned in wet scrubber to remove ash, tars, and ammonia, compressed, and fired in the industrial combustion turbine. Pressurized Biomass Gasification Power Plant The pressurized gasification power plant uses direct-contact steam drying of the wood, pressurized fluidized bed gasification, catalytic ammonia removal, warm gas cleanup, and an industrial combustion turbine (Figure A-1). The application of steam drying for high-moisture fuels to combined cycle power systems is under development in Europe and elsewhere (3-5). The gasifier operates at about 28 atmospheres pressure. The product gas is passed over a nickel catalyst to reduce ammonia content, combined with the pressurized water vapor from the direct-contact steam dryer, cooled to about 800 deg F, cleaned in the ceramic filter, and fired in the industrial combustion turbine.

3 LBG Fuel Gas Sludge waste Wet scrubber Compressor 500 F Steam to CT HRSG Electricity Industrial exhaust Flue gas Gas cooler comb. turbine/ HRSG 527 F generator Steam Steam from 900 psi, 850 F Stack HRSG Fluidized Air Steam Electricity bed gasifier Air compressor turbine/ Moisture losses 1600 F, 1.8 bar generator Cooling Wood Char Dolomite Air water blend On-site fuel Mechanical wood Wood drying Flue gas draft cooling preparation tower Fines Ferrous Ash Air Figure A-1 Process Flowsheet of Atmospheric Pressure Biomass Gasification- Combined Cycle Power Plant Steam to HRSG 800 F Char & Ash Gas cooler Ceramic filter Steam to HRSG Water vapor to LBG LBG Electricity CT Catalytic Industrial exhaust Flue gas NH3 comb. turbine/ HRSG removal generator Raw Steam Steam from Wood gas 900 psi, 850 F Stack HRSG Direct-contact fuel Fluidized Steam Electricity steam bed gasifier Air compressor turbine/ dryer 1600 F, 28 bar generator Cooling Wood Moisture Dolomite Air water blend On-site losses Char & Ash Mechanical wood draft cooling preparation tower Fines Ferrous Figure A-2 Process Flowsheet of Pressurized Biomass Gasification-Combined Cycle Power Plant

4 Atmospheric Pressure Biomass Gasification Power Plant Wood GCC Power Plant - Flue Gas Dryer, Wet Scrubbing, 2350F GT 100 MW (Net) Summary - Performance and Economics System Performance Gross Power, MW Gas turbine power, %/MW 62.6% 79.7 Steam turbine power, %/MW 37.4% 47.5 Auxiliary Power, % / MW 21.4% 27.2 Net Power, MW Net Heat Rate, Btu/kWh 11,190 Thermal Efficiency, % 30.5 Annual Capacity Factor, % 85.0 Fuel and Air Supply Tons/year Tons/day Urban wood waste Biomass 891,938 2,874.9 In-Forest waste Agricultural waste Wood blend to dryer fuel Wood blend to dryer and gasifier 823,826 2,655.4 Air to gasifier 2,526.1 Air to gas turbine 18,200.1 Emissions Tons/year Tons/day Flue Gas (Total) 7,067,055 22,778.6 Carbon Dioxide 872,027 2,810.7 Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Oxides Nitrogen Oxides Particulates Gasifier ash and char 23, Waste water treatment sludge and ash 6, Economics Cost year: 1997 Total Plant Cost, $/kw 2,151 Total Capital Requirement, $/kw 2,374 Operating Costs (Constant Dollars) Fixed, $/kw-yr 78.8 Incremental, mills/kwh Consumables 2.0 Average Fuel Cost, $/ton (dry): $/million Btu: 2.06 Electricity Costs, 10-yr Levelized, Mills/kWh ( ) Constant $ Current $ Carrying Charges Fuel Cost Operation and Maintenance Costs Electricity Cost (without emissions charges and credits) Emissions Charges Renewable Energy Production Credit Electricity Cost (with emissions charges and credits) Figure A-3 WOODGCC Performance and Cost Summary for 100 MW Atmospheric Pressure Biomass Gasification-Combined Cycle Power Plant

5 Pressurized Biomass Gasification Power Plant Wood GCC Power Plant - Steam Dryer, Hot Gas Filter, 2350F GT 100 MW (Net) Summary - Performance and Economics System Performance Gross Power, MW Gas turbine power, %/MW 70.5% 76.6 Steam turbine power, %/MW 29.5% 32.0 Auxiliary Power, % / MW 7.9% 8.6 Net Power, MW Net Heat Rate, Btu/kWh 9,519 Thermal Efficiency, % 35.8 Annual Capacity Factor, % 80.0 Fuel and Air Supply Tons/year Tons/day Urban wood waste Biomass 714,082 2,445.5 In-Forest waste Agricultural waste Wood blend to dryer fuel Wood blend to dryer and gasifier 659,552 2,258.7 Air to gasifier 2,081.7 Air to gas turbine 16,794.9 Emissions Tons/year Tons/day Flue Gas (Total) 6,208,943 21,263.5 Carbon Dioxide 715,205 2,449.3 Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Oxides Nitrogen Oxides Particulates Gasifier ash and char 18, Waste water treatment sludge and ash Economics Cost year: 1997 Total Plant Cost, $/kw 1,922 Total Capital Requirement, $/kw 2,121 Operating Costs (Constant Dollars) Fixed, $/kw-yr 72.4 Incremental, mills/kwh Consumables 1.3 Average Fuel Cost, $/ton (dry): $/million Btu: 2.06 Electricity Costs, 10-yr Levelized, Mills/kWh ( ) Constant $ Current $ Carrying Charges Fuel Cost Operation and Maintenance Costs Electricity Cost (without emissions charges and credits) Emissions Charges Renewable Energy Production Credit Electricity Cost (with emissions charges and credits) Figure A-4 WOODGCC Performance and Cost Summary for 100 MW Pressurized Biomass Gasification-Combined Cycle Power Plant

6 B BIOPOWER/WOODGCC: EPRI S MODEL OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE AND COST EPRI s BIOPOWER model of biomass and waste-fired power plants estimates the performance and cost of a range of biomass and waste-fired power generation technologies, including dedicated direct combustion plants, fired by biomass, municipal solid waste, and scrap tires; cofiring biomass and waste fuels with coal in a utility power plant boiler; and biomass gasification-combined cycle power generation. BIOPOWER consists of eight Excel spreadsheet models representing the power generation technologies. WOODGCC Model Description The WOODGCC model describes the design, performance, and economics of a biomass gasification-combined cycle technology. The model estimates the gross and net capacity, net plant heat rate and thermal efficiency, energy and material balances, raw material consumption, flue gas volume, stack emissions, ash production, annual operating and maintenance costs, total plant cost and capital requirement, and levelized cost of electricity. Input data include the net plant capacity, biomass fuel composition and heat content, and design and economic assumptions. The WOODGCC model can be configured via user-specified input to represent a range of designs including flue gas-, steam-, and fluid bed-drying of wood pressurized gasification, wet scrubbing and hot gas cleanup, and a range of industrial and aeroderivative combustion turbines. In order to be able to represent the Brazil BIG-GT demonstration plant, we adapted the WOODGCC model to address near-atmospheric gasification, tar cracking, and gas compression to turbine inlet throttle valve pressure. WOODGCC Model of Brazil BIG-GT Plant The WOODGCC model of the Brazil BIG-GT demonstration plant assumes flue gas drying of wood, near-atmospheric pressure fluidized bed gasification of wood, fluidized bed tar cracking, wet scrubbing gas cleanup, humidification of clean gas,

7 product gas compression to the gas turbine inlet throttle valve pressure, LM-2500 combustion turbine, heat recovery steam generator, and non-reheat steam cycle. Figures B-1 and B-2 present the flowsheet/energy and material balance and output data summaries generated by the WOODGCC model for the Brazil BIG-GT demonstration plant. The plant consumes 968 metric tons/day (880 tons/day) of biomass and generates 40.9 gross MW and 32.3 net MW. The LM-2500 combustion turbine generates 29.6 MW and the non-reheat steam cycle generates 11.3 gross MW. About two thirds of the 8.6 MW auxiliary power is consumed by the LBG compressor. The net thermal efficiency of the plant is 32.5% (HHV), and the estimated Total Capital Requirement is $3435/kW (December 1997 dollars). The WOODGCC performance and cost estimates are compared with those reported for the Brazil BIG-GT plant below: Performance and Cost WOODGCC Reported Brazil BIG-GT C.T. Gross MW S.T. Gross MW Gross MW Auxiliary Power MW Net MW Net Thermal Efficiency (HHV) 32.5% 38.0% Total Capital Requirement, $/kw $3,435 $3,531 The WOODGCC and reported Brazil BIG-GT performance and cost estimates are in reasonable agreement, except for the net thermal efficiency estimates. The WOODGCC net thermal efficiency estimate includes a significant net thermal efficiency penalty for the power consumed by the LBG gas compressor. Without the penalty, the WOODGCC net thermal efficiency estimate would have been about 38%. It isn t clear whether the report Brazil BIG-GT thermal efficiency estimate allows for the LBG compressor power consumption. References 1. "Strategic Analysis of Biomass and Waste Fuels for Electric Power Generation," EPRI TR , December, BIOPOWER: Biomass and Waste Fuel Power Plant Performance and Cost Model, Version 1.01, EPRI TR , Rev. March 1996.

8 Brazil BIG-GT Demonstration Plant Wood GCC Power Plant - Flue Gas Dryer, Wet Scrubbing, LM2500 Aero GT MW (Net) HP 850/900 psia/f HP Saturated Steam 95,138 lb/hr LBG Sludge waste 49,274 lb/hr ST MW Cooler & 493 lb/hr Steam 11.3 Scrubber LBG Fuel Gas Turbine 114,644 lb/hr 2,369 Btu/lb (HHV) Aux. MW Net MW Tar LBG Cracker Com- Emissions Tons/day pressor HRSG Flue Gas Flue Gas 8, ,600 F to Dryer CO bar CO 0.09 Ash & char to disposal SO ,909 lb/hr Air to gasifier NOx 0.07 Fluid Bed 63,473 lb/hr Partic Dolomite Gasifier Steam 799 lb/hr 4,467 lb/hr CT MW % Moisture Combustion Turbine Air LM2500 Aero Flue Gas to Stack Flue Gas 644,927 lb/hr Performance and Cost Summary 1997 $ 698,952 lb/hr Dryer Flue Gas from HRSG 678,950 lb/hr Annual Capacity Factor 85% 67,028 lb/hr Net Btu/kWh 10, % Moisture Thermal Efficiency 32.5% Moisture Losses Biomass Fuel 66.5 t/day Total Capital Requirement, $/kw 3,435 Prep Average Fuel Cost, $/MBtu 2.06 Levelized Cost of Electricity, $/kwh Constant $ Current $ Energy Balance Material Balance Clean LBG to C.T. % Volume Heat In MBtu/hr Mass In Tons/Hour CO 15.3 Wood to dryer Wood to plant CO CH4 5.2 C.T. compressor air H C.T. compressor air 9.49 BFW 5.25 H2O 15.0 BFW Scrubber water 0.95 N Dolomite Dolomite 0.40 H2S 0.0 Auxiliary power - LBG compressor NH other 8.95 Total HCl 0.0 Other HC 0.0 Total Heat Out Mass Out Total Flue gas from dryer Fuel prep moisture losses 2.77 Ash and char from gasifier 0.87 Fuel prep fines 0.00 HHV, 32 F: Air sep plant effluent 0.32 Fuel prep ferrous metal 0.00 Wet gas 159 Scrubber solids, NH3, HCl, and water 6.91 Flue gas from dryer Dry gas 187 Combustion turbine power output Ash and char from gasifier 0.95 Flue gas from combustion turbine Air sep plant effluent 8.67 Steam turbine power output Scrubber solids, NH3, HCl, and water 1.21 Condenser loss Flue gas from combustion turbine Blowdown loss 2.14 Blowdown 2.26 Generator losses 2.85 Heat Losses Total Total Figure B-1. WOODGCC Flowsheet and Energy and Material Balance Tables for Brazil BIG-GT Demonstration Plant

9 Brazil BIG-GT Demonstration Plant Wood GCC Power Plant - Flue Gas Dryer, Wet Scrubbing, LM2500 Aero GT MW (Net) Summary - Performance and Economics System Performance Gross Power, MW 40.9 Gas turbine power, %/MW 72.3% 29.6 Steam turbine power, %/MW 27.7% 11.3 Auxiliary Power, % / MW 21.1% 8.6 Net Power, MW 32.3 Net Heat Rate, Btu/kWh 10,507 Thermal Efficiency, % 32.5 Annual Capacity Factor, % 85.0 Fuel and Air Supply Tons/year Tons/day Urban wood waste Biomass 270, In-Forest waste Agricultural waste Wood blend to dryer fuel Wood blend to dryer and gasifier 249, Air to gasifier Air to gas turbine 6,763.8 Emissions Tons/year Tons/day Flue Gas (Total) 2,527,729 8,147.4 Carbon Dioxide 264, Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Oxides Nitrogen Oxides Particulates Gasifier ash and char 7, Waste water treatment sludge and ash 1, Economics Cost year: 1997 Total Plant Cost, $/kw 2,918 Total Capital Requirement, $/kw 3,435 Operating Costs (Constant Dollars) Fixed, $/kw-yr Incremental, mills/kwh Consumables 1.7 Average Fuel Cost, $/ton (dry): $/million Btu: 2.06 Electricity Costs, 10-yr Levelized, Mills/kWh ( ) Constant $ Current $ Carrying Charges Fuel Cost Operation and Maintenance Costs Electricity Cost (without emissions charges and credits) Emissions Charges Renewable Energy Production Credit Electricity Cost (with emissions charges and credits) Figure B-2. WOODGCC Performance and Cost Summary for Brazil BIG-GT Demonstration Plant

10 APPENDIX E Table E-3, Net Thermal Efficiency, page 70 Order Yr/ Input Values Net Thermal Efficiency Values (%) Decision Variable Units High Base Low High Base Low Range Thermal Efficiency 2000 Steam Energy to Gasifier % 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 36.0% 36.0% 36.0% 0.0% Dryer Input to LBG % 4.5% 4.8% 5.0% 35.9% 36.0% 36.1% 0.2% Aux Power % 8.4% 7.6% 7.2% 35.7% 36.0% 36.1% 0.4% HRSG Eff % 20.6% 21.7% 22.8% 35.4% 36.0% 36.6% 1.1% ST Efficiency % 75.1% 79.1% 83.0% 35.4% 36.0% 36.6% 1.1% CT Efficiency % 25.6% 27.0% 28.3% 35.0% 36.0% 37.0% 2.0% Gasifier Cold Gas Eff. % 79.7% 83.9% 88.1% 34.3% 36.0% 37.7% 3.4% Thermal Efficiency 2005 Steam Energy to Gasifier % 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 37.0% 37.0% 37.0% 0.0% Dryer Input to LBG % 4.5% 4.8% 5.0% 36.9% 37.0% 37.1% 0.2% Aux Power % 8.4% 7.6% 7.2% 36.1% 37.0% 37.2% 1.0% ST Efficiency % 74.3% 79.1% 83.0% 36.3% 37.0% 37.6% 1.2% HRSG Eff % 20.6% 21.7% 22.8% 35.8% 37.0% 37.6% 1.8% CT Efficiency % 26.4% 28.1% 29.5% 35.7% 37.0% 38.1% 2.3% Gasifier Cold Gas Eff. % 78.9% 83.9% 88.1% 34.9% 37.0% 38.8% 3.9% Thermal Efficiency 2010 Steam Energy to Gasifier % 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 37.0% 37.0% 37.0% 0.0% Dryer Input to LBG % 4.5% 4.8% 5.0% 36.9% 37.0% 37.1% 0.2% Aux Power % 8.4% 7.6% 7.2% 36.7% 37.0% 37.2% 0.5% HRSG Eff % 20.6% 21.7% 22.8% 36.4% 37.0% 37.6% 1.1% ST Efficiency % 74.3% 79.1% 83.0% 36.3% 37.0% 37.6% 1.2% CT Efficiency % 26.4% 28.1% 29.5% 35.7% 37.0% 38.1% 2.3% Gasifier Cold Gas Eff. % 78.9% 83.9% 88.1% 34.9% 37.0% 38.8% 3.9% Thermal Efficiency Steam Energy to Gasifier % 0.119% 0.113% 0.107% 41.5% 41.5% 41.5% 0.0% Dryer Input to LBG % 4.5% 4.8% 5.0% 41.4% 41.5% 41.6% 0.2% Aux Power % 8.1% 7.4% 7.0% 41.2% 41.5% 41.7% 0.5% HRSG Eff % 15.5% 16.3% 17.1% 41.2% 41.5% 41.8% 0.6% ST EffIciency % 62.1% 67.5% 70.9% 41.0% 41.5% 41.8% 0.8% CT Efficiency % 34.3% 37.3% 39.1% 39.0% 41.5% 43.1% 4.1% Gasifier Cold Gas Eff. % 76.9% 83.6% 87.8% 38.4% 41.5% 43.5% 5.1% Thermal Efficiency Steam Energy to Gasifier % 0.119% 0.113% 0.107% 45.0% 45.0% 45.0% 0.0% Dryer Input to LBG % 4.5% 4.8% 5.0% 44.9% 45.0% 45.1% 0.2% Aux Power % 8.1% 7.4% 7.0% 44.6% 45.0% 45.2% 0.5% HRSG Eff % 15.5% 16.3% 17.1% 44.7% 45.0% 45.3% 0.6% ST EffIciency % 60.8% 67.5% 70.9% 44.4% 45.0% 45.3% 0.9% CT Efficiency % 36.9% 41.0% 43.1% 41.5% 45.0% 46.7% 5.2% Gasifier Cold Gas Eff. % 75.3% 83.6% 87.8% 40.7% 45.0% 47.1% 6.4%

11 Table E-13, Total Capital Requirement, page 98 Order Yr/ Input Values Total Capital Requirement Values ($/kw) Decision Variable Units Low Base High Low Base High Range Total Capital Reqt Land $/kw ,909 1,910 1,912 2 AFUDC/Esc $/kw ,905 1,910 1, Gas Cleanup $/kw ,904 1,910 1, Startup-Inv. Costs $/kw ,904 1,910 1, BOP $/kw ,870 1,910 1, Power Block $/kw ,865 1,910 1, Gasifier $/kw ,824 1,910 2, Total Capital Reqt Land $/kw ,695 1,696 1,697 2 AFUDC/Esc $/kw ,692 1,696 1, Gas Cleanup $/kw ,691 1,696 1, Startup-Inv. Costs $/kw ,690 1,696 1, BOP $/kw ,662 1,696 1, Power Block $/kw ,654 1,696 1, Gasifier $/kw ,620 1,696 1, Total Capital Reqt Land $/kw ,504 1,505 1,506 2 AFUDC/Esc $/kw ,501 1,505 1, Gas Cleanup $/kw ,500 1,505 1, Startup-Inv. Costs $/kw ,499 1,505 1, BOP $/kw ,479 1,505 1, Power Block $/kw ,467 1,505 1, Gasifier $/kw ,434 1,505 1, Total Capital Reqt Land $/kw ,310 1,311 1,313 2 AFUDC/Esc $/kw ,307 1,311 1, Gas Cleanup $/kw ,306 1,311 1, Startup-Inv. Costs $/kw ,305 1,311 1, BOP $/kw ,289 1,311 1, Power Block $/kw ,283 1,311 1, Gasifier $/kw ,245 1,311 1, Total Capital Reqt Land $/kw ,157 1,157 1,159 2 AFUDC/Esc $/kw ,154 1,157 1, Gas Cleanup $/kw ,153 1,157 1, Startup-Inv. Costs $/kw ,152 1,157 1, BOP $/kw ,141 1,157 1, Power Block $/kw ,131 1,157 1, Gasifier $/kw ,096 1,157 1,

12 Table E-24, Levelized Delivered COE, page 122 Order Yr/ Input Values Levelized Delivered COE Values ($/MWh) Decision Variable Units Low Base High Low Base High Range Levelized COE 2000 Variable O&M $/MWh Fixed O&M $/kw-yr Thermal Efficiency % 37.8% 36.0% 34.2% T&D Cost $/MWh Fuel Real Esc. Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Project Life yr O&M Real Escalation Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Biomass Fuel Cost $/GJ Availability/CF % 93.5% 85.0% 76.5% Discount Rate %/yr 10.5% 12.0% 13.5% Total Plant Cost $/kw 1,606 1,784 2, Levelized COE 2005 Variable O&M $/MWh Thermal Efficiency % 38.9% 37.0% 34.8% Fixed O&M $/kw-yr Fuel Real Esc. Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% T&D Cost $/MWh Project Life yr O&M Real Escalation Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Biomass Fuel Cost $/GJ Availability/CF % 93.5% 85.0% 76.5% Discount Rate %/yr 10.5% 12.0% 13.5% Total Plant Cost $/kw 1,419 1,577 1, Levelized COE 2010 Variable O&M $/MWh Thermal Efficiency % 38.9% 37.0% 34.8% Fixed O&M $/kw-yr Fuel Real Esc. Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Project Life yr T&D Cost $/MWh O&M Real Escalation Rate %/yr Biomass Fuel Cost $/GJ Discount Rate %/yr 10.5% 12.0% 13.5% Availability/CF % 93.5% 85.0% 76.5% Total Plant Cost $/kw 1,257 1,397 1, Levelized COE 2020 Thermal Efficiency % 43.6% 41.5% 38.2% Variable O&M $/MWh Fuel Real Esc. Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Project Life yr Fixed O&M $/kw-yr T&D Cost $/MWh O&M Real Escalation Rate %/yr Biomass Fuel Cost $/GJ Discount Rate %/yr 10.5% 12.0% 13.5% Availability/CF % 93.5% 85.0% 76.5% Total Plant Cost $/kw 1,087 1,208 1, Levelized COE 2030 Fuel Real Esc. Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Thermal Efficiency % 47.2% 45.0% 40.5% Variable O&M $/MWh Project Life yr Fixed O&M $/kw-yr T&D Cost $/MWh O&M Real Escalation Rate %/yr -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% Biomass Fuel Cost $/GJ Discount Rate %/yr 10.5% 12.0% 13.5% Availability/CF % 93.5% 85.0% 76.5% Total Plant Cost $/kw 960 1,066 1,

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