University of Birmingham MC40 Cyclotron. David Parker University of Birmingham

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1 University of Birmingham MC40 Cyclotron David Parker University of Birmingham

2 History Uses Problems

3 History of accelerators at Birmingham 60 Nuffield cyclotron ( ) 10MeV p, 40MeV

4 History of accelerators at Birmingham 60 Nuffield cyclotron ( ) 10MeV p, 40MeV Radial Ridge Cyclotron ( ) (axially injected polarised beams) 12MeV d, 24 MeV, 33MeV 3 He

5 History of accelerators at Birmingham 60 Nuffield cyclotron ( ) 10MeV p, 40MeV Radial Ridge Cyclotron ( ) (axially injected polarised beams) 12MeV d, 24 MeV, 33MeV 3 He 1GeV proton synchrotron ( ) (overtaken during construction by Brookhaven Cosmotron)

6 History of accelerators at Birmingham 60 Nuffield cyclotron ( ) 10MeV p, 40MeV Radial Ridge Cyclotron ( ) (axially injected polarised beams) 12MeV d, 24 MeV, 33MeV 3 He 1GeV Proton synchrotron ( ) RDI 3MV Dynamitron (1970-3MeV p on Li for BNCT

7 The MC40 cyclotron is the third cyclotron to be operated at the University of Birmingham Lifting In transferred from Minneapolis PROBLEM! to Birmingham

8 In 2005 we added a 12-way switching magnet (blue) [ex Vivitron]

9 One beam line ran into adjacent room (past Dynamitron accelerator) and was used for studying radiation effects (e.g. space electronics)

10 More recently, we were asked to provide high dose-rate damage studies (LHC ATLAS group and metallurgy) so extended a second beam-line into a specially shielded area. HIGH DOSE DAMAGE STUDIES ISOTOPE PRODUCTION TLA NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND LOW DOSE RADIATION EFFECTS

11 In 2009 Birmingham acquired most parts from the decommissioned Hammersmith MC40

12 Beams available (hot filament ion source) p MeV and 3-9 MeV (N=2) d MeV MeV 3 He MeV and < 27 MeV Also 46 MeV 14 N 4+ and 70 MeV 14 N 5+ for nuclear physics

13 Cyclotron is used for Producing positron emitting nuclides for Engineering PET [NOT FDG] Producing 81 Rb for 81m Kr generators Thin Layer Activation Other isotope production: 69 Ge for labelling oil 62 Zn, 64 Cu supplied to St Thomas Hospital London Various irradiations for NPL Radiation effects studies: Radiobiology + dosimetry (proton imaging) Space electronics etc ATLAS components Metallurgy of nuclear materials Nuclear physics (student projects)

14 Axial Position (mm) Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) Label a single particle (grain of sand, etc) with positron-emitter (usually 18 F from 3 He on natural oxygen) and track it as it moves inside equipment Ra d

15 81 Rb production Using the technique developed at MRC Cyclotron Unit (Hammersmith): Irradiate target containing 82 Kr gas (6 bar pressure) with 29 MeV protons (30 A) 81 Rb is produced and deposits on walls of target At end of irradiation, recover 82 Kr gas cryostatically Then elute 81 Rb from target: 3 x 40ml transferred to dispensing room. Finally evacuate target ready for reuse. Currently making approx 65 generators per week fairly stable Entire procedure is controlled by Beckhoff PLC Same PLC has gradually been extended to control cyclotron interlocks etc

16 Thin Layer Activation Using p, d and 3 He 3 He is used for activating carbon (DLC) 12 C ( 3 He, 2 ) 7 Be Peak cross-section ~ 55 mb (~ 20 MeV)

17 Modifications to cyclotron systems Helium-3 recovery system (Hammersmith) added 2009 Grid power supplies replaced by Glassman units (Hammersmith) Arc power supply replaced by new Glassman unit (allows 3A arc) Hitachi PLC system replaced by Beckhoff PLC Currently replacing Helium-3 PLC with Beckhoff

18 81 Rb Production statistics Started 81 Rb production in March evenings per week, 50 weeks per year To end of 2011, attempted production on 1430 days, of which 1404 were successful (98% success rate) Unfortunately during 2012 success rate was only 90% due to a series of unrelated problems

19 Recent faults Chiller failed Mains supply to University lost RF fault blew APS HV fuse every time we introduced drive eventually traced to coupling capacitor (but first replaced dee stem insulator) RF fault dee voltage control strange bleed capacitors blown and took RDET card with them Extraction poor magnetic channel had shifted slightly RF tuning problem pickup from faulty Harmonic supply! Previous repeated faults MCPS will only regulate over part of range transistor at top of bank failed Water pipes!!!

20

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