OXYGEN TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS AT SURFACE AERATORS IN WASTE WATER AS BASIS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN AERATION

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1 OXYGEN TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS AT SURFACE AERATORS IN WASTE WATER AS BASIS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN AERATION Ditr Lomp Hochschu Brmrhavn Grmany Ahmt Nuru-Bruns Achim, Grmany ABSTRACT Oxygn transfr masurmnts wr carrid out in ordr to compar surfac arators undr oprating conditions in wast watr. A simp mthod was usd without using chmicas ik cobat or sufit. Rsuts show incompt mixing of basins at high bioogica activity that ad to mass transfr data not comparab with data of standardizd frsh watr tsts, but diffrnt typs of arators coud b compard undr oca oprating conditions as basis for invstmnt dcisions. 1. BACKGROUND Enrgy dmand for aration of wastwatr during bioogica tratmnt is on of th most important oprating cost factors at swag tratmnt pants. Thrfor incrasing nrgy costs oftn ar rasons for invstmnts in nrgy saving masurs,.g. in aration systms with highr fficincy. In ordr to compar diffrnt systms undr oca conditions and to chck guarantd prformanc paramtrs th masurmnt of oxygn transfr and nrgy consumption ads to fficincy paramtrs,.g. th oxygn yid dfind as amount of transfrrd oxygn pr KWh consumd or th mass transfr cofficint. Fin bubb aration is known for a highr oxygn transfr fficincy than surfac aration, but quipmnt costs as w as maintnanc costs for surfac arators ar owr oftn. An conomic vauation of both systms oftn rsuts in fin bubb aration, but dpnding on individua conditions aso surfac aration is chosn du to conomic bnfits. Thrfor oxygn transfr masurmnts for surfac arators ar sti important. 30

2 . METHODS OF OXYGEN TRANSFER MEASUREMENT.1. Standard mthods Transfr of oxygn from air to watr dpnds on th aration systm, gomtric and hydrauic proprtis of th basin, and proprtis of th watr,.g. dissovd and suspndd substancs or tmpratur. Standardizd oxygn transfr masurmnt mthods (DWA 001) us drinking watr or rain watr with thir normay ow concntration of dissovd and suspndd substancs in ordr to ngct th infunc of watr proprtis of transfr fficincy (s aso norm EN ). Thn at a givn basin th transfr fficincy dpnds ony on proprtis of th aration systm. Aso bioogica oxygn consumption du to bactria activitis dos not infunc transfr masurs in frsh watr. But this advantag of comparabiity ads to th disadvantag that fficincy at norma opration in wastwatr is sti unknown, but ncssary for conomic cacuations. Th ration of oxygn transfr data in frsh watr to thos in wast watr is oftn namd α vau and pubishd in itratur for various wast watr, but oftn not prcis nough for oca conditions. Thrfor furthr masurmnts in wast watr ar ncssary to gt fficincy data for oca wast watr. Aso thos mthods in wast watr ar standardizd (s abov), but oftn compx and costy,.g. du to off-gas anaysis, oxygn, or nitrogn dmand. Thrfor, spciay for tsts at surfac arators, a simp vrsion of transfr masurmnt in wast watr was usd... Usd mthod Th voumtric oxygn transfr cofficint k a is dfind via th mass transfr rat rgarding q. (1): m& = ka( c c) (1) c * : saturation concntration of oxygn c: oxygn concntration Th oxygn mass baanc for a compty mixd basin without infunt and ffunt containing wast watr and suspndd bactria can b st as foows (): dc dt r O : bioogica oxygn consumption = k a ( c c) ro () 31

3 On condition that oxygn consumption dos not chang with tim intgration of q. () rsuts in: c n c ro c ka ro c0 k a = k a t That condition is amost fufid if bactria growth dos not much dpnd on oxygn concntration,.g. substantiay abov th kintic saturation constant rgarding oxygn. If q. () is appid to th nd of a tst whn th oxygn concntration rmains at th constant concntration c it rsuts in q (4): ro c = c (4) k a Eq. (4) as xprssion for usd in q. (3) givs q (5): c c n = = ka t (5) c c or th oxygn concntration during a tst run (6): c = c ) 0 k t (3) ( c c0 (6) Th oxygn transfr cofficint k a can b obtaind via a inar fit of data using q. (5) (od mthod) or via a non-inar fit using q. (6) (nw mthod). Th convrsion of transfr cofficints to th rfrnc tmpratur of 0 C q. (7) is usd (DWA 007). (0 T ) k (7) a0 = ka 1, 04 T: watr tmpratur in C Th oxygn transfr rat M O shows how much oxygn is transfrd into th watr in th who basin. It rsuts from q. (1): M & = V k a( ) (8) O B c V B : basin voum Oftn in itratur a standard oxygn transfr rat at an oxygn concntration of 0 mg/ is usd and namd diffrnt to q. (8) as OC or in wast watr αoc. It rsuts from q. (8) to: α OC = V α k a (9) B 3

4 Anothr way to obtain th oxygn transfr rat αoc rsuts from q. (8) and (9). Assuming that th transfr cofficint k a is indpndnt on oxygn concntration it can b takn from q. (8) and put into q. (9): α OC = M& O (10) c Undr stady-stat condiditions at th nd of a tst run it foows from q. (1) and (): bzw. rspctivy m & = r (11) O O M & V (1) O = ro If oxygn consumption r O is masurd th oxygn transfr rat can b obtaind from q. (10) and (1): B α OC = ro VB (13) c For this vauation of masurd data a constant oxygn consumption in th who basin is rquird. This is th cas if a constant biomass concntration and a minimum oxygn concntration abov kintic saturation cofficint can b assumd. Masurmnts of oxygn consumption rat at a swag tratmnt pant showd a constant rat down to 1 mg/l oxygn concntration. This vauation can b usd for tsts at high oxygn consumption rats with stady stat oxygn concntration c substantiay owr than saturation concntration. Othrwis th dnominator in q. (13) is sma and inaccuracy of masurd data rsut in high fuctuations of oxygn transfr rat. It might b usd atrnativy to vauation via oxygn transfr cofficint (q. (5) or (6)) if this is difficut du to sma diffrncs btwn start concntration c 0 and nd concntration c. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Tst runs wr carrid out in a quadratic basin with a surfac of app. 300 m and app. 4,00 m watr dpth of th swag tratmnt pant Brmrhavn. Diffrnt surfac arators wr usd for numrous tst runs in wast watr from othr aratd tratmnt basins. Thr oxygn snsors wr usd at diffrnt positions for ach tst run. 33

5 Oxygn concntration in mg/l tim in min Fig. 1. Tst run at ow oxygn transfr rat On data st is shown in Fig. 1 from a tst run with ow oxygn transfr rat and bioogica oxygn consumption for which th vauation with q. (13) was appid bcaus th rquirmnt of stady-stat conditions coud b rachd. 8 Oxygn concntration in mg/l snsor 1 snsor snsor tim in min Fig.. Rsuts of anothr tst run of individua snsors Othr tst runs ik in Fig. showd significant diffrncs btwn thr snsors positiond cos to th surfac (snsor 1), in th midd (snsor ), and cos to bottom (snsor 3) and aso thr is no strict constant concntration during th masur priod. 34

6 Obviousy th surfac arator coud not rach a compt mixing in that tst run which is a rquirmnt for a vauations as shown abov. Oxygn consumption in th dpth of th basin is too fast to b compnsatd by oxygn transport from surfac. Thrfor standard procss mods cannot b usd for data vauation undr thos conditions to obtain standardizd oxygn transfr rats or cofficints. But undr simiar conditions, in particuar simiar oxygn consumption rats, for various tst runs rsuts coud b obtaind to compar diffrnt arators by using avrag data from a snsors or by comparing data ony from on snsor using mthods for compty mixd systms rgarding q. (5) or (6). As widy known rsuts show th infunc of th rativ position of surfac arators to watr v, of arator spd and of arator typ. At ow spd and optima position a spcific oxygn transfr of 1,5 Kg O pr KWh coud b masurd with xisting od surfac arators whi nw apparatus obtaind up to,7 Kg O pr KWh. Uncompt mixing of basins with surfac arators undr conditions with high oxygn consumption rats has to b takn into considration for oant dsign and opration bcaus oxygn concntrations cos to zro at th bottom of basins wi ad to ow raction rats of arobic procsss. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Many thanks go to th staff of tratmnt pant Brmrhavn. Without thir hp and support this invstigation coud not hav bn don. REFERENCES DWA 007: Dutsch Vrinigung für Wassrwirtschaft, Abwassr und Abfa.: DWA-Mthod M09 Mssung dr Saurstoffzufuhr von Büftungsinrichtungn in Bbungsanagn in Rinwassr und in bbtm Schamm, GFA, Hnnf

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