OXYGEN TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS AT SURFACE AERATORS IN WASTE WATER AS BASIS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN AERATION


 Toby Bryant
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 OXYGEN TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS AT SURFACE AERATORS IN WASTE WATER AS BASIS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN AERATION Ditr Lomp Hochschu Brmrhavn Grmany Ahmt NuruBruns Achim, Grmany ABSTRACT Oxygn transfr masurmnts wr carrid out in ordr to compar surfac arators undr oprating conditions in wast watr. A simp mthod was usd without using chmicas ik cobat or sufit. Rsuts show incompt mixing of basins at high bioogica activity that ad to mass transfr data not comparab with data of standardizd frsh watr tsts, but diffrnt typs of arators coud b compard undr oca oprating conditions as basis for invstmnt dcisions. 1. BACKGROUND Enrgy dmand for aration of wastwatr during bioogica tratmnt is on of th most important oprating cost factors at swag tratmnt pants. Thrfor incrasing nrgy costs oftn ar rasons for invstmnts in nrgy saving masurs,.g. in aration systms with highr fficincy. In ordr to compar diffrnt systms undr oca conditions and to chck guarantd prformanc paramtrs th masurmnt of oxygn transfr and nrgy consumption ads to fficincy paramtrs,.g. th oxygn yid dfind as amount of transfrrd oxygn pr KWh consumd or th mass transfr cofficint. Fin bubb aration is known for a highr oxygn transfr fficincy than surfac aration, but quipmnt costs as w as maintnanc costs for surfac arators ar owr oftn. An conomic vauation of both systms oftn rsuts in fin bubb aration, but dpnding on individua conditions aso surfac aration is chosn du to conomic bnfits. Thrfor oxygn transfr masurmnts for surfac arators ar sti important. 30
2 . METHODS OF OXYGEN TRANSFER MEASUREMENT.1. Standard mthods Transfr of oxygn from air to watr dpnds on th aration systm, gomtric and hydrauic proprtis of th basin, and proprtis of th watr,.g. dissovd and suspndd substancs or tmpratur. Standardizd oxygn transfr masurmnt mthods (DWA 001) us drinking watr or rain watr with thir normay ow concntration of dissovd and suspndd substancs in ordr to ngct th infunc of watr proprtis of transfr fficincy (s aso norm EN ). Thn at a givn basin th transfr fficincy dpnds ony on proprtis of th aration systm. Aso bioogica oxygn consumption du to bactria activitis dos not infunc transfr masurs in frsh watr. But this advantag of comparabiity ads to th disadvantag that fficincy at norma opration in wastwatr is sti unknown, but ncssary for conomic cacuations. Th ration of oxygn transfr data in frsh watr to thos in wast watr is oftn namd α vau and pubishd in itratur for various wast watr, but oftn not prcis nough for oca conditions. Thrfor furthr masurmnts in wast watr ar ncssary to gt fficincy data for oca wast watr. Aso thos mthods in wast watr ar standardizd (s abov), but oftn compx and costy,.g. du to offgas anaysis, oxygn, or nitrogn dmand. Thrfor, spciay for tsts at surfac arators, a simp vrsion of transfr masurmnt in wast watr was usd... Usd mthod Th voumtric oxygn transfr cofficint k a is dfind via th mass transfr rat rgarding q. (1): m& = ka( c c) (1) c * : saturation concntration of oxygn c: oxygn concntration Th oxygn mass baanc for a compty mixd basin without infunt and ffunt containing wast watr and suspndd bactria can b st as foows (): dc dt r O : bioogica oxygn consumption = k a ( c c) ro () 31
3 On condition that oxygn consumption dos not chang with tim intgration of q. () rsuts in: c n c ro c ka ro c0 k a = k a t That condition is amost fufid if bactria growth dos not much dpnd on oxygn concntration,.g. substantiay abov th kintic saturation constant rgarding oxygn. If q. () is appid to th nd of a tst whn th oxygn concntration rmains at th constant concntration c it rsuts in q (4): ro c = c (4) k a Eq. (4) as xprssion for usd in q. (3) givs q (5): c c n = = ka t (5) c c or th oxygn concntration during a tst run (6): c = c ) 0 k t (3) ( c c0 (6) Th oxygn transfr cofficint k a can b obtaind via a inar fit of data using q. (5) (od mthod) or via a noninar fit using q. (6) (nw mthod). Th convrsion of transfr cofficints to th rfrnc tmpratur of 0 C q. (7) is usd (DWA 007). (0 T ) k (7) a0 = ka 1, 04 T: watr tmpratur in C Th oxygn transfr rat M O shows how much oxygn is transfrd into th watr in th who basin. It rsuts from q. (1): M & = V k a( ) (8) O B c V B : basin voum Oftn in itratur a standard oxygn transfr rat at an oxygn concntration of 0 mg/ is usd and namd diffrnt to q. (8) as OC or in wast watr αoc. It rsuts from q. (8) to: α OC = V α k a (9) B 3
4 Anothr way to obtain th oxygn transfr rat αoc rsuts from q. (8) and (9). Assuming that th transfr cofficint k a is indpndnt on oxygn concntration it can b takn from q. (8) and put into q. (9): α OC = M& O (10) c Undr stadystat condiditions at th nd of a tst run it foows from q. (1) and (): bzw. rspctivy m & = r (11) O O M & V (1) O = ro If oxygn consumption r O is masurd th oxygn transfr rat can b obtaind from q. (10) and (1): B α OC = ro VB (13) c For this vauation of masurd data a constant oxygn consumption in th who basin is rquird. This is th cas if a constant biomass concntration and a minimum oxygn concntration abov kintic saturation cofficint can b assumd. Masurmnts of oxygn consumption rat at a swag tratmnt pant showd a constant rat down to 1 mg/l oxygn concntration. This vauation can b usd for tsts at high oxygn consumption rats with stady stat oxygn concntration c substantiay owr than saturation concntration. Othrwis th dnominator in q. (13) is sma and inaccuracy of masurd data rsut in high fuctuations of oxygn transfr rat. It might b usd atrnativy to vauation via oxygn transfr cofficint (q. (5) or (6)) if this is difficut du to sma diffrncs btwn start concntration c 0 and nd concntration c. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Tst runs wr carrid out in a quadratic basin with a surfac of app. 300 m and app. 4,00 m watr dpth of th swag tratmnt pant Brmrhavn. Diffrnt surfac arators wr usd for numrous tst runs in wast watr from othr aratd tratmnt basins. Thr oxygn snsors wr usd at diffrnt positions for ach tst run. 33
5 Oxygn concntration in mg/l tim in min Fig. 1. Tst run at ow oxygn transfr rat On data st is shown in Fig. 1 from a tst run with ow oxygn transfr rat and bioogica oxygn consumption for which th vauation with q. (13) was appid bcaus th rquirmnt of stadystat conditions coud b rachd. 8 Oxygn concntration in mg/l snsor 1 snsor snsor tim in min Fig.. Rsuts of anothr tst run of individua snsors Othr tst runs ik in Fig. showd significant diffrncs btwn thr snsors positiond cos to th surfac (snsor 1), in th midd (snsor ), and cos to bottom (snsor 3) and aso thr is no strict constant concntration during th masur priod. 34
6 Obviousy th surfac arator coud not rach a compt mixing in that tst run which is a rquirmnt for a vauations as shown abov. Oxygn consumption in th dpth of th basin is too fast to b compnsatd by oxygn transport from surfac. Thrfor standard procss mods cannot b usd for data vauation undr thos conditions to obtain standardizd oxygn transfr rats or cofficints. But undr simiar conditions, in particuar simiar oxygn consumption rats, for various tst runs rsuts coud b obtaind to compar diffrnt arators by using avrag data from a snsors or by comparing data ony from on snsor using mthods for compty mixd systms rgarding q. (5) or (6). As widy known rsuts show th infunc of th rativ position of surfac arators to watr v, of arator spd and of arator typ. At ow spd and optima position a spcific oxygn transfr of 1,5 Kg O pr KWh coud b masurd with xisting od surfac arators whi nw apparatus obtaind up to,7 Kg O pr KWh. Uncompt mixing of basins with surfac arators undr conditions with high oxygn consumption rats has to b takn into considration for oant dsign and opration bcaus oxygn concntrations cos to zro at th bottom of basins wi ad to ow raction rats of arobic procsss. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Many thanks go to th staff of tratmnt pant Brmrhavn. Without thir hp and support this invstigation coud not hav bn don. REFERENCES DWA 007: Dutsch Vrinigung für Wassrwirtschaft, Abwassr und Abfa.: DWAMthod M09 Mssung dr Saurstoffzufuhr von Büftungsinrichtungn in Bbungsanagn in Rinwassr und in bbtm Schamm, GFA, Hnnf
Principles of Humidity Dalton s law
Principls of Humidity Dalton s law Air is a mixtur of diffrnt gass. Th main gas componnts ar: Gas componnt volum [%] wight [%] Nitrogn N 2 78,03 75,47 Oxygn O 2 20,99 23,20 Argon Ar 0,93 1,28 Carbon dioxid
More informationExponential Growth and Decay; Modeling Data
Exponntial Growth and Dcay; Modling Data In this sction, w will study som of th applications of xponntial and logarithmic functions. Logarithms wr invntd by John Napir. Originally, thy wr usd to liminat
More informationLecture 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law
Lctur 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law Today s topics What is diffusion? What drivs diffusion to occur? Undrstand why diffusion can surprisingly occur against th concntration gradint? Larn how to dduc th
More information811ISD Economic Considerations of Heat Transfer on Sheet Metal Duct
Air Handling Systms Enginring & chnical Bulltin 811ISD Economic Considrations of Hat ransfr on Sht Mtal Duct Othr bulltins hav dmonstratd th nd to add insulation to cooling/hating ducts in ordr to achiv
More informationFundamentals: NATURE OF HEAT, TEMPERATURE, AND ENERGY
Fundamntals: NATURE OF HEAT, TEMPERATURE, AND ENERGY DEFINITIONS: Quantum Mchanics study of individual intractions within atoms and molculs of particl associatd with occupid quantum stat of a singl particl
More informationInstallation Saving Spaceefficient Panel Enhanced Physical Durability Enhanced Performance Warranty The IRR Comparison
Contnts Tchnology Nwly Dvlopd Cllo Tchnology Cllo Tchnology : Improvd Absorption of Light Doublsidd Cll Structur Cllo Tchnology : Lss Powr Gnration Loss Extrmly Low LID Clls 3 3 4 4 4 Advantag Installation
More informationhttp://www.wwnorton.com/chemistry/tutorials/ch14.htm Repulsive Force
ctivation nrgis http://www.wwnorton.com/chmistry/tutorials/ch14.htm (back to collision thory...) Potntial and Kintic nrgy during a collision + + ngativly chargd lctron cloud Rpulsiv Forc ngativly chargd
More informationSPECIFIC HEAT AND HEAT OF FUSION
PURPOSE This laboratory consists of to sparat xprimnts. Th purpos of th first xprimnt is to masur th spcific hat of to solids, coppr and rock, ith a tchniqu knon as th mthod of mixturs. Th purpos of th
More informationTraffic Flow Analysis (2)
Traffic Flow Analysis () Statistical Proprtis. Flow rat distributions. Hadway distributions. Spd distributions by Dr. GangLn Chang, Profssor Dirctor of Traffic safty and Oprations Lab. Univrsity of Maryland,
More informationImproving Managerial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in the Context of Using Standard Cost
Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.ro/tc Vol. 16, Issu 1/2013 5054 Improving Managrial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in th Contxt of Using Standard Cost Lucian OCNEANU, Constantin
More informationQuestion 3: How do you find the relative extrema of a function?
ustion 3: How do you find th rlativ trma of a function? Th stratgy for tracking th sign of th drivativ is usful for mor than dtrmining whr a function is incrasing or dcrasing. It is also usful for locating
More informationModule 7: Discrete State Space Models Lecture Note 3
Modul 7: Discrt Stat Spac Modls Lctur Not 3 1 Charactristic Equation, ignvalus and ign vctors For a discrt stat spac modl, th charactristic quation is dfind as zi A 0 Th roots of th charactristic quation
More informationNonHomogeneous Systems, Euler s Method, and Exponential Matrix
NonHomognous Systms, Eulr s Mthod, and Exponntial Matrix W carry on nonhomognous firstordr linar systm of diffrntial quations. W will show how Eulr s mthod gnralizs to systms, giving us a numrical approach
More informatione = C / electron Q = Ne
Physics 0 Modul 01 Homwork 1. A glass rod that has bn chargd to +15.0 nc touchs a mtal sphr. Aftrword, th rod's charg is +8.00 nc. What kind of chargd particl was transfrrd btwn th rod and th sphr, and
More information10/06/08 1. Aside: The following is an online analytical system that portrays the thermodynamic properties of water vapor and many other gases.
10/06/08 1 5. Th watrair htrognous systm Asid: Th following is an onlin analytical systm that portrays th thrmodynamic proprtis of watr vapor and many othr gass. http://wbbook.nist.gov/chmistry/fluid/
More informationTopic: Introduction to Brayton Cycle
MAE41Enrgy Systm Prsntation Topic: Introduction to Brayton Cycl Prpard by: L Lng Fng 1. Gas Turb powr Plant.. History of Brayton Cycl.. Air standard Brayton Cycl 4. Work and Hat Transfr Brayton cycl.
More informationSimulated Radioactive Decay Using Dice Nuclei
Purpos: In a radioactiv sourc containing a vry larg numbr of radioactiv nucli, it is not possibl to prdict whn any on of th nucli will dcay. Although th dcay tim for any on particular nuclus cannot b prdictd,
More informationEcon 371: Answer Key for Problem Set 1 (Chapter 1213)
con 37: Answr Ky for Problm St (Chaptr 23) Instructor: Kanda Naknoi Sptmbr 4, 2005. (2 points) Is it possibl for a country to hav a currnt account dficit at th sam tim and has a surplus in its balanc
More informationGenetic Drift and Gene Flow Illustration
Gntic Drift and Gn Flow Illustration This is a mor dtaild dscription of Activity Ida 4, Chaptr 3, If Not Rac, How do W Explain Biological Diffrncs? in: How Ral is Rac? A Sourcbook on Rac, Cultur, and Biology.
More informationWhole Systems Approach to CO 2 Capture, Transport and Storage
Whol Systms Approach to CO 2 Captur, Transport and Storag N. Mac Dowll, A. Alhajaj, N. Elahi, Y. Zhao, N. Samsatli and N. Shah UKCCS Mting, July 14th 2011, Nottingham, UK Ovrviw 1 Introduction 2 3 4 Powr
More informationGas Radiation. MEL 725 PowerPlant Steam Generators (300) Dr. Prabal Talukdar Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi
Gas Radiation ME 725 PowrPlant Stam Gnrators (300) Dr. Prabal Talukdar Assistant Profssor Dpartmnt of Mchanical Enginring T Dlhi Radiation in absorbingmitting mdia Whn a mdium is transparnt to radiation,
More informationGround Fault Current Distribution on Overhead Transmission Lines
FACTA UNIVERSITATIS (NIŠ) SER.: ELEC. ENERG. vol. 19, April 2006, 7184 Ground Fault Currnt Distribution on Ovrhad Transmission Lins Maria Vintan and Adrian Buta Abstract: Whn a ground fault occurs on
More informationEFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS
25 Vol. 3 () JanuaryMarch, pp.375/tripathi EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS *Shilpa Tripathi Dpartmnt of Chmical Enginring, Indor Institut
More informationCARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY. Outcome 10 Regulation 11 Safety and Suitability of Premises
CARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY Outcom 10 Rgulation 11 Safty and Suitability of Prmiss CQC Rf 10A 10A(1) Lad Dirctor / Lad Officr Rspons Impact Liklihood Lvl of Concrn
More informationThe Matrix Exponential
Th Matrix Exponntial (with xrciss) 92.222  Linar Algbra II  Spring 2006 by D. Klain prliminary vrsion Corrctions and commnts ar wlcom! Th Matrix Exponntial For ach n n complx matrix A, dfin th xponntial
More informationby John Donald, Lecturer, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, Australia
Studnt Nots Cost Volum Profit Analysis by John Donald, Lcturr, School of Accounting, Economics and Financ, Dakin Univrsity, Australia As mntiond in th last st of Studnt Nots, th ability to catgoris costs
More informationNew Basis Functions. Section 8. Complex Fourier Series
Nw Basis Functions Sction 8 Complx Fourir Sris Th complx Fourir sris is prsntd first with priod 2, thn with gnral priod. Th connction with th ralvalud Fourir sris is xplaind and formula ar givn for convrting
More informationLAB 3: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION GRAPHS
Goas: LAB 3: ELOCITY AND ACCELERATION GRAPHS Invstigat accration vs. tim graphs Prdict accration graphs from vocity graphs Invstigat accration as sop of vocity vs. tim graph Part 1  Making ocity Graphs
More informationIncomplete 2Port Vector Network Analyzer Calibration Methods
Incomplt Port Vctor Ntwork nalyzr Calibration Mthods. Hnz, N. Tmpon, G. Monastrios, H. ilva 4 RF Mtrology Laboratory Instituto Nacional d Tcnología Industrial (INTI) Bunos irs, rgntina ahnz@inti.gov.ar
More informationCategory 7: Employee Commuting
7 Catgory 7: Employ Commuting Catgory dscription This catgory includs missions from th transportation of mploys 4 btwn thir homs and thir worksits. Emissions from mploy commuting may aris from: Automobil
More informationThe example is taken from Sect. 1.2 of Vol. 1 of the CPN book.
Rsourc Allocation Abstract This is a small toy xampl which is wllsuitd as a first introduction to Cnts. Th CN modl is dscribd in grat dtail, xplaining th basic concpts of Cnts. Hnc, it can b rad by popl
More informationA Derivation of Bill James Pythagorean WonLoss Formula
A Drivation of Bill Jams Pythagoran WonLoss Formula Ths nots wr compild by John Paul Cook from a papr by Dr. Stphn J. Millr, an Assistant Profssor of Mathmatics at Williams Collg, for a talk givn to th
More informationDehumidifiers: A Major Consumer of Residential Electricity
Dhumidifirs: A Major Consumr of Rsidntial Elctricity Laurn Mattison and Dav Korn, Th Cadmus Group, Inc. ABSTRACT An stimatd 19% of U.S. homs hav dhumidifirs, and thy can account for a substantial portion
More informationLecture 20: Emitter Follower and Differential Amplifiers
Whits, EE 3 Lctur 0 Pag of 8 Lctur 0: Emittr Followr and Diffrntial Amplifirs Th nxt two amplifir circuits w will discuss ar ry important to lctrical nginring in gnral, and to th NorCal 40A spcifically.
More informationAdverse Selection and Moral Hazard in a Model With 2 States of the World
Advrs Slction and Moral Hazard in a Modl With 2 Stats of th World A modl of a risky situation with two discrt stats of th world has th advantag that it can b natly rprsntd using indiffrnc curv diagrams,
More informationQUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN
QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN Th rgrssion modls studid in prvious classs assum that th rspons variabl is quantitativ. Oftn, howvr, w wish to study social procsss that lad to two diffrnt outcoms.
More informationGold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis
Intrnational Journal of Dvlopmnt and Sustainability Onlin ISSN: 2688662 www.isdsnt.com/ijds Volum Numbr, Jun 202, Pag 7 ISDS Articl ID: IJDS20300 Gold vrsus stock invstmnt: An conomtric analysis Martin
More informationMEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT SOUND IN THE SAME ROOM. Hans G. Jonasson
MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT SOUND IN THE SAME ROOM Hans G. Jonasson SP Tchnical Rsarch Institut of Swdn Box 857, SE501 15 Borås, Swdn hans.jonasson@sp.s ABSTRACT Drum sound, that is th walking
More informationArchitecture of the proposed standard
Architctur of th proposd standard Introduction Th goal of th nw standardisation projct is th dvlopmnt of a standard dscribing building srvics (.g.hvac) product catalogus basd on th xprincs mad with th
More informationSUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES AS DIFFERENT STATES OF THE SAME MICROCOSM OBJECT. Eduard N. Klenov* RostovonDon. Russia
SUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES AS DIFFERENT STATES OF THE SAME MICROCOSM OBJECT Eduard N. Klnov* RostovonDon. Russia Th distribution law for th valus of pairs of th consrvd additiv quantum numbrs
More informationMathematics. Mathematics 3. hsn.uk.net. Higher HSN23000
hsn uknt Highr Mathmatics UNIT Mathmatics HSN000 This documnt was producd spcially for th HSNuknt wbsit, and w rquir that any copis or drivativ works attribut th work to Highr Still Nots For mor dtails
More informationHost Country: Czech Republic Other parties: Denmark Expected ERUs in 2008 2012: ~ 1,250,000 tco 2
Projct CZ1000033: Nitrous Oxid Emission Rductions at Lovochmi Host Country: Czch Rpublic Othr partis: Dnmark Expctd ERUs in 2008 2012: ~ 1,250,000 tco 2 Th projct at Lovochmi in th Czch Rpublic aims to
More informationAnalysis Of Injection Moulding Process Parameters
Analysis Of Injction Moulding Procss Paramtrs Mr. M.G. Rathi Assistant Profssor, partmnt of Mchanical Enginring, Govrnmnt Collg of Enginring Aurangabad, (MS), India. Mr. Manoj amodar Salunk Studnt, partmnt
More informationLABORATORY 1 IDENTIFICATION OF CIRCUIT IN A BLACKBOX
LABOATOY IDENTIFICATION OF CICUIT IN A BLACKBOX OBJECTIES. To idntify th configuration of an lctrical circuit nclosd in a twotrminal black box.. To dtrmin th valus of ach componnt in th black box circuit.
More informationForeign Exchange Markets and Exchange Rates
Microconomics Topic 1: Explain why xchang rats indicat th pric of intrnational currncis and how xchang rats ar dtrmind by supply and dmand for currncis in intrnational markts. Rfrnc: Grgory Mankiw s Principls
More informationVersion Issue Date Reason / Description of Change Author Draft February, N/A 2009
Appndix A: CNS Managmnt Procss: OTRS POC Documnt Control Titl : CNS Managmnt Procss Documnt : (Location of Documnt and Documnt numbr) Author : Ettin Vrmuln (EV) Ownr : ICT Stratgic Srvics Vrsion : Draft
More informationFACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS
FACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS By Rui PdroPrira Magalhas 1 Sptmbr 2013 A Dissrtation submittd in part fulfilmnt
More informationRural and Remote Broadband Access: Issues and Solutions in Australia
Rural and Rmot Broadband Accss: Issus and Solutions in Australia Dr Tony Warrn Group Managr Rgulatory Stratgy Tlstra Corp Pag 1 Tlstra in confidnc Ovrviw Australia s gographical siz and population dnsity
More informationSolutions to Homework 8 chem 344 Sp 2014
1. Solutions to Homwork 8 chm 44 Sp 14 .. 4. All diffrnt orbitals mans thy could all b paralll spins 5. Sinc lctrons ar in diffrnt orbitals any combination is possibl paird or unpaird spins 6. Equivalnt
More informationNoble gas configuration. Atoms of other elements seek to attain a noble gas electron configuration. Electron configuration of ions
Valnc lctron configuration dtrmins th charactristics of lmnts in a group Nobl gas configuration Th nobl gass (last column in th priodic tabl) ar charactrizd by compltly filld s and p orbitals this is a
More informationExamples. Epipoles. Epipolar geometry and the fundamental matrix
Epipoar gomtry and th fundamnta matrix Epipoar ins Lt b a point in P 3. Lt x and x b its mapping in two imags through th camra cntrs C and C. Th point, th camra cntrs C and C and th (3D points corrspon
More informationAP Calculus AB 2008 Scoring Guidelines
AP Calculus AB 8 Scoring Guidlins Th Collg Board: Conncting Studnts to Collg Succss Th Collg Board is a notforprofit mmbrship association whos mission is to connct studnts to collg succss and opportunity.
More informationThe Normal Distribution: A derivation from basic principles
Th Normal Distribution: A drivation from basic principls Introduction Dan Tagu Th North Carolina School of Scinc and Mathmatics Studnts in lmntary calculus, statistics, and finit mathmatics classs oftn
More informationFar Field Estimations and Simulation Model Creation from Cable Bundle Scans
Far Fild Estimations and Simulation Modl Cration from Cabl Bundl Scans D. Rinas, S. Nidzwidz, S. Fri Dortmund Univrsity of Tchnology Dortmund, Grmany dnis.rinas@tudortmund.d stphan.fri@tudortmund.d Abstract
More informationAnalyzing the Economic Efficiency of ebaylike Online Reputation Reporting Mechanisms
A rsarch and ducation initiativ at th MIT Sloan School of Managmnt Analyzing th Economic Efficincy of Baylik Onlin Rputation Rporting Mchanisms Papr Chrysanthos Dllarocas July For mor information, plas
More informationThe Safety Data Sheet under REACH a closed book?
Th Safty Data Sht undr RECH a closd book? Tips for a bttr undrstanding of th Safty Data Shts D RC S U G R Z i i t t t 6 s d a C H C P R OC B 4 3 8 5 2 1 P E d a E r C Dar Customrs, Th rquirmnts of th RECH
More informationApplication of Exergy Analysis to Textile Printing Process
Ahmt Çay, Arif anr Özgüny, *Arzu Yavaş Eg Univrsity, Faculty of Enginring, Dpartmnt of xtil Enginring, İzmir, urky Email: ahmt.cay@g.du.tr, *Pamukkal Univrsity, Faculty of Enginring, Dpartmnt of xtil
More informationVibrational Spectroscopy
Vibrational Spctroscopy armonic scillator Potntial Enrgy Slction Ruls V( ) = k = R R whr R quilibrium bond lngth Th dipol momnt of a molcul can b pandd as a function of = R R. µ ( ) =µ ( ) + + + + 6 3
More informationTheoretical approach to algorithm for metrological comparison of two photothermal methods for measuring of the properties of materials
Rvista Invstigación Cintífica, ol. 4, No. 3, Nuva época, sptimbr dicimbr 8, IN 187 8196 Thortical approach to algorithm for mtrological comparison of two photothrmal mthods for masuring of th proprtis
More informationDeer: Predation or Starvation
: Prdation or Starvation National Scinc Contnt Standards: Lif Scinc: s and cosystms Rgulation and Bhavior Scinc in Prsonal and Social Prspctiv s, rsourcs and nvironmnts Unifying Concpts and Procsss Systms,
More informationFredy Vélez. Centro Tecnológico CARTIF, Valladolid, España. frevel@cartif.es
Slcting working fluids in an organic Rankin cycl for powr gnration from low tmpratur hat sourcs Frdy Vélz Cntro Tcnológico CARTIF, Valladolid, España. frvl@cartif.s Rcivd: January 21th, d 2014. Rcivd in
More informationStatistical Machine Translation
Statistical Machin Translation Sophi Arnoult, Gidon Mailltt d Buy Wnnigr and Andra Schuch Dcmbr 7, 2010 1 Introduction All th IBM modls, and Statistical Machin Translation (SMT) in gnral, modl th problm
More informationExperimental Investigation of Various Type Absorber Plates for Solar Air Heaters
Tarım Bilimlri Drgisi Tar. Bil. Dr. Drgi wb sayfası: www.agri.ankara.du.tr/drgi Journal of Agricultural Scincs Journal hompag: www.agri.ankara.du.tr/journal Exprimntal Invstigation of Various Typ Absorbr
More information(Analytic Formula for the European Normal Black Scholes Formula)
(Analytic Formula for th Europan Normal Black Schols Formula) by Kazuhiro Iwasawa Dcmbr 2, 2001 In this short summary papr, a brif summary of Black Schols typ formula for Normal modl will b givn. Usually
More information14.3 Area Between Curves
14. Ara Btwn Curvs Qustion 1: How is th ara btwn two functions calculatd? Qustion : What ar consumrs and producrs surplus? Earlir in this chaptr, w usd dfinit intgrals to find th ara undr a function and
More informationCUTTING METHODS AND CARTESIAN ROBOTS KESME YÖNTEMLERİ VE KARTEZYEN ROBOTLAR
ournal of Naval Scinc and Enginring 2009, Vol. 5, No.2, pp. 3542 CUTTING METHODS AND CARTESIAN ROBOTS Asst. Prof. Ugur SIMSIR, Lt.Cdr. Turkish Naval Acady Mchanical Enginring Dpartnt Tuzla, Istanbul,Turkiy
More informationAdsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Activated Carbon Derived from Durian Peel
Adsorption of Malachit Grn Dy onto Activatd Carbon Drivd from Durian Pl SARAWUT SRIKHUN, SAMORN HIRUNPRADITKUN, KAMCHAI NUITHITIKUL* Dpartmnt of Chmical Enginring King Mongkut s Univrsity of Tchnology
More informationSPECIAL VOWEL SOUNDS
SPECIAL VOWEL SOUNDS Plas consult th appropriat supplmnt for th corrsponding computr softwar lsson. Rfr to th 42 Sounds Postr for ach of th Spcial Vowl Sounds. TEACHER INFORMATION: Spcial Vowl Sounds (SVS)
More informationDevelopment Of Optimum Maintenance & Rehabilitation Strategies For Urban Bituminous Concrete Surfaced Roads
Dvlopmnt Of Optimum Maintnanc & Rhabilitation Stratgis For Urban Bituminous Concrt Surfacd s Dr Pardp Kumar Gupta, Rajv Kumar ABSTRACT: In India, th road traffic volum has incrasd manifolds during th postindpndnc
More informationBasis risk. When speaking about forward or futures contracts, basis risk is the market
Basis risk Whn spaking about forward or futurs contracts, basis risk is th markt risk mismatch btwn a position in th spot asst and th corrsponding futurs contract. Mor broadly spaking, basis risk (also
More informationPhysics 106 Lecture 12. Oscillations II. Recap: SHM using phasors (uniform circular motion) music structural and mechanical engineering waves
Physics 6 Lctur Oscillations II SJ 7 th Ed.: Chap 5.4, Rad only 5.6 & 5.7 Rcap: SHM using phasors (unifor circular otion) Physical pndulu xapl apd haronic oscillations Forcd oscillations and rsonanc. Rsonanc
More informationWORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769
081685 WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769 Summary of Dutis : Dtrmins City accptanc of workrs' compnsation cass for injurd mploys; authorizs appropriat tratmnt
More informationTN Calculating Radiated Power and Field Strength for Conducted Power Measurements
Calculating adiatd owr and Fild Strngth for Conductd owr Masurmnts TN100.04 Calculating adiatd owr and Fild Strngth for Conductd owr Masurmnts Copyright Smtch 007 1 of 9 www.smtch.com Calculating adiatd
More informationProduction Costing (Chapter 8 of W&W)
Production Costing (Chaptr 8 of W&W).0 Introduction Production costs rfr to th oprational costs associatd with producing lctric nrgy. Th most significant componnt of production costs ar th ful costs ncssary
More informationParallel and Distributed Programming. Performance Metrics
Paralll and Distributd Programming Prformanc! wo main goals to b achivd with th dsign of aralll alications ar:! Prformanc: th caacity to rduc th tim to solv th roblm whn th comuting rsourcs incras;! Scalability:
More informationA Note on Approximating. the Normal Distribution Function
Applid Mathmatical Scincs, Vol, 00, no 9, 4549 A Not on Approimating th Normal Distribution Function K M Aludaat and M T Alodat Dpartmnt of Statistics Yarmouk Univrsity, Jordan Aludaatkm@hotmailcom and
More informationKeywords Cloud Computing, Service level agreement, cloud provider, business level policies, performance objectives.
Volum 3, Issu 6, Jun 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X Intrnational Journal of Advancd Rsarch in Computr Scinc and Softwar Enginring Rsarch Papr Availabl onlin at: wwwijarcsscom Dynamic Ranking and Slction of Cloud
More informationSimulation of Derivative Characteristics of Broadband Quantum Dot Lasers
USOD 007 wark D Simuation of Drivativ Charactristics of Broadband Quantum Dot Lasrs C. L. an Y. Wan H. S. Di* B. S. Ooi Cntr for Optica chnoois and Dpartmnt of ctrica and Computr ninrin Lhih Univrsity
More informationEVALUATING EFFICIENCY OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN USING DEA (CASE STUDY: AIR AGENCY)
Indian Journal Fundamntal and Applid Lif Scincs ISSN: 22 64 (Onlin) An Opn Accss, Onlin Intrnational Journal Availabl at www.cibtch.org/sp.d/jls/20/0/jls.htm 20 Vol. (S), pp. 46647/Shams and Ghafouripour
More informationThe price of liquidity in constant leverage strategies. Marcos Escobar, Andreas Kiechle, Luis Seco and Rudi Zagst
RACSAM Rv. R. Acad. Cin. Sri A. Mat. VO. 103 2, 2009, pp. 373 385 Matmática Aplicada / Applid Mathmatics Th pric of liquidity in constant lvrag stratgis Marcos Escobar, Andras Kichl, uis Sco and Rudi Zagst
More information5.4 Exponential Functions: Differentiation and Integration TOOTLIFTST:
.4 Eponntial Functions: Diffrntiation an Intgration TOOTLIFTST: Eponntial functions ar of th form f ( ) Ab. W will, in this sction, look at a spcific typ of ponntial function whr th bas, b, is.78.... This
More informationII. Equipment. Magnetic compass, magnetic dip compass, Helmholtz coils, HP 6212 A power supply, Keithley model 169 multimeter
Magntic fild of th arth I. Objctiv: Masur th magntic fild of th arth II. Equipmnt. Magntic compass, magntic dip compass, Hlmholtz s, HP 6212 A powr supply, Kithly modl 169 multimtr III Introduction. IIIa.
More informationRelationship between electroluminescence images and power type parameters of defective silicon solar cells
Availabl onlin www.jocpr.com Journal of Chmical and Pharmacutical Rsarch, 2014, 6(6):16091614 Rsarch Articl ISSN : 09757384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Rlationship btwn lctroluminscnc imags and powr typ paramtrs
More informationPHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER OF BARGARH DISTRICT, ORISSA, INDIA
PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER OF BARGARH DISTRICT, ORISSA, INDIA 1 M.R.Mahananda, 2 B.P.Mohanty & 3 N.R. Bhra Dpartmnt of Environmntal Scincs, Sambalpur Univrsity, JyotiVihar,
More informationAssociation Rules of Data Mining Application for Respiratory Illness by Air Pollution Database
Intrnationa Journa of Basic & Appid Scincs IJBASIJNS Vo:1 No:0 11 Association Rus of Data Mining Appication for Rspiratory Inss by Air Poution Databas Caroyn Payus, Nora Suaiman, Mazrura Shahani and Azuraiza
More information7 Timetable test 1 The Combing Chart
7 Timtabl tst 1 Th Combing Chart 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Tachr tams two workd xampls 7.3 Th Principl of Compatibility 7.4 Choosing tachr tams workd xampl 7.5 Ruls for drawing a Combing Chart 7.6 Th Combing
More informationJune 2012. Enprise Rent. Enprise 1.1.6. Author: Document Version: Product: Product Version: SAP Version: 8.81.100 8.8
Jun 22 Enpris Rnt Author: Documnt Vrsion: Product: Product Vrsion: SAP Vrsion: Enpris Enpris Rnt 88 88 Enpris Rnt 22 Enpris Solutions All rights rsrvd No parts of this work may b rproducd in any form or
More informationC H A P T E R 1 Writing Reports with SAS
C H A P T E R 1 Writing Rports with SAS Prsnting information in a way that s undrstood by th audinc is fundamntally important to anyon s job. Onc you collct your data and undrstand its structur, you nd
More informationProceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Simulation, Modelling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2224, 2006 246
Procdings of th 6th WSEAS Intrnational Confrnc on Simulation, Modlling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, Sptmbr 2224, 2006 246 Larg dformation modling in soiltillag tool intraction using advancd 3D
More informationPES 3950/PHYS 6950: Homework Assignment 5
PES 3950/PHYS 6950: Homwork ssignmnt 5 Handd out: Wdnsday pril 8 Du in: Wdnsday pril, at t start of class at 3:05 pm sarp Sow all working and rasoning to rciv full points. Qustion [5 points] a)[0 points]
More informationCPS 220 Theory of Computation REGULAR LANGUAGES. Regular expressions
CPS 22 Thory of Computation REGULAR LANGUAGES Rgular xprssions Lik mathmatical xprssion (5+3) * 4. Rgular xprssion ar built using rgular oprations. (By th way, rgular xprssions show up in various languags:
More informationDifferential Equations (MTH401) Lecture That a nonhomogeneous linear differential equation of order n is an equation of the form n
Diffrntial Equations (MTH40) Ltur 7 Mthod of Undtrmind CoffiintsSurosition Aroah Rall. That a nonhomognous linar diffrntial quation of ordr n is an quation of th form n n d d d an + a a a0 g( ) n n +
More informationCIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS. Basic Circuit Analysis Method (KVL and KCL method)
6. CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS Basic Circuit Analysis Mthod (KVL and KCL mthod) Cit as: Anant Agarwal and Jffry Lang, cours matrials for 6. Circuits and Elctronics, Spring 7. MIT 6. Fall Lctur Rviw Lumpd
More informationEthanolic Extraction of Soybean Oil: Oil Solubility Equilibria and Kinetic Studies
Ethanolic Extraction of Soyban Oil: Oil Solubility Equilibria and Kintic Studis Christiann E. C. Rodrigus*, Natália M. Longo, Cibl C. Silva, Kila K.. Aracava, Bruna R. Garavazo Sparation Enginring Laboratory
More informationKidde International, Mathisen Way, Colnbrook, Slough, SL3 OHB UK Tel: +44 1753 683245 Fax: +44 1753 683810
Th Dvlopmnt of a Small Scal Class A Fir Tst A Chattawayt, G G Cox, S R Prc & D J Spring Kidd Intrnational, Mathisn Way, Colnbrook, Slough, SL3 OHB UK Tl: +44 1753 683245 Fax: +44 1753 683810 1. Introduction
More informationNoise Power Ratio (NPR) A 65Year Old Telephone System Specification Finds New Life in Modern Wireless Applications.
TUTORIL ois Powr Ratio (PR) 65Yar Old Tlphon Systm Spcification Finds w Lif in Modrn Wirlss pplications ITRODUTIO by Walt Kstr Th concpt of ois Powr Ratio (PR) has bn around sinc th arly days of frquncy
More informationAn Analysis of Synergy Degree of PrimaryTertiary Industry System in Dujiangyan City
www.ccsnt.org/ijbm Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August An Analysis of Synrgy Dgr of PrimaryTrtiary Industry Systm in Dujiangyan City Qizhi Yang School of Tourism, Sichuan
More informationWARING S PROBLEM RESTRICTED BY A SYSTEM OF SUM OF DIGITS CONGRUENCES
WARING S PROBLEM RESTRICTED BY A SYSTEM OF SUM OF DIGITS CONGRUENCES OLIVER PFEIFFER AND JÖRG M. THUSWALDNER Abstract. Th aim of th prsnt papr is to gnraiz arir work by Thuswadnr and Tichy on Waring s
More informationCPU. Rasterization. Per Vertex Operations & Primitive Assembly. Polynomial Evaluator. Frame Buffer. Per Fragment. Display List.
Elmntary Rndring Elmntary rastr algorithms for fast rndring Gomtric Primitivs Lin procssing Polygon procssing Managing OpnGL Stat OpnGL uffrs OpnGL Gomtric Primitivs ll gomtric primitivs ar spcifid by
More informationA MultiHeuristic GA for Schedule Repair in Precast Plant Production
From: ICAPS03 Procdings. Copyright 2003, AAAI (www.aaai.org). All rights rsrvd. A MultiHuristic GA for Schdul Rpair in Prcast Plant Production WngTat Chan* and Tan Hng W** *Associat Profssor, Dpartmnt
More information