Introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system

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1 Introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system H208 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2008 AllEnergy Exhibition and Conference Aberdeen, UK, May Christoph Stiller Ulrich Bünger NTNU Kari Aamodt Espegren Eva Rosenberg Audun Fidje IFE Steffen Møller-Holst Ann Mari Svensson SINTEF Partners:

2 Outline Norway s energy situation The transport sector Expected energy demand and technologies Hydrogen infrastructure build-up what it could look like in Norway Export of CO 2 -lean hydrogen to central Europe Conclusions

3 Norway - facts you may not know Electricity > 99% from hydropower Huge wind resources Robust and flexible grid for integration of renewable power Oil and Natural Gas World s 3rd largest exporter of NG and 5th largest of oil No NG infrastructure Potential for CO 2 storage in North sea bed Transportation Europe s lowest share of public transport High taxation of private cars Strong shipping/marine segment Topology & Population 17,000 km coastline 12 inhabitants per km 2 Almost no multi-lane highways World s 2nd highest GDP per capita Courtesy: RCN

4 Norway - an energy nation Bioenergy TWh/year Hydro- and windpower Natural gas Oil Other use Electricity 500 Transportation - Production Energy use Courtesy: RCN Trond Moengen, June 2004

5 Outline Norway s energy situation The transport sector Expected energy demand and technologies Hydrogen infrastructure build-up what it could look like in Norway Export of CO 2 -lean hydrogen to central Europe Conclusions

6 Norway s ambitions to CO 2 reduction -75 % CO 2 emissions in transportation required until 2050 Source: The Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions [NOU 2006:18]

7 CO 2 emissions from transportation Aviation 8 % Railway 0 % Ships 28 % Personal (car+bus) 46 % Trucks 18 % Central Bureau of Statistics, 2005

8 Estimated share of vehicles (car pool) 100 % Car pool 80 % 60 % 40 % 20 % Hydrogen Electric Hybrid Conventional 0 % Year 100% hydrogen and electric cars among new sales by 2040 (70 /30) Hydrogen and electricity purely from CO2-free and lean sources Also reductions in goods transport and maritime sector will be required

9 Outline Norway s energy situation The transport sector Expected energy demand and technologies Hydrogen infrastructure build-up what it could look like in Norway Export of CO 2 -lean hydrogen to central Europe Conclusions

10 Deployment of hydrogen use in Norway Starting in the population centres (fleets and private cars): 2010: Oslo 2015: Trondheim, Bergen, Stavanger Growth to sparsely populated areas 2025: 50% of population supplied 2050: 100% of population supplied Creation of hydrogen corridors to facilitate commuting and long-distance travel 2010: Oslo Stavanger 2025: Oslo Bergen, Oslo Trondheim, Oslo Stavanger 2040: Trondheim Tromsø

11 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,000 cars total 0.05% of fleet

12 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,000 cars total 0.3% of fleet

13 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,000 cars total 0.5% of fleet

14 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,000 cars total 4.8% of fleet

15 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,000 cars total 14.8% of fleet

16 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,000 cars total 29.2% of fleet

17 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,100,000 cars total 45.1% of fleet

18 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,500,000 cars total 60.6% of fleet

19 Hydrogen Demand and Supply ,750,000 cars total 69.7% of fleet

20 Hydrogen production mix GWh Hydrogen /a Biomass gasification Byproduct hydrogen NG-SMR Electrolysis => Biomass dominates from 2025

21 Hydrogen supply GWh Hydrogen /a CGH2 trailer Pipeline Onsite All options play a role (pipeline in urban centres; CGH2 trailer in higher density areas; onsite in remote areas)

22 Hydrogen Fuelling station EUR/kWh Hydrogen MEUR/a Refuelling Transport Production Total costs Stable costs below 13 ct/kwh (1.30 /l DE ) from 2025 Slight increase towards 2050 due to increasing feedstock prices variations between concrete fuelling stations: 7-39 ct

23 GHG emissions 250 Well-to-wheel: 1 km = 0.23 kwh H2 (FC-Hybrid) g CO2 equiv / kwh Hydrogen GHG emissions GHG emissions of 55 g/km by 2010 Reduced to <5 g/km by 2050

24 Sensitivity analyses (H2 production) Cheaper electricity 7000 Less favourable biomass Biomass gasification GWh Hydrogen /a GWh Hydrogen /a Byproduct hydrogen NG-SMR Electrolysis More electrolysis More onsite production Slightly lower costs Biomass replaced by cent. NG Higher GHG (35-60 g/km) Higher costs (+1 ct / kwh)

25 Outline Norway s energy situation The transport sector Expected energy demand and technologies Hydrogen infrastructure build-up what it could look like in Norway Export of CO 2 -lean hydrogen to central Europe Conclusions

26 NG (Snøhvit) Onshore Wind (Finnmark) Purpose: Compare energy export options with respect to Energy efficiency Emissions and Costs Offshore Wind (Rogaland) NG (e.g. Kårstø) Hamburg

27 Energy sources in the North -H 2 -delivery Hamburg SMR NG (Snøhvit) Hydrogen Onshore Wind Electricity (Finnmark) Natural gas CO 2 LH 2 GT LNG LH 2 Offshore Wind (Rogaland) NG (e.g. Kårstø) SMR GT NG/H2 pipeline Destination

28 Energy sources in the South -H 2 -delivery Hamburg Hydrogen Electricity Natural gas CO 2 GH 2 SMR SMR EOR

29 Primary energy use for export of 1 kwh H2 Wind onsh. => LH2, LH2-Ship Wind onsh. => LH2, HVDC NG => LH2, LH2-Ship NG => LH2, LNG-Ship Wind offsh. => CGH2, H2-Pipe Wind offsh. => CGH2, HVDC NG => CGH2, H2-Pipe NG => CGH2, NG-Pipe Primary energy use (kwh/kwh H2) Feedstock production Feedstock transport H2 production H2 liquefaction H2 transport H2 compression H2 energy content

30 Costs of export equipment (w/o primary energy) Wind onsh. => LH2, LH2-Ship Wind onsh. => LH2, HVDC NG => LH2, LH2-Ship NG => LH2, LNG-Ship Wind offsh. => CGH2, H2-Pipe Wind offsh. => CGH2, HVDC NG => CGH2, H2-Pipe NG => CGH2, NG-Pipe Capital and O&M Costs ( /kwh H2) (Feedstock not included) Feedstock transport H2 production H2 liquefaction H2 transport CO2 burden (50 /t)

31 GHG emissions of exported hydrogen Reference-onsite SMR (w/o CCS) Wind onsh. => LH2, LH2-Ship Wind onsh. => LH2, HVDC NG => LH2, LH2-Ship NG => LH2, LNG-Ship Wind offsh. => CGH2, H2-Pipe Wind offsh. => CGH2, HVDC NG => CGH2, H2-Pipe NG => CGH2, NG-Pipe CO2 equivalent emissions (g/kwh H2) NG/LNG production Transport NG SMR (85% CO2 captured) Electricity for liquefaction Auxiliary grid electricity Reference

32 Outline Norway s energy situation The transport sector Expected energy demand and technologies Hydrogen infrastructure build-up what it could look like in Norway Export of CO 2 -lean hydrogen to central Europe Conclusions

33 Conclusions Norway has unique conditions to be an early adopter of hydrogen in transportation Under assumptions taken, average hydrogen costs are <13 ct /kwh from 2025 (4.8% of car fleet) variations between concrete fuelling stations: 7-39 ct Optimum mix of production and distribution has strong dependence on the hydrogen pricing In a scenario where hydrogen is used for transportation at large scale ( ), export of hydrogen from Norway could be an interesting option in terms of energy efficiency, economy and GHG emissions. Norway has a chance to retain its role as an energy nation beyond oil and gas.

34 Acknowledgement The NorWays project is co-funded by the participating industry, StatoilHydro, Statkraft and Hexagon Composites, The Industrial Fund for Innovation at NTNU and by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) (Project /S30). We thank all project participants for their support in carrying out the present study.

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