An Educator s Guide to Fort King George Historic Site: Cross-Curricular Lesson Plans for Grades 4 8

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1 An Educator s Guide to Fort King George Historic Site: Cross-Curricular Lesson Plans for Grades 4 8 By: Steven Smith Operated by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Parks and Historic Sites Division For further information or to book a tour contact Fort King George at or by mail at PO Box 711 Darien, Ga

2 Table of Contents I. Unit One The Debatable Land 4 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 5 b. Pre-Reading Activity (What is a Colony?) 6 c. Map Activity 8 d. Guided Reading Selection & Activities 12 i. The Spanish Occupation 13 ii. The French Occupation 18 iii. The English Occupation 21 e. Post Reading Assessment Activities 25 i. Most Significant Order of Events Graphic Organizer 26 ii. Circle Meets the Square Compare/Contrast Diagram 29 iii. Internet Scavenger Hunt 32 iv. The Debatable Land Timeline 36 v. Colonial America Scrapbook 38 vi. Come to the Colonies Brochure/Poster 40 II. Unit Two Colonial Economics 43 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 44 b. Pre-Reading Activities (Anticipation Guide & KWL) 45 c. Guided Reading Selection & Activities 48 i. Producing & Buying in the Colonies 49 ii. A Mercantilist Economy 52 iii. An Opportunistic Economy 54 iv. Supplying the Demand in the Economy 55 v. A Special Kind of Economy 57 vi. Guided Reading Quiz 59 vii. Colonial Economics Concept Map 61 d. Post-Reading Assessment Activities 62 i. To Build a Colony 62 ii. A Colonial Market 64 III. Unit Three Creek Indians 70 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 71 b. Pre-reading Activities (Anticipation Guide & KWL) 72 i. Native American Archaeology 75 c. Guided Reading Selection and Activities 79 i. Origins and Settlement 80 ii. The Coming of Europeans 82 iii. Post-Reading Assessment Activities 85 IV. Unit Four The Highlanders of Colonial Georgia 87 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 88 b. Pre-Reading Strategies 89 i. What is a Highlander 90 ii. Anticipation Guide 93 iii. KWL Chart 94 c. Guided Reading Selection and Activities 95 i. The Life of a Highlander 96 ii. A New Life in the New World 96 iii. Guided Reading Quiz 99 2

3 d. Post-Reading Assessment Activities 102 i. The Clans of Darien 102 ii. Scots Versus the Creeks Venn diagram 105 V. Unit Five Motion and Forces of a Fortress 108 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 109 b. Artillery Physics (8 th Grade) 110 i. Artillery Physics Word Challenge 115 c. Physics at Fort King George (4 th Grade) 118 i. Projectiles of the Great Gun 121 VI. Unit Six Matter of a Fortress 125 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 126 b. As a Matter of Fact 127 VII. Unit Seven Mathematics at a Fortress 135 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 136 b. 4 th Grade Activities and Assessment 136 c. 8 th Grade Activities and Assessment 141 VIII. Unit Eight Fort King George Educational Tour Assessment 144 a. Description of Unit and Standards Addressed 145 b. Reading Activity 146 i. Assessment Quiz 149 c. Guided Tour Assessment Activity 151 IX. Unit Tests 158 a. Unit One Summative Test 159 b. Unit Two Summative Test 164 c. Unit Three Summative Test 169 d. Unit Four Summative Test 173 3

4 Unit One The Debatable Land 4

5 The Debatable Land Description of Unit This unit, while it may serve many grades and content areas, is best suited for Georgia Studies teachers and students. The unit covers Spanish, French, and British exploration of North America with a particular focus on empire building in colonial Georgia, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana. The objective of this unit is to get students to better understand the antecedents of Georgia s establishment, and the role of the colony in its early development. The unit will also cover certain reading standards as well. Standards SS4H2 SS4H3 SS4H4 SS4G2 SS4CG3 SS8H1 SS8H2 ELA4R3 ELA8R2 The student will describe European exploration in North America. The student will explain the factors that shaped British colonial America. The student will explain the factors that shaped British colonial America. The student will describe how physical systems affect human systems. The student will describe the functions of government. The student will evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia. The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia s history. The student understands and acquires new vocabulary and uses it correctly in reading and writing. The student understands and acquires new vocabulary and uses it correctly in reading and writing. 5

6 Pre-Reading Activities What is a Colony Objective: By matching raw resources with finished products, the students will demonstrate an understanding of the basic economic function of a colony. Description: In this activity your students will be required to compare a series of items. Some will be raw resources produced by the American colonies, and some will be finished products made from these raw resources. The students will have to match the raw resources with the finished products the raw resources make. Materials Product/raw materials chart Computer(s) with Internet access Procedure o Make out five charts like the one below. Do not include the answers in red. Product Raw Material Linen Blanket (flax) Timber Candle (beeswax) Flax Charcoal (Wood) Indigo Leather (Deerskins) Rice Rope (hemp) Pine Sap Boat (wood) Deerskins Axe Head (iron ore) Hemp Cooking Pot (copper ore) Sulfur Soap (Lye) Wheat Ships (timber) Sugar Cane Waistcoat (wool) Corn Flour (corn, wheat, barley) Hops Rum (Sugar Cane) Bees wax Black Powder (sulfur) Iron ore Medicine (Antimony) Copper ore Beer (Barely) Fish Pitch (Pine Sap) Antimony Ink (Indigo) Wool Cod Liver Oil (Fish) Silk Worms Breeches (Deerskins) Jesuits Bark (Chinch Bark) Silk (Silkworms) lye Rabbit Stew (rice) Barely 6

7 o Divide your class into 5 teams of three, four, or five students each. o Explain to them that colonies were for producing raw materials like the ones shown on the chart. o Make sure they understand that a colony was for producing raw materials to the mother country. Colonists were discouraged from manufacturing products. o Explain that the students will be allowed time to research in the media center. Each team must try to match all the raw materials with the finished products they are used to make. Some raw materials can be used to make more than one finished product. o Provide some kind of prize to the winners. o Once the students have successfully matched everything up, verbally pose the following questions to them. These questions are designed to get them to think about the purpose of a colony. 1. Why do you suppose the colonists were discouraged from manufacturing products? The mother country (Great Britain in the case of the English colonies) did not want colonial manufacturers and merchants to compete with manufacturers and merchants found in Great Britain. 2. How do you think Great Britain benefited from this type of system? It helped to increase the wealth of the country and therefore made it more powerful in the struggle for world dominance. 3. Do you think that it was fair for officials in Great Britain to tell the colonists they were not allowed to manufacture things? Answers will vary. 4. How do you suppose you d react if the government came along and told you what you can and can t do economically? Answers will vary. 5. Guess what major historical event happened in our nation s history as a result of Britain s commercial laws against the colonists? Answer: The American Revolution was, in part, the result of Great Britain s attempt to regulate commercial production in the colonies. 7

8 Map Exercise Objective: The students will show an understanding of Georgia s historical geography by evaluating some historical maps of the Southeast. Description: In this activity the students will learn about Georgia s historical geography by identifying landmarks of historical significance. They will use old maps found on the Internet. They will also compare and contrast the historic maps with modern maps. Materials Computer(s) with Internet access Pencils Map Activity Atlases Procedure Visit the website and give your students a brief tutorial on how to navigate through the maps. Next, have the students answer the questions below in relation to specific maps found on the webpage. 8

9 Directions: Visit Here you will find all kind of historic maps of North America in the colonial era. Next, answer all the questions below related to these maps. Questions 1. Look at the map titled A new map of his majesty's flouishing province of South Carolina. In what modern state does the Margravate of Azilia appear to be? Now go to the website What leader was responsible for establishing the Margravate of Azilia? Why was it so important to establish such a settlement? Robert Montgomery established the Margravate of Azilia in what we now call Georgia. It was to serve the British colonies as a protective barrier from the Spanish in Florida and the French in Louisiana. 2. Now look at the map titled North America. In what year was this map made? What colony is displayed on this map where modern day Georgia is now located? Now visit the web page What nation first colonized Florida? Now, why do you suppose the map shows Florida to be so big? Which country had established a colony northeast of Florida? The map was made in 1710 when Spain had control of the colony of Florida. Spanish officials wanted to try and portray as though Spain had title to the large territory shown on the map. Great Britain had established the colony of Carolina northeast of where Florida is depicted on this map. 3.Now look at A map of Louisiana and of the River Mississippi. What major colony lies out west of Carolina and Florida? Now go to the web page below. What country settled the colony answered above? In what year did they establish Fort Caroline? Who destroyed Fort Caroline and in what year was it destroyed? The colony of Louisiana lies out west. In the seventeenth century the French established Louisiana. The French had built Fort Caroline in 1564 near modern day Jacksonville. The following year the Spanish destroyed Fort Caroline. 4. Now visit the web page below. In what colony did the English establish their first successful North American settlement? Jamestown, Virginia was the first successful permanent settlement 9

10 5.On the next page is a map of North America and a list of some places that you will need to know to help you with the reading selection on the next several pages. Next to the list of places below, put the letter on the map that identifies where it is located. A close-up map of the Southeast is provided to better help you identify certain places of interest. You may use atlases or the Internet to help you with your search for these locations. Fort King George Q Savannah River L Beaufort, South Carolina M New Orleans K Gulf of Mexico J Barbados N Dominican Republic F French Louisiana D Florida C Mississippi River H Georgia B Caribbean Sea E St. Augustine G Charleston, South Carolina O Altamaha River P Mobile I 10

11 I N 11

12 Guided Reading Selection and Activities Objective: The students will be able to explain why the English, French, and Spanish, in the colonial era, were all in a contest to control the land now known as Georgia. The students will be able to describe the various motives that drove England, France, and Spain to build colonies in the New World. The students will be able to explain differences in how each nation viewed the Native Americans. The students will be able to list various resources that all three nations were competing for in the colonies. Description: In this activity the students will read selections about English, French, and Spanish colonization in the Southeast. The entire reading is divided into three parts. Each part is devoted to each nation s interest in building a colonial empire in modern Georgia. Furthermore, guided reading quizzes are offered in order to encourage better student engagement in the reading and accountability for comprehension. Finally, each section has some summative questions that can be used for homework, class work, or for a quiz. Materials Guided Reading Selection and activities Pencils Paper Overhead projector Procedure Start with section one and read through the material with the students, or have them read in groups. Ask them questions from the guided reading quiz as they read, or after if preferred. As homework or class work have the students complete the self-check activity for section one. Then, on the overhead, complete the main idea house organizer for your students. Make sure you use this organizer to reinforce the key points of the lesson. Complete sections two and three the same way. I recommend that you cover only one section or less each day. You may spread this out over three to five days. 12

13 The Debatable Land Section One The Spanish Occupation Terms to Know Natural resources Christopher Columbus Dominican Republic Caribbean Sea Hispaniola Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon Sapelo Island Conquistadors Hernando De Soto Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Hernan Cortez Tenochtitlan Aztecs La Florida Ponce de Leon Pedro Menendez de Aviles Several hundred years ago many great countries of Europe began competing with one another for natural resources found throughout the world. These resources included things like animal hides, timber, crops, plant chemicals, foods, and precious metals. These items were often hard to find in Europe, so Europeans had to look elsewhere for them. As such, European explorers began to venture out far in the ocean. These explorers were in search of new lands with many natural resources like the ones above. One of the first great explorers to settle people in the New World was Christopher Columbus. Though Columbus was Italian, he sailed for Spain to the New World in His primary endeavor was to find gold and silver for the Spanish king and queen. In a place called Santo Domingo, found in the present-day Dominican Republic, he was the first European to formally establish a claim to lands in the Americas. As such, Spanish authorities believed they held rights to the New World and began attempting to colonize many parts of it. Spain was the first nation to take over the Caribbean Sea with Hispaniola becoming the Spanish capital over all her New World possessions. Hispaniola was located in modern day Dominican Republic. After Columbus s voyages, many Spanish explorers followed in order to discover and settle new territories. One such explorer was Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon. Ayllon left Hispaniola in 1526 en route for the North American mainland. He and 600 colonists ended up on an island close to Sapelo Island off the coast of modern Georgia. They called their settlement San Miquel de Figure 1: Above are illustrated the various routes traveled by Spanish explorers in the 1500s. Map Check: List all the modern states that Hernando De Soto would have traveled through today. Answer below Reading Skills Break Based upon the context of its use in the sentence below, which best defines the meaning of the word endeavor? A.) Plan B.) Duty C.) Goal D.) Hobby 13

14 Guadalpe. Before long, Ayllon died and the other colonists began to suffer as well. Only 150 survived before they escaped later back to Hispaniola. Such hardships proved that populating a new world was highly dangerous. Many Spanish explorers were not interested in permanent settlements. Instead, they wanted to establish wealth by finding gold and silver. These types of explorers were called conquistadors and, in their selfish quest for gold, often harmed entire Native American civilizations. Hernando De Soto for example, was a Spanish explorer who from 1539 to1541 traveled throughout Southeastern North America through what is modern day Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Texas. On the way he ravaged Indian communities in his search for gold and new territories to colonize. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado left Mexico in the early 1540s and toured southwestern North America in pursuit of the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola. This city, he believed, was filled with vast treasures. Along the way he showed little respect toward the natives and often killed them. Though they Language Arts Break As used in the sentence to the left, what part of speech is the word treasures? A.) Adverb B.) Adjective C.) Noun D.) Preposition killed many natives in search of gold, neither De Soto nor Coronado ever discovered any of it. Earlier in 1520 the conquistador Hernan Cortez invaded the ancient city of Tenochtitlan, the ancient Aztec Indian capital found in central Mexico. The following year he defeated the Aztecs killing their respected leader Montezuma. The Aztecs were an advanced civilization of Native Americans found in Mexico. They had established a modern city there and had made remarkable advances in engineering, art, mathematics, and astronomy. In fact, the Aztecs used a calendar that was far more accurate than the one used by Europeans. They might have successfully defended themselves against Cortez were it not for an outbreak of smallpox among the Aztec people. The most successful colony established by Spain in America was La Florida, so named by Ponce de Leon who explored the area in 1513 in search of his famous Fountain of Youth. Ponce de Leon claimed the land for Spain but never established a colony due to Indian hostility. A permanent colony in Florida came in 1565 with the Reading Skills Break establishment of St Augustine by Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Based upon the context of its use in Menendez set up this colony to settle soldiers and their families. the sentence below, which best The soldiers were to help protect Spanish treasure ships coming defines the meaning of the word up out of South America. The fleets were filled with millions of erected? dollars in precious metals and jewels. In 1565, Menendez, along A.) Planned with a large Spanish force, removed the French entirely from the B.) Manned southeastern coast. Three years earlier, the French had settled E.) Defended Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River near modern day F.) Built Jacksonville, Florida. Over the next several decades, St Augustine grew into a major city and the center of operations for the Spanish in North America. Also, the Spanish erected missions and forts all throughout modern Georgia and North Florida. Priests and missionaries lived in these missions. They Reading Skills Break aimed to Christianize the Native Americans. Additionally, the Based upon the context of its use in Spanish hoped to teach the Indians how to grow crops the way the sentence to the left, which of Europeans did. This, they believed, would help produce enough the following best describes the food for the colonists settled in the Caribbean Islands. meaning of the word legacy. Explained above are but a few of the accounts of Spanish A.) Future explorers that traveled about in the New World. All helped to B.) Benefit build an important legacy from Spanish colonization. First, C.) Inheritance Spanish accounts of the New World were quite glamorous and D.) Profit helped to popularize the Americas among Europeans. Secondly, the Spanish saw the Native Americans as barriers to progress and, as such, viewed them as sub-human 14

15 and unworthy of owning a land filled with enormous wealth. This would greatly affect how other Europeans treated the Natives. Thirdly, the Spanish kept good records and drawings. As such, they opened up all the mysteries and wonders of the New World to competing nations. It was not long before others were attempting to out compete Spain for control of the New World. Map Check Answer: Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Self Check Questions 1. Why was Spain so interested in colonizing the New World? Spain wanted to find new lands so that they could get raw resources, especially precious metals like gold and silver. 2. What were the Spanish conquistadors most interested in gaining from the New World? How did this impact the Native Americans? The conquistadors primarily wanted precious metals. As a result, Native Americans were viewed as obstacles and were killed because of this. 3. How did Spain s early exploration of the New World go on to serve other European countries? Through very accurate record keeping, Spain introduced the New World to other European countries. 15

16 Guided Reading Quiz 1. Name the two major natural resources that Christopher Columbus was primarily interested in getting from the New World. Gold and Silver 2. Which Spanish explorer toured the Southeast in the 1540s? Hernando De Soto 3. Which Spanish explorer toured Southwestern North America? Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. 4. True or False The Native Americans benefited greatly from Spanish Colonization. False 5. Which advanced civilization did Hernan Cortez defeat? The Aztecs 6. What did the Spanish hope to accomplish by building missions among the Native Americans in the Southeast? The Spanish hoped to Christianize the Natives and make them more European in culture. 7. Name one way the Spanish helped to spark great interest in New World colonization. The Spanish kept very good records and drawings 8. True or False The Spanish had little impact on how other Europeans came to view the Native Americans. False 9. What was Ponce De Leon searching for when he explored La Florida? The Fountain of Youth 10. Where did Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon settle his colony called San Miquel de Guadalpe? Ayllon s colony was close to Sapelo Island right off the coast of Georgia. 16

17 Graphic Organizer Notes In the Main Idea House below, insert the following information into your copy of the organizer. This will serve as your notes for this section of the reading. Hang on to this in your notebooks because you will fill in the other sections as well. Teacher note: You may use this organizer to help facilitate a short postreading lecture about the section you have just read. Main Idea House The Spanish, English, and French all competed with one another for control of southeastern North America. Why? Where? When? How? Legacy? Spain France England Settled New World in order to get more gold and silver Settled St. Augustine in 1565 in La Florida Settled New World primarily in 1500s and 1600s Treated natives cruelly and established missions among them. Taught many Europeans the value of New World 17

18 Section Two The French Occupation Terms to Know Jean Ribault Rene de Laudonniere Charlesfort St. Augustine Rene Robert Cavelire de La Gulf of Mexico Salle Mississippi River Mobile New Orleans Louisiana Fur trade Figure 2: Pictured above is the route that Cartier traveled during his first voyage to the New World. Map Check: Look at a modern map of North America. What state is New Foundland closest to? Answer: Maine settled and built Charlesfort on modern-day Paris Island, South Carolina. The colony was shortlived due to starvation and mutiny from the soldiers who manned the fort. Likewise, in 1564 Laudonniere attempted to build a colony called Fort Caroline near modern day Jacksonville, Florida. However, Fort Caroline was short lived. Later that year Pedro Menendez de Aviles of Figure 3: La Salle s explorations down the Mississippi River helped to expand the French empire all over western North America. France s interest in establishing New World colonies developed along with Spain s. As early as 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier was exploring the St. Lawrence River in present-day eastern Canada. He continued there until 1541 looking for precious gold and diamonds. He never found any. However, he and others did acknowledge that there was wealth to be made in the fishing industry there. As such, Cartier helped establish France s interest in settling the Great Lakes area. This became France s starting point for settlement in the New World. From 1562 to 1565 French explorers Jean Ribault and Rene de Laudonniere attempted to establish claims to the southeastern coast. Ribault Reading Skills Break Based upon the context of its use in the sentence above, which of the following best explains the meaning of the word acknowledge? A.) To admit B.) To deny C.) To claim something D.) To except Spain invaded the young settlement with a force of about 1,000 soldiers. Menendez and his forces slaughtered most of the male soldiers and took over the area for Spain. In the same year he destroyed Fort Caroline, 1565, Menendez also established the town of St. Augustine in Florida. Later, from , Rene Robert Cavelire de La Salle traveled down the North American continent on the mighty Mississippi River. His travels took him all the way from eastern Canada to present-day Texas. He tried unsuccessfully to build a colony off the coast of Texas on the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle s explorations increased French interest in the Mississippi River and the middle regions of North 18

19 America. Soon after his voyage down the Mississippi, French outposts sprang up along the mighty river. Of particular interest to French explorers was the fur trade. This industry required good relations with Native Americans. In 1698, the settlement of Mobile was established in modern-day Alabama along the Mobile River. Mobile exists to this day. Other towns and forts followed including New Orleans in 1718 and Fort Toulouse in These initial settlements and forts were the beginnings of what would develop into French Louisiana. The French settlement of the Gulf Coast Region was significant for several reasons. First, the French were highly responsible for the growth of the fur trade. This trade involved trapping and hunting animals for their hides. Their hides could be used to make products such as clothing. The fur trade caused the French and the English to rely more heavily on the Native Americans. These people knew much about the North American landscape and hunting animals to produce furs. As such, Indian tribes became an even greater factor in building colonies here in America, especially among the French and the English. The Indians were no longer viewed as obstacles to settlement. Instead, they were seen as potential allies. Also, the French move down the Mississippi and into Louisiana made the British colonists on the east coast very nervous. As such, the English became very interested in establishing a barrier zone to protect against any French invasion of their colonies on the east coast. Self-Check Questions 1. After La Salle s exploration down the Mississippi River, how did French officials change their interests in the New World? They became more interested in the fur trade rather than precious metals or the fishing industry. 2. How were the French different from the Spanish in their treatment toward the Indians? The French came to rely more on the Indians for help in conducting the fur trade. As such, they weren t nearly as brutal toward them. 3. What was the primary influence that the French had on European colonization? They spurred greater interest in the fur trade and better treatment toward the Natives. 4. Why did the French want to move down the Mississippi to colonize new lands? They wanted to compete with Great Britain and Spain for control of all North America. Guided Reading Quiz 1. Which great French explorer first explored Northeastern North America for the French? Jacque Cartier 2. In what modern state was Charlesfort located? South Carolina 3. What people killed most of the settlers at Fort Caroline? Pedro Menendez (the Spanish) 4. What Spanish settlement became the first permanent settlement in North America? St. Augustine 5. Which great river did La Salle travel down? The Mississippi 6. Which type of commercial trade did France become interested in after La Salle s exploration of the Mississippi? The fur trade 7. In what year was New Orleans established? True or False The fur trade required the French to have a very good relationship with the British? False 9. True or False The British in South Carolina helped the French get established in Louisiana because the South Carolina colonists needed trade partners? False 10. True or False The fur trade helped to improve the relationship between Native Americans and Europeans. True 19

20 Graphic Organizer Notes Directions: Fill in the section note organizer about French colonization in the New World. Main Idea House The Spanish, English, and French all competed with one another for control of Southeastern North America. Why? Where? When? How? Legacy? Spain France Great Britain Wanted to protect country s interests in finding gold and silver. Settled St. Augustine in 1565 in La Florida. Settled New World primarily in 1500s and 1600s. Treated natives cruelly and established missions among them. Taught many Europeans the value of New World. Wanted to expand empire to compete with Spain and England. Settled Northeast Canada and lands along the Miss. River. Began settling Louisiana in the late 1600s and into the 1700s. Built fur trading posts among the Natives and created mutual reliance with them. Taught that the Natives could be very helpful economically. 20

21 Section Three The English Occupation Terms to Know The Debatable Land Jamestown Cash crops Savannah River Barbados Charles Town Beaufort Plantations Altamaha River John Barnwell Fort King George General James Oglethorpe Georgia Figure 4 Above are the Spanish colonial coastal settlements including all the Spanish missions. Missions were built to Christianize the Native Americans and teach them agriculture. all the way down to the Savannah River. In 1670, South Carolina was established by a group of proprietors, landlords back in England who owned land in the colonies. The colony was populated with settlers and slaves, many of whom came up from Barbados. Barbados was an island in the Caribbean Sea. Over the next several decades the colony grew, especially Charles Town and Beaufort. Both towns had economies that centered largely on rice production. Growing rice was done on plantations, large tracts of planted land that required much slave labor. As such, South Carolina had a slave population that was enormously high. Also, Carolina trappers carried on a very rich trade in furs with Native Americans to the west. The British came to view the Indians as possible allies who could help them defeat the French and the Spanish. As such, they competed heavily for During the late 1500s and well into the 1600s, Spanish missions lied along the entire coast of modern Georgia. These missions spread west into a region the Spanish referred to as Apalachicola. The purposes of these missions were to Christianize Native Americans and to teach them agricultural techniques. In 1660 to 1680, the English and their Indian allies began raiding these missions and destroying them. Eventually, the Spanish were forced to retreat back to St. Augustine in Florida. Over the next five decades the territory separating South Carolina from Florida became known as The Debatable Land. This is because England, France, and Spain all competed and argued to control it. The English had started building colonies in the early 1600s, starting with Jamestown, Virginia in The primary focus of these colonies was on growing cash crops such as tobacco and rice. These crops produced vast amounts of wealth. Throughout the rest of the 1600s the British had built colonies all along the entire east coast of North America Figure 5 The map above shows all the British colonies and when they were established. Map Check: Which colony was established first, Pennsylvania or Georgia? Answer: Pennsylvania 21

22 control of the fur trade. So competitive were the English traders, that they began trading guns, alcohol, and iron tools with the Indians in order to get their business. As such, the Natives became increasingly reliant upon Europeans for survival. This is because the Indians began to leave their traditional lifestyle in exchange for a more modern one. Also, alcoholism became a serious problem among the many tribes. Reading Skills Break Based upon the context of its use in the sentence above, which of the following best explains the meaning of the word traditional? A.) Old B.) New C.) Customary D.) Typical Furthermore, guns made warfare among the tribes more brutal and competitive as well. In the early part of the 1700s, the French started to settle in present-day Alabama east of the Mississippi River. These settlements scared many Carolina colonists. They grew convinced that the French and Spanish were both out to surround Carolina with enemy colonies and ultimately choke the British out of Carolina and Virginia. Spanish Saint Augustine was only about three hundred miles south from Charles Town, South Carolina. All of these factors brought on a great deal of fear among the colonist in South Carolina. The colony had already been attacked by the Spanish in the 1680s and had suffered great losses. The French seemed ready to attack the colony. As such, colonists and governmental officials began demanding that some type of military protection be provided to help defend the colony. Therefore, in 1720 the British government approved a fort to be built at the entrance of the Altamaha River. This river lies in southeast Georgia today and is one of the largest river systems east of the Mississippi River. Colonel John Tuscarora Jack Barnwell was sent to oversee building of the fort. He chose to name it Fort King George in honor of King George the First of Great Britain. In 1721, Barnwell began the task of building the fort, however, there were many problems. For help, he did not have healthy British soldiers like the ones he had requested. Instead, he got a group of invalids, a name given to elderly soldiers who were not very fit for military service. These invalids got sick on the boat ride over from England to South Carolina and could not go to serve Barnwell until the winter of By 1724, the fort was in serious trouble. Over two thirds of the original soldiers there had died, mostly from diseases such as dysentery and malaria. Also, Colonel Barnwell died in that year too. The following year the fort burned in a mysterious accident. However, it s quite probable that the soldiers may have conspired to burn it in hopes that it would get them away from the Altamaha and back closer to civilization in South Carolina. Nevertheless, by 1725 the fort was re-built, except this time with poor wood. The fort never really seemed to fully recover from the disastrous fire. The Debtable Land The Altamaha River Reading Skills Break Based upon the context of its use in the sentence below, which of the following best explains the meaning of the word conspired? A.) Tricked B.) Worked C.) Planned D.) Plotted Eventually, the fort was abandoned in 1727 due to financial problems and dying soldiers. Figure 6 Shown above is a historical map (1725) of the river systems that separated South Carolina and Spanish Florida. The bottom river is the Altamaha. Great Britain, France, and Spain all wanted control of this river. Fort King George, though it may have seemed unsuccessful, was a very important development. It was the first step in the establishment of Georgia, the thirteenth British colony in North America. When Georgia s founder General James Oglethorpe came here in 1733, he sought to establish a buffer colony between Spanish Florida and the British colonies to the 22

23 north. This buffer colony helped the Carolinians by offering them military protection from Spanish invasion out of Florida. This was not a new idea. Carolina officials had developed this idea way back in 1720 with the plan to build Fort King George. The fort was supposed to be the first step in building a town on the Altamaha River. This town was supposed to be settled by people who could serve as a militia. The militia was to be in charge of defending the southern frontier from Spanish invasion into the area. Once General Oglethorpe established Georgia, this purpose was served by that new colony. All throughout the 1600s and 1700s, the land we now know to be Georgia was a vast territory known as the debatable land. Three of the world s mightiest nations competed to occupy and control it. It was a highly valued land mostly because of its river systems and its natural resources. The rivers made for good transportation and the natural resources could be used to make valuable consumer products back in Europe. Fortunes could be made or lost in the business of colony building. Whichever country Figure 7 Over the past three decades, Fort King George has been re-constructed to its original state on its original location. Today Fort King George Historic Site hosts thousands of visitors from all over the world. held more land in the New World was likely to make the most money in the competition for world control. For these reasons, the land now called Georgia was once one of the most desired territories in the world. Self-Check Questions 1. What about the British colonies economy was different from those of Spain and France? Cash Crops were made up of rice, indigo, and tobacco. These crops were used to sell back to Europe for money. France & Spain did not use many cash crops. 2. What was the main purpose that the British colonists of Carolina wanted Fort King George built? They wanted a protective buffer between them and the French to the west and the Spanish to the south. 3. What does it mean when we say that Georgia was once a debatable land? This territory caused much debate and feuding over who had rights to control it. Guided Reading Quiz 1. True or False French soldiers drove the Spanish missions off the Georgia coast? False 2. True or False Rice was the main cash crop grown in colonial South Carolina? True 3. True or False Slavery was not very common in South Carolina. False 4. True or False Spain established Spanish missions all along the southeast coast. False 5. True or False The British relied mostly on the fur trade as an economy in their colonies. False 6. True or False Fort King George was built to provide protection from Britain s enemies. True 7. True or False It was the French who caused much fear in South Carolina over the security of the colony. True 8. True or False Most of the soldiers at Fort King George died from diseases. True 9. True or False Fort King George was abandoned in 1727 due to the fact that the French attacked it and tore it down. False 10. True or False The debatable land had river systems that made this territory very valued to all European colonists. True 23

24 Graphic Organizer Notes Directions: Fill in the section note organizer about English Colonization in the New World. Main Idea House The Spanish, English, and French all competed with one another for control of Southeastern North America. Why? Where? When? How? Legacy Spain France Great Britain Wanted to protect country s interests in finding gold and silver. Settled St. Augustine in 1565 in La Florida. Settled New World primarily in 1500s and 1600s. Treated natives cruelly and established missions among them. Taught many Europeans the value of New World. Wanted to expand empire to compete with Spain and England. Settled Northeast Canada and lands west of the Miss. River. Began settling Louisiana in the late 1600s and into the 1700s. Built fur trading posts among the Natives and created mutual reliance with them. Taught that the Natives could be very helpful economically. Wanted permanent plantations that grew valuable cash crops. Colonized the entire east coast of North America (NA). Started with Jamestown in 1607, then settled entire east coast of NA. Established economies built on cash crops and fur trade. Gave European goods to Native Americans. Overpowered France and Spain to establish permanent culture in NA 24

25 Post Reading Assessment Activities Putting Events in Order of Significance Objective: The students will use process skills of reasoning and interpretation to list a series of historical events in order of significance in order to support a main argument. Description: You will use this graphic organizer to facilitate your lecture on the reading selection The Debatable Land. First, the students will predict on their own what they believe are the most significant events. You may let them work in teams and award the team that comes the closest. After the students have come up with their predictions, you will then give them another copy of the graphic organizer. This one will help facilitate your lecture on the reading selection The Debatable Land. You may choose to grade this one, or maybe grade the first one for completion. However, make sure that you go through the second one step-by-step in your lecture because this one has to be accurate. It will, in part, serve as student notes during this unit. The important thing to remember is that the students will probably need considerable coaching through this exercise. However, try to do it in a manner that guides them toward understanding the answer. Materials Pencil 2 Most Significant Event Graphic Organizers Overhead Projector (optional) Procedure Make sure you ve read the reading selection The Debatable Land and have completed all the reading activities. Read the instructions with your students and do all the examples to reinforce the concept. Pass out the Most Significant Order of Events organizer. Go over the statement that the students will have to support. It is in the bottom square of the graphic organizer. Make sure that they understand that all events and ideas either directly or indirectly support our main argument. However, they are to identify the ones that are most relevant to our argument and put them closest to the bottom squares. The most significant supporting event or idea will go on the bottom square. The least significant event will go at the very top. The least significant event is already provided. Then, the students will fill in all the other statements based on order of significance, so that the statement in the number two square is more significant than the one in number one, but not as significant as the one in number three. After the students have worked independently or together to predict what they believe the order of significance is, next give them another blank copy of the graphic organizer. Tell them you are going to go over the answers and explain each one. A teacher s edition for this assignment is provided. Have them write in the right answers as you go through the lecture. Ideally, this should just be graded for completion and the students can keep it to use as a study aid for the test. 25

26 Most Significant Order of Events Graphic Organizer In this activity you will learn how to order historical events by significance. Significance means something of importance that caused an event to eventually happen. When studying history, it is important to understand that all events in history have previous happenings that led up to that event. Some occurrences have a direct impact, while others are more indirectly related. For example, The United States birth is often dated as July 4 th, 1776, the day the Declaration of Independence was signed. However, the origins of our country can be traced back many centuries before this. First, during the 1600s and 1700s, people in Europe had to decide that they wanted to move off to foreign lands. Next, they established colonies with communities and economic activities. Next, they had to disagree with Great Britain over how the colonies should be governed. Then, the colonists had to decide to take up weapons and fight the British for independence. These are but a few of the events that led up to the birth of our country. Some are more significant than others because they had a direct impact on the birth of our country. Others had more of an indirect influence. Another way to think of it is this way. Let s say two cars get into a wreck, but fortunately no one is injured. A series of events had to happen in order for this to take place. First, both drivers of the vehicles probably had to be born, grow up, and learn to drive. Next, they probably had to have reasons to be driving. The reasons could include getting to a job, to get to the store, or, to visit a relative. This means that other events had to happen to cause the drivers to be driving in the first place. Maybe on the day of the accident, one driver was on his way to the store but decided to take some cough medicine at home before leaving. The cough medicine made him drowsy and he fell asleep at the wheel thus causing him to crash into the other motorist. The reason he took the cough medicine was because he got the flu from somebody at work. All of these actions leading up to the accident had significance. However, the most significant action causing the accident was when the driver took cough medicine. The fact that the driver got sick at work holds some significance, but it did not directly cause the driver to fall asleep at the wheel and then crash. Instead, the medicine did. Let s practice below. Below is a main event that happened. Below that is a series of occurrences that led up to the event. Try and put them in order of significance. Main Event On April 14, 1865 President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at the Ford Theatre in Washington D.C. Occurences 1. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln ran for President 2. In 1809 Abraham Lincoln was born. 3. On April 14 th, 1865 John Wilkes Booth conspired to murder Abraham Lincoln due to the President s war against the southern States. 4. In 1861 the American Civil War started. Correct order of events 2. Abraham Lincoln had to be born in order for anything to happen. However, his being born did not directly cause him to be assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. 1. The fact that he was president meant that Abraham Lincoln was in a position of power that often put him at odds with many people, some of whom wanted to kill him. So, this holds some significance. 4. Abraham Lincoln was president during the Civil War and many southerners did not like him due to the fact that he supported the North against the South. Therefore, this is more significant to his assassination. 3. John Wilkes Booth s conspiracy to murder the president and his hatred of Lincoln directly led to Lincoln being shot at the Ford Theater. Therefore, this is the most significant occurrence that caused his assassination 26

27 Directions: Below is a Main Statement about an event in history. You must place the following supporting events in order of significance starting with the least significant event at the top. Remember to ask yourself which event most likely had a direct impact on our main event and which event had the least direct impact. 1. From 1660 to 1680, Carolina colonists destroy Spanish missions all along the Southeast coast. 2. English colonists settle Carolina in 1670 and the colony expands over the next several decades. 3. In the early 1560s, the French established two settlements on the Southeast coast. 4. In the late 1400s and throughout the 1500s, Europeans began to venture out from Europe to find new lands with valuable raw materials. 5. In the 1720s, the British colonists from South Carolina build Fort King George in order to keep the French and Spanish out of the area and to claim the Altamaha River. 6. From 1660 to 1680, Carolina colonists destroy Spanish missions all along the modern Georgia Coast. Least Significant Event In the late 1400s and throughout the 1500s, Europeans began to venture out from Europe to find new lands with valuable raw materials. 1 In the early 1560s, the French established two settlements on the Southeast coast, Charlesfort and Fort Caroline. 2 In 1565 Pedro de Menendez brought Spanish troops to the Southeast coast and established Saint Augustine, Florida. 3 English colonists settle Carolina in 1670, and the colony expands over the next several decades. 4 From 1660 to 1680, Carolina colonists destroy Spanish Missions all along the Southeast coast. 5 Most Significant Event In the 1720s, the British colonists from South Carolina build Fort King George in order to keep the French and Spanish out of the area and to claim the Altamaha River. 6 Main Statement The colony of Georgia was established due to the contest among the British, Spanish, and French to establish an empire in the Southeast. 27

28 Teacher Notes 1.Explain to the students that this is important but it does not directly relate to our main statement. Instead, it initiates trends in history that results in a chain of events that ultimately created circumstances indicated in our main statement. 2. Explain to the students that we re getting more significant here because the French are starting to show a presence on The Debatable Land. However, it is not a very powerful or permanent one. 3. Explain to the students that we re getting more significance here due to the fact that this is the first permanent European settlement on North American soil. Also, make sure that they understand that the Spanish used Saint Augustine to help them spread Spanish missions all over the Southeast, especially along the coast. 4. Explain that this is very significant due to the fact that the British establish a permanent settlement in the area and it s extremely successful. Tell them that the Spanish viewed the settlement of Carolina as an encroachment upon lands that they had already settled and, thus, held a rightful claim to. The settlement of Carolina intensified hostilities between the Spanish and the English over The Debatable Land. 5. Explain that this was an intense act of aggression committed by the Carolina colonists. The action fueled tensions between the Spanish and the British and left a vacant area of settlement between the British in Carolina and the Spanish in St. Augustine. This area became known as The Debatable Land. 6. Explain that this ultimate action by the British was to establish a military fortification, or buffer zone, between Spanish Florida and British Carolina. This legacy established by Fort King George was the same concept that Oglethorpe aimed to implement with the establishment of Georgia. Fort King George caused great diplomatic feuding between Spain and Britain and inspired the British to establish the colony of Georgia. Therefore, it is the most significant event leading up to our main statement.. 28

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