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1 TErrestrial Trunked RAdio - TETRA

2 Peter Stavroulakis TErrestrial Trunked RAdio - TETRA A Global Security Tool With 124 Figures and 22 Tables 123

3 E d itor Prof. Peter Stavroulakis Technical University C rete Aghiou Markou C hania, C rete Greece pete_ Library of Congress Control Number: ISBN Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springer.com Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Typesetting: by the editors Production: Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd., India Cover design: wmxdesign GmbH, Heidelberg Printed on acid-free paper 42/ 3100/Integra

4 Dedication This book is dedicated in memory of my sister Mary whose affection, support and guidance during the early years of my University studies affected my career in a fundamental way.

5 Acknowledgements I feel indebted to the contributors of this book whose diligent work and unique contributions made this book possible. Special thanks are due to my collaborator Anastasios M. Haddad who spent countless hours to put the material in the format required by the publisher.

6 Preface Following the development of wireless communications starting from satellites in the late 60 s to the wireless cellular in the 80 s and now the Private Mobile Radio (PMR) systems, it is obvious that each time every new technology achieved a good technical solution satisfying a special need at an acceptable price until another need would come up that needed special consideration. Of course the technology evolves at a different pace at different time periods through the centuries but one thing has to be true. Special needs always existed, but remained unsatisfied until technology could be used to offer an acceptable solution at a reasonable price. The last, at least five years, the public safety issue, became of major importance. Many types of Public/Private Mobile systems have appeared as we show in chapters 2 and 3, which seemed to satisfy the need at that time. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), foresaw that Terrestrial Trunking Radio - TETRA systems are good candidates to satisfy this need even on an international level. With the encouragement and support of the TETRA MOU, standards were in a continuous evolution and TETRA has become the tool to design any type of public security system. In this book we show the TETRA can be improved greatly and these improvements eventually will be part of future standards. The areas examined include channel assignment and multiple access techniques, video transmission, WLAN integration and the establishment of multiple wireless mesh networks. Since the requirements for these networks is security we show that innovative techniques such as those based on chaotic signals can be used to maximize security. It is believed that this book will become a reference point for many new researchers whose ambition is to find a general solution to the modern problems within the context of public safety.

7 List of Contributors Peter Stavroulakis Technical University of Crete Crete, Greece Stavros Kotsopoulos Wireless Telecommunication Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Patras, Patras, Greece Dr Konstantinos Ioannou Wireless Telecommunication Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Patras, Patras, Greece Dr John Panoutsopoulos, Michail Tsagkaropoulos Wireless Telecommunication Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Patras, Patras, Greece Ilias Politis Wireless Telecommunication Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Patras, Patras, Greece

8 X II List of Contributors Apostolis Salkitzis Motorola, 32 Kiffisias Ave., Athens, Greece Dimitris Axiotis Telecommunications Laboratory School of Electrical and Computer Engineering National Technical University of Athens Pau Plans, Carles Gomez, Josep Lluis Ferrer and Josep Paradells Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Wireless Networks Group (WNG)

9 Table of Contents 1 Introduction Why TETRA...1 References Modern Security Requirements in Private Mobile Communications Systems Introduction PMR Systems [1] PMR Configurations Comparison Between PMR and Cellular [2] PMR Standards [1] PMR Limitations [4] Edge of Coverage Voice Quality Requirements of PMR Services Interoperability [6]...37 References TETRA Providing an Acceptable Security System Solution Introduction Hierarchical analysis Air interface specifications GSM ASCI Enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption service (emlpp) Voice Group Call Service (VGCS) Voice Broadcast Service (VBS) TETRA Comparison of specified features Technical analysis...49 References Channel Assignment and Multiple Access in Trunking Radio Systems [1] Channel Assignment Techniques [1] Introduction Channel Allocation Schemes...68

10 X IV Table of Contents 4.2 Channel Assignment Optimization Introduction Model Formulation One Layer Architecture using Erlang Model Channel Assignment Scheme based on a Three Layer Architecture Comparison of One layer with Three Layer Architecture Multiple Access Techniques CDMA Techniques in TETRA systems References Video Transmission over TETRA Introduction Evolution of Public Safety Mobile Networks Evolving Data services for public safety The TETRA solution to PSDR communication environment The Market Considerations TETRA Enhanced Data Service-TEDS Overview of DATA Transmission over TETRA TETRA (V+D) Technical Characteristics TETRA Network Services High Speed Data service provisioning Video Encoding Techniques Background Compression standards overview Encrypted Video over TETRA Performance Analysis of video broadcasting over TETRA Performance Evaluation Video Quality Measurements Vision for Future Public Safety Communication Systems Future Trends All-IP convergence TETRA TEDS interoperability TETRA over IP Integrated TETRA-WLAN system Conclusions References...188

11 Table of Contents X V 6 TETRA as a Gateway to Other Wireless Systems Introduction TETRA Air Interface: Logical and Physical Channels Logical Channels Physical channels TETRA Packet Data Transmission Packet Data transmission and reception procedures TETRA IP user authentication SNDCP states and state transitions UDP versus TCP on top of TETRA IP layer TETRA Packet Data modems Types of Packet-data Mobile Stations TETRA and WLAN Integration for Improving Packet-Data Transmission Capabilities Integrated WLAN/TETRA System Overview System Architecture Architecture Elements and Interfaces Protocol Architecture Packet Structure WLAN Association and TETRA Location Update Procedure Group Call Initiation and Participation Conclusions References TETRA as a Building block to WMNs Introduction Requirements Discussion Wireless Mesh Networks Definition and classification of WMNs MANET routing protocols Influence of routing protocols on network performance Multicast in WMNs TETRA DMO DMO overview TETRA Release

12 X VI Table of Contents 7.5 TETRA extensions for building WMNs Routing capabilities Wireless Interface Overview of network performance figures Conclusion References Appendix...299

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