Biomass in Poland: current state and main usage directions in the future

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1 Jacek Dach, Krzysztof Pilarski Institute of Agricultural Engineering Poznań University of Life Sciences Biomass in Poland: current state and main usage directions in the future International Workshop Towards a North-Eastern European Biomass Agenda August 2012 Riga, Latvia

2 Some facts about Poland - Big biomass producer with surface of 312,685 km 2 where agricultural and forests areas dominate

3 Some facts about Poland - 92% of electric energy is produced from black and brown coal it is over 100 Mt of coal (57 black and 47 brown) Reduction of CO 2 emission in case of Poland is a very serious problem

4 Some facts about Poland - National and European obligation for Poland before 2020: i) 15% of reduction of CO 2 emission ii) 15% of energy produced from renewable energy sources (RES) iii) achievement of 10% share of biofuels in the market of transport fuel. but: - Relatively bad geographical conditions for investment in hydro- and wind power In consequence: Biomass used as reneveable energy source seems to be one of the main factor which helps to reach Polish obligatins at 2020

5 Some facts about Poland - The real potential of biomass at the level of 15% green energy produced in Poland: 70-80% - 15% obligation of renewable energy share up to 2020 means yearly demand for biomass at the level of t - 20% obligation of renewable energy share up to 2030 means yearly demand for biomass at the level of t

6 Some facts about Poland - Renevable energy production is currently supported by the green certificates 46 Euro/MWh price of black energy 62 Euro/MWh green certificate - Green certificates are given actually for all installations working with RES (wind, water, sun energy and biomass) - This leads Polish economy to very bad economic situation (i.e. huge problems in the furniture and construction industry)

7 Support system with the project of law about RES - Introduction of coefficient for green certificates - In the future no green certificates for biomass co-burned with coals (from 2020) biomass burning biogas Co-burning with coal

8 Availability of biomass in Poland - Officially existing energetic biomass resources in Poland have been estimated at about 30 million tons per year - 9 Mt - wood and wood waste from the forests and orchards - 8 Mt - cereals straw - 6 Mt - various types of biowaste - and other biomaterials (usually not often used) Deficit of good quality biomass for briquets and pellets production. Research on new sources of biomass, i.e. - Maize straw (over 5 Mt, good substrate for biogas) - Micro and macro algae

9 Availability of biomass in Poland but in fact: The biggest mass of biomaterial available in Poland are animal feaces: - 80 Mt of manure - 20 Mt of slurry However, these materials are usually not taken into account as the renewable energy sources and treated rather as problematic, agricultural waste.

10 High animal production strong negativ impact on the environment and social wellness Future legislation like anti-odor law and GHG taxation (especially methan) can strongly affect Polish agronomy

11 Animal production: methane 230 dm 3 CH 4 daily per cow Most important problem: How to modify a cow diet in order to reduce the methane production from animal stomaches without an increase of fourage price? Scientific project: Technologies of methane emission reduction from animal production and manure management in the context of GHG taxation

12 Manure storage - Traditional manure management In Poland dominates the traditional manure management. This technology produces significant CH 4 and NH 3 emissions. Data: 80 Mt of manure = 2,5 Mt of CH 4 = 52 Mt of CO 2 eq (over 25% of CO 2 quota)

13 Technologies for biowaste management are strongly and quickly recomended: Biogas production Poland is launching one of the world's largest program of construction nearly 2,500 large biogas plants (power 1-3 MWe), supported by several thousands number of small biogas plants ( kw).

14 Future trends for biomass usage in Poland: - Strong increase of biomass used for specialised installations (biogas, other biofuels) - Reduction of co-combustion with the coal in big scale installation - Development of the installation for only biomass burning (mainly in the form of briquets or pellets) - Higher usage of biowaste for energy production - Necessity for introduction of new technologies (anaerobic digestion, composting, pyrolisis etc.) which will decrease the negativ impact of biowaste on the environment - Research on new sources of cheap biomass (i.e. maize straw, algae etc)

15 Thank you for your attention Dr. Jacek Dach

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