1 LANDSCAPE MYTH BUSTER Tony Glover Regional Extension Agent Alabama Cooperative Extension System
2 DOG DIAGNOSIS
3 LANDSCAPE TREE FACTS Trees growing in commercial settings live an average of 13 years Trees in residential areas average 37 years Trees in rural, undisturbed sites average 150 years Why????? Quercus nigra The Water Oak is a relatively shortlived tree.
4 URBAN SITES AND HOME LANDSCAPES Improper planting Over-pruning and poor pruning Improper fertilization Compacted soils No or little topsoil Limited space for roots Improper staking Mechanical injuries Construction issues Pedestrian and vehicle abuse Adding/Removing soil
5 IMPROPER PLANTING IS THE NUMBER ONE PROBLEM When transplanting trees or shrubs into landscapes, you should always amend the backfill soil with organic matter. True or False
6 FALSE: Use native soils for backfill without amendment (any idea why?) In poorly drained soils water moves in but does not move out Roots are slow to move into native soil if the amended soil provides a better environment for growth
7 HOW SHOULD WE PLANT? In extreme cases, add topsoil to the entire area Dig hole at least twice as wide and the same depth or less than the root ball Loosen soil several feet out from plant
8 COMPACTED SOILS If you have a clay soil, add sand to improve its texture and it s ability to drain properly True or False
9 FALSE: Adding small amounts of sand actually compacts soil further To significantly alter a clay soil, sand must be incorporated to 50% or more of the total soil volume not very practical Clay soils are not inherently bad, but can be problematic if they lack good structure So what can you do? Continued Next Slide
10 Many problems associated with clay soils (poor aeration, drainage, etc.) can be alleviated through good management practices (drain tiles, organic matter, added topsoil,etc) Remember that added topsoil or organic matter should not be added to individual holes but to entire beds or planting areas. Proper plant selection can reduce problems associated with heavy clay soils because some plants adapt well to heavy clay soils (wet site plants)
11 WHEN PLANTING A CONTAINER GROWN PLANT YOU SHOULDN T DISTURB THE ROOTBALL. TRUE OR FALSE
12 False: *Plants often need corrective root pruning before transplanting *Containerized plants are notorious for concealing fatal root flaws Continued next slide
13 Some root pruning at transplant time may be the best option. However: Spreading the roots out laterally is usually a better option
14 ROOTS EMERGING FROM A CUT ROOT The white roots are the new ones that are growing in response to the cutting; they are just one week old
15 CIRCLING ROOTS : If not pot bound a few circling roots don t cause a problem but spread roots out and remove most of the bark for best growth. If they won t straiten cut them
16 POOR ROOT SYSTEM Circling root 3 years after planting a 1 gal. liner It was much smaller 3 years earlier and should have been cut then The 1 gal. plant was also planted too deep (at arrow point)
17 DEFECTS CAN BE HIDDEN INSIDE ROOT BALL Be sure to look for roots that circle when trees were in a smaller container These are difficult to cut because they are hidden in the interior of the ball.
18 EVEN LARGE TREES CAN SHOW DAMAGE This is what can happen to trees if corrections are not made at planting time
19 MANY ROOTS INSIDE BUT FEW ON THE EDGE OF ROOT BALL INDICATE QUALITY The media has been partially removed on this 15 gal. container red maple to expose the roots This high quality root ball has many small diameter roots There were few circling roots on the outside edge of the root ball
20 LEAVING BURLAP AROUND PLANT IS ALRIGHT? TRUE OR FALSE
21 FALSE: DO YOU THINK THIS CAN CAUSE A PROBLEM? HOW?
22 SYNTHETIC BURLAP CAN GIRDLE ROOTS Roots grow through artificial burlap with little difficulty, but as the roots attempt to expand in diameter, they become girdled or strangled. Each of these roots is very easy to break off at the burlap because there is very little wood that developed through the burlap.
23 OK I WILL REMOVE THE BURLAP BUT I SHOULD BE CAREFUL AND NOT DISTURB THE SOIL TRUE OR FALSE
24 FALSE: They often contain soil significantly different than that of the transplant site. Differences in soil texture will impede both water movement and root establishment. Root defects can only be found and corrected if root ball soil is examined and most soil is removed. Continued next slide
25 Continued Removing the heavy clay will make the plant lighter and easier to handle Sometimes plants are bagged too high and finding the top most root helps determine proper planting depth (this point is critical). Some burlap is synthetic and will not rot Recent research suggest removing all the soil by washing it off leads to greater success when transplanting smaller diameter trees or shrubs.
26 Photo by: Jim Flott, Spokane Urban Forester ROOT WASHING B&B PLANT This was the soil line of the rootball
27 WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE? This leads to this
28 TREES REQUIRE DEEP ROOT FERTILIZATION TO REACH THEIR ROOT SYSTEM. TRUE OR FALSE
29 FALSE In most soils the vast majority of the trees nutrient absorbing roots are in the top12 or less. Placing fertilizer below this level is both wasteful and potentially harmful to the ground water. Slow release fertilizer on the surface or possibly just below grass roots (4 depth) is best (no grass under trees is even better).
30 LEAF WILT IS THE BEST INDICATOR OF INSUFFICIENT SOIL MOISTURE. TRUE OR FALSE
31 NOT ALWAYS: Symptoms are the same for too wet and too dry Be sure to assess soil conditions before irrigating wilted plants If soil is chronically wet, consider installing a French drain or other passive means of drainage Alternatively, select trees and shrubs adapted to wet conditions
32 WHEN A TREE HAS LOST A LOT OF ITS ROOT SYSTEM (SUCH AS IN CONSTRUCTION DAMAGE) THE TOP SHOULD BE CUT BACK TO COMPENSATE FOR THE ROOT LOSS. TRUE OR FALSE
33 False Following root loss, unpruned trees seem to respond better than pruned trees The tree may lose some branches naturally let the tree decide and remove these branches before they are dangerous.
34 SOIL MOVEMENT CAN KILL TREES Changing the soil grade by as little as 2-6 inches can seriously damage a tree When building, remove a tree that cannot be adequately protected and plant younger, healthy trees
35 THIS TREE IS DYING FAST WHY? Do you see any clues in these photos?
36 THE ROOT FLAIR WAS TWO FEET DOWN
37 BUT WHAT ABOUT NEWLY PLANTED TREES? Transplanted trees and shrubs should have their crowns (tops) pruned to compensate for lost roots. True or False
38 FALSE: There is no need to top-prune landscape plants. Only prune to remove broken, dead, or diseased branches. When pruning these branches, use thinning rather than heading cuts to preserve tree structure. For structural correction wait one year to prune if possible. Continued next slide
39 Avoid stress by proper post-transplant irrigation not by pruning! Avoid stress by post-transplant irrigation not by pruning! (worth repeating)
40 REMOVING THE ENTIRE BRANCH ON RIGHT IS AN EXAMPLE OF A THINNING CUT
41 EXAMPLE OF A HEADING CUT Removing a branch anywhere other than a point of origin
42 HOW TO WATER A NEW TREE OR SHRUB Newly planted trees and shrubs should be watered deeply but infrequently rather than shallowly and frequently True or False
43 FALSE: FREQUENCY IS MORE CRITICAL THAN VOLUME? The key part of the question was newly planted! Experiment done on 4-inch hardenedoff B&B trees where 1.5, 3, or 5 gallons of water were applied per inch trunk caliper. Results show that volume did not matter but frequency did.
44 Adjust based on rainfall, soil drainage and time of year planted FREQUENCY OF IRRIGATION BASED ON TREE SIZE WHEN PLANTED IN SPRING Size of nursery stock Irrigation schedule for vigor Irrigation schedule for survival < 2 inch caliper Daily: 2 weeks 2 4 inch caliper Daily: 1 month > 4 inch caliper Daily: 6 weeks Every other day: 2 months Weekly: until established Every other day: 3 months Weekly: until established Every other day: 5 months Weekly: until established Twice weekly for 2-3 months Twice weekly for 3 4 months Twice weekly for 4 5 months
45 YOU SHOULD ALWAYS CHOOSE NATIVE PLANTS FOR DROUGHT AND PEST TOLERANCE. TRUE OR FALSE
46 FALSE: Native plants are excellent choices for many situations but their specific climactic and soil needs should be considered. Native plants may have good resistance to native pest and no resistance to imported pest (chestnut blight) Many non-native plants and heirloom plants are proven choices for tough urban environments. Right plant Right place is our recommendation.
47 TOPPING TREES IS LIKE A HAIRCUT SOMETIMES IT S NECESSARY AND A TREE CAN ALWAYS GROW OUT OF A BAD ONE: TRUE OR FALSE
48 DO YOU THINK THESE TREES WILL EVER LOOK GOOD AGAIN?
49 BUT IT IS SO PURTY
50 SAME TREES A YEAR LATER As if the pruning was not bad enough they paved over the roots since I took the first picture
51 Tree topping is never a justifiable pruning practice; it decreases tree health and is aesthetically unappealing A topped tree will require may require more maintenance and has an increased potential to become hazardous Continued next slide
52 Certified arborists and other legitimate landscape professionals do not practice tree topping If problems caused by a tree cannot be solved through acceptable management practices, the tree should be removed and replaced with plant material more appropriate for the site
53 THE ROOT SYSTEM OF A TREE IS A MIRROR IMAGE OF THE TOP. TRUE OR FALSE
54 ONLY IF YOUR TREE HAS BLOWN OVER Tap roots are very uncommon in mature trees. Almost the entire root systems of most trees can be found within three feet of soil and most water and nutrient absorbing roots are in the upper 12 Spread of root system often extends two to three times the width of the crown.
55 MULCH IS VERY BENEFICIAL AND YOU CAN T USE TOO MUCH TRUE OR FALSE
56 YES AND NO Mulch is good in moderation (2-3 inches) Do not put mulch against plant stem Don t add very much mulch directly over the root ball of a newly set plant Do not add more mulch each year unless old mulch has decayed or been removed Never add mulch on top of landscape fabric without removing old mulch
57 ROOTS ON TOP OF FABRIC IN MULCH Mulch was continually added on top of landscape fabric and roots grew mostly in the mulch layer
58 WHY DO MANY MYTHS PERSIST? Lack of research to refute the myth Applying proper cultural techniques is too hard/too expensive, etc. Let someone worry about it later attitude. Money to be made by perpetuating the myth (think tree topping) General ignorance of current research
60 SOURCES USED Edward F. Gilman, Professor, University of Florida Horticulture Myths from Dr. Linda Chalker- Scott International Society of Arboriculture
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