Amelia Kinter Ryan Sterling Jillian Waid Xiaozhu Zhou PRA AND DISASTER RELIEF

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1 Amelia Kinter Ryan Sterling Jillian Waid Xiaozhu Zhou PRA AND DISASTER RELIEF

2 AGENDA Introductory Video Disaster Definitions History of Natural Disasters Current Statistics of Natural Disaster PRA and Natural Disasters Stages of Disasters Group Activity Question and Answer

3 TYPES OF DISASTERS Natural Disasters and 2007 Events Biological: Epidemics, Insect Infestations, Animal Attacks Geophysical: Earthquakes (20), Volcanic (6), Dry Mass Movements (0) Climatological: Droughts (11), Extreme Temperatures (25), Wildfires (18) Hydrological: Flood (219), Wet Mass Movements (10) Meteorological: Storms (64 Tropical Cyclone Disasters) Man-Made Disasters War, Famine, Poverty, Technological Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2007

4 NATURAL DISASTERS All disasters with the exception of earthquakes provide some sort of prior warning The 2005 Tsunami could not be predicted because it was triggered by a earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter Scale which created the massive wave There may not be a lot of warning, but certain areas are more susceptible to particular types of disasters E.G.: In the US, the Midwest is susceptible to tornados, the South and East coast are susceptible to hurricanes, California is susceptible to earthquakes The average annual costs of natural disasters worldwide is $88 billion (U.S.)

5 HISTORY OF NATURAL DISASTERS Natural Disasters have been occurring since the beginning of time Communities built their lives around the natural disasters As the world has become more developed, people became less transient and no longer lived their lives around disastrous events As the population grew, development has occurred in areas that are more susceptible to particular events. People increasingly do not live in housing that takes into account the threat of disaster. Quarantelli, E.L. (1990). The warning process and evacuation behavior: The research evidence. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center, Preliminary Paper #148, 1-12.

6 2007 GLOBAL NATURAL DISASTER STATISTICS 414 Reported Disasters 16,847 people killed 211 million people affected $74.9 Billion (U.S.) in economic damages Increase in disaster trends caused by hydrometeorological disasters (floods, storms) The U.S. experienced 23 natural disasters in 2007, the most worldwide China and India experienced 20 tying them for 2 nd place for most number of disasters in 2007 Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2007

7 2007 NATURAL DISASTER REGIONAL STATISTICS Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Occurrence Average # of Victims ,598,158 8,940, ,563,162 1,642, ,855 Average ,056,460 5,172, ,771,858 1,055,515 43,355 Damages 2007 USD $755,341 $17,617,126 $34,245,932 $20,529,206 $1,837,652 Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2007 Average $1,297,221 $45,809,019 $29,307,371 $13,053,541 $924,357

8 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PARADIGM SHIFT Top-down interventionist approach Disasters are treated as isolated event; Responded by government and relief agencies Contingency planning approach Preparedness measures Technology approach Driven by outside experts Geophysical and engineering knowledge Recognition of vulnerability Vulnerability analysis as a tool of risk management Community-based risk management approach Hazard assessment Vulnerability analysis Capacity building

9 Community Involvement External Support Risk Assessments CURRENT PRA PRACTICES AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT Allows the community to be involved in assessment and planning for future disasters Outside developers will enter with their knowledge and resources and can meet with the community to discuss the best methods to use those resources Identify potential hazards and create hazard and resource maps. Identify and rank susceptible disasters Community-Based Disaster Risk Assessment, 2004

10 STAGES OF DISASTER

11 STAGES OF DISASTER Stage 1 Mitigation and Preparedness Preparing for future events Stage 2 Staging/Event Preparing for an intended event Stage 3 Relief Immediate support such as food, clothing, shelter, and health care Stage 4 Recovery Rebuilding physical structures, communities, and health

12 STAGE 1: MITIGATION AND PREPAREDNESS Long-term planning for disasters before they occur: mitigation and preparedness Mitigation: attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters, or to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur Identification of risk Structural (flood levees, etc.) or non-structural (legislation; land-use planning) Preparedness: pre-developed plan of action for when disasters occur; measures often include: Creation of community-based response teams/organizations Communication planning Creation/exercise of emergency warning systems; emergency shelters; evacuation planning Stockpiling and maintenance of supplies and equipment The building up of local capacities and institutions so they are better equipped to prevent and/or respond to disasters

13 STAGE 1: MITIGATION AND PREPAREDNESS AND PRA TECHNIQUES Community-based disaster preparedness/risk management (CBDRM) Fundamental Tenets: Focus on community empowerment and capacity building for the purpose of vulnerability reduction Building upon pre-existing capacities and institutions Focus on long-term preparedness; sustainability General Steps: Select a community Rapport building and understanding the community Participatory risk assessment Participatory risk management planning Building and training of community-based disaster risk organization Community-led implementation Participatory monitoring and evaluation Stakeholders: Insiders: community and community organizations Outsiders: government agencies; NGOs; private sector Examples of use

14 CBDRM: STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS Strengths: Building on existing knowledge, experience, resources, and capacities of local communities (capacity building) Mobilization of local people (empowerment longterm planning) Dissemination of information and training Raising awareness of risk and vulnerability (empowerment) Weaknesses: Potential exclusion of society s most vulnerable minorities from the decision-making process (reinforce the already powerful voices of local interests) Over emphasis on local physical hazards and not enough on their root causes

15 STAGE 2: STAGING/EVENT When a predictable disaster is sited agencies will begin the staging process Individuals will be evacuated to safer structures - Shelters Continual updates of events are provided to evacuees during the event Evacuees will begin planning for their return

16 STAGE 2: STAGING/EVENT AND PRA TECHNIQUES Staging and the event are the products of PRA in the Mitigation and Preparedness stage Knowing where shelters are, having a community aware of the resources available. Having food resources delivered Aware of what agencies are prepared to provide aid Event As the community gathers in the shelters, PRA Facilitators can gather current resource availability through resource mapping PRA planning can be evaluated when there is more information about the individuals and upto-date information about the destruction Individuals can be briefed on the implementation process

17 STAGE 3: RESPONSE Immediate and short-term mobilization of resources to protect life and properties Period: from immediate aftermath up to 6 mouths Primary aims: rescue from immediate danger and stabilization of the physical and emotional condition of survivors; the restoration of essential services such as water and power Tasks: Search and rescue Debris removal Lifeline service reestablishment Medical care Mass shelter and sustenance Evacuation management Differential outreach and response with vulnerable groups Services such as water and power Preparation for long-term recovery: Assessment in emergencies

18 STAGE 3: RESPONSE AND PRA TECHNIQUES Types of assessment: - Rapid assessment (one week or less) - Detailed assessment (about one month) - Continual assessment (throughout the operational period) Assessment of priority sectors: relief, health, livelihoods, water and sanitation, food and nutrition, safety and security, shelter The assessment process: - Preparation for assessment Field visit analysis Participatory tools: - Daily calendar - Historical timeline - Village Mapping - Proportional piling - Seasonal calendar - Pair-wise ranking - Stakeholder analysis - Why-why tree - Capacity of people s organizations

19 STAGE 4: RECOVERY REBUILDING A COMMUNITY AFTER A DISASTER A few weeks to many years after a disaster Important to consider mitigation as one rebuilds An important window of opportunity: People are willing to make changes and prevent repeated disasters Short Term Clean-up Assessment Medium Term Planning which includes Re-zoning Reconstruction Private: Housing and Commercial Public: Facilities (Hospitals, schools, etc.) Resettlement of the displaced Social Support including mental Health Care Cash and in-kind support Long Term: Returning to the new-normal Continued Social Support Restarting community processes (schools, businesses, etc.)

20 STAGE 4: RECOVERY AND PRA TECHNIQUES Assessment Planning and Design Project Development Project Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Specific Issues: How funds should be invested Selecting beneficiaries Prioritizing geographic areas Selecting priorities How to rebuild Where to rebuild infrastructure Type of housing desired Methods used Community involvement Who can contribute What can be contributed Mediating Disputes Preventing future disasters

21 STAGE 4: AN EXAMPLE OF A PARTICIPATORY RECOVERY

22 GROUP ACTIVITY: CASE STUDY The Class will divide into the 4 assigned groups Each group will be given a certain stage to discuss how to apply PRA to that situation We will present each stage Final Discussion

23

24 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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