Fátima Gonçalves, Cristina Carlos, Susana Sousa, Márcio Nóbrega, José C. Franco, José Manso, António Pinto, Laura Torres

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1 The use of pheromone traps to monitoring the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus and its main parasitoid, Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci Fátima Gonçalves, Cristina Carlos, Susana Sousa, Márcio Nóbrega, José C. Franco, José Manso, António Pinto, Laura Torres

2 Introduction - Vine decay - directly due to its feeding activity - indirectly due to the honeydew contamination of leaves and grape clusters and development of sooty mold - Transmission of Grapevine Leafroll Viruses Vine mealybug (VMB) Planococcus ficus

3 Biology Usually it overwinters in trunk (under the bark ) It can be also go on vine roots and weeds During spring and early summer, mealybugs move to shoots, leaves and clusters

4 The development of VMB is extremelly dependent on temperature - During the summer, P. ficus can complete its life cycle in 3 to 4 weeks, causing a rapid development of populations Eggs Scrawler (L1) Pré-pupae Adult female Male

5 Why VMB are becoming a problem in Douro Valley?. Changes in cultural practices, insecticides, natural enemies, weather. Some vineyards are located in favourable micro-climatic conditions (near the river, slopes, different sun expositions). Presence of other host plants of the pest on the edges of vineyards (ex. Malus domestica, Cydonia oblonga, Salix spp.)

6 3 sub-regions in Douro Demarcated Region (DDR) Lower Corgo ha ( Ha vineyards) Upper Corgo Ha ( ha vineyards) Murça Upper Douro ha ( Ha vineyards) RDD - Sub Regions Baixo Corgo Cima Corgo Douro Superior Vineyard spot* Vila Real Sabrosa Alijó C. Ansiães Vila Flor Main rivers Locations Porto direction M. Frio S. M. Penaguião P. Régua S. J. Pesqueira T. Moncorvo Spain direction Lamego Armamar Tabuaço V. N. Foz-Côa F. E. Cinta Km Mêda Area Demarcated Douro Region Ha Surface with Vineyards Ha (18%) Fonte: CAOP, Carta Land Corine Cover, 2000, Atlas do Ambiente Digital, PIOT ADV, 2001 Surface / grower : 1,3 Ha

7 Introduction source: WorldClim Database (Hijmans et al. 2005) in Jones, 2012

8 Introduction source: WorldClim Database (Hijmans et al. 2005) in Jones, 2012 Mean temperature (ºC) during growing season for a serie of 30 years ( ) Baixo Corgo Douro Superior Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept 14,9 17,3 20,8 23,2 23,2 20,7 16,5 19, ,4 26,5 22,8

9 Objectives 1) Monitoring of flight curve of P. ficus males using pheromone traps baited with the synthetic female sex pheromone ((S)-lavandulyl senecioate). P. ficus male 2) Study of the kairomonal attraction of the females of Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci (the main parasitoid of P. ficus) to the same pheromone traps and pheromone Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci

10 Material & Methods Experiment locations Baixo Corgo (Lower Corgo) Cima Corgo (Upper Corgo) Murça Douro Superior (Upper Douro) RDD - Sub Regions Baixo Corgo Cima Corgo Douro Superior Vineyard spot* Vila Real Sabrosa Alijó C. Ansiães Vila Flor Main rivers Locations Porto direction M. Frio S. M. Penaguião P. Régua S. J. Pesqueira T. Moncorvo Spain direction Lamego Armamar Tabuaço V. N. Foz-Côa F. E. Cinta Km Mêda Fonte: CAOP, Carta Land Corine Cover, 2000, Atlas do Ambiente Digital, PIOT ADV, 2001

11 Quinta do Vallado (Baixo Corgo) Material and methods. Vineyard with 1,32 Ha, 17 years old, located near two rivers (Douro and Corgo). Touriga Franca variety. Long history of infestation. In the harvest of 2012, 40% of bunches were infested (even after an insecticide treatment). In January of 2013, 24% of vines were infested.. Very vigorous vines

12 Quinta do Arnozelo, Douro Superior Material and methods. Vineyard with 1,73 Ha, 13 years old, located near the Douro river.. Touriga Franca variety. In the harvest of 2012, 16% of bunches were infested. In December of 2012, 36% of vines were infested.. Little vigorous vines

13 Material and methods Traps were installed: - in 21 st March in Quinta do Vallado - in 11 th April in Quinta do Arnozelo Traps were checked weekly (data presented in captures / day)

14 Results and discussion Quinta do Vallado Insecticide treatment Harvest Quinta do Arnozelo Harvest 1 st capture 1 st capture. The first capture of P. ficus occurred in mid-may (Vallado: 16/05, Arnozelo: 10/05). The number of captures per trap were higher in Vallado than in Arnozelo. In Vallado, it was found three evident peaks that, though the overlapping of generations, could each one, to correspond to a peak of one generation

15 Parasitoid, Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci Quinta do Vallado Insecticide treatment Harvest Quinta do Arnozelo Harvest. The first captures of A. sp. nr. pseudococci females in the pheromone traps occurred at the end of April in Arnozelo and in mid-may in Vallado. The trend of the wasp captures followed a similar pattern to the one observed for P. ficus males

16 Diferences in climate conditions between the two sub-regions under study Accumulated rainfall in Douro Superior, was significantly lower than in Baixo Corgo In Douro Superior the monthly mean temp. and number of days with temp > 35,6ºC (upper threshold ) were higher than in Baixo Corgo

17 Conclusions. In Douro Wine Region, first captures of P. ficus males occurs in late spring (mid-may).. Depending on the sub-region, the insect can develop, apparently, 3 or 4 complete generations, reflected by the peaks recorded by pheromone traps.. VMB was less abundant in the dryer warmer sub-region (Douro Superior). Females of Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci showed a kairomonal attraction to the pheromone, being also captured in the pheromone traps. The next step will be to understand if captures in pheromone traps can be well correlated with P. ficus densities, determined by visual sampling methods.

18 Thank you for your attention

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