1 Understanding Your Carbon Footprint - Quantifying Your Carbon Emissions September 14, 2010 Geoffrey A. Glanders, LPG
2 Presentation Overview Define Carbon Emissions/Greenhouse Gases Identify Key Issues Associated with Carbon Inventories Present A Case Study of a Carbon Inventory of an Industrial Facility Identify Key Issues Associated with New Carbon Reporting Regulation Present A Case Study Determining Applicability of the New Carbon Reporting Rule
3 What are Greenhouse Gases (GHG)? IPCC defines Greenhouse Gases as: Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared radiation emitted by the Earth s surface, the atmosphere itself, and by clouds. The EPA definition of Greenhouse Gases is much simpler: Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere Four Main Types of Greenhouse Gases CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O and Fluorinated Gases
4 Global Warming Potential (GWP) Gases trap radiation at much different efficiencies The ability to trap radiation of each of these gases is referenced back to carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the least efficient, has the shortest atmospheric lifetime, yet is emitted in the largest quantities CH 4 has a GWP of 21 times CO 2 N 2 O has a GWP of 310 times CO 2
5 Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories
6 Who May Wish to Conduct Inventories? Businesses Municipalities Other government agencies Industrial facilities Homeowners Commercial buildings Retail chains
7 Why Conduct Inventories? Current or Pending Regulations Quantify Carbon Risk Business Strategic Planning Sustainability Commitments
8 How to Conduct a GHG Emissions Inventory Establish inventory boundaries (select which gases and from which sources to quantify using baseline information) Identify GHG emission sources Choose GHG emissions calculation approach Accumulate activity data and select emission factors Apply calculation tools Compile and report emissions data
9 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study Portland cement plant annual production 750,000 tons clinker per year Direct point source emissions Cement kiln(s) Fuel oil (No. 2) fired boiler (100 MMBtu/hr)
10 GHG Emission Inventory Boundaries Includes: All point source emissions as part of production process Mobile sources on site Indirect emissions from building electricity usage Does not include: Emissions from vehicles traveling beyond property boundaries
11 GHG Emission Inventory Emissions Calculations Portland cement kilns 750,000 tons/yr clinker x tons CO 2 /ton clinker = 380,325 tons CO2/yr Note: CO 2 emissions are a function of lime content of the clinker. This EF assumes the fraction of lime in the clinker is If lime content is different from 0.646, the EF can be converted as follows: emission factor (tons CO 2 /ton clinker) = x (fraction of lime) / Emission factors for clinker production are from the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Workbook. See:
12 GHG Emission Inventory Emissions Calculations Electricity, natural gas and fuel oil usage 5,000,000 KWhr/yr x MT CO 2 e/kwhr = 3,363 MT CO 2 e/yr 750,000 therm/yr x MT CO 2 e/therm = MT CO 2 e/yr 300,000 gal/yr x MT CO 2 e/gal = 3,072 MT CO 2 e/yr Note: Electricity emission factors from Energy Information Administration at Natural gas and fuel oil emission factors from 40 CFR 98
13 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study Compute as CO 2 equivalents using the conversions shown in the table GHG GW Potential CO 2 1 CH 4 21 N 2 O 310 SF 6 22,200 PFCs 4,800-9,200 HFCs 12-12,000
14 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study GHG Contribution by Source
15 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study Action Items Create internal emission reductions team Production Engineering Facilities Health safety and environmental Marketing Set a reduction target
16 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study Production emissions are the key Clinker production (fuel and raw materials) Fuel modifications (need to be permitted) Supplemental and alternative fuels Carbon neutral biomass (wood, saw dust, etc.) Nylon fiber Sewage sludge
17 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study Considerations Resulting From the Inventory Convert From Fuel Oil to Natural Gas Boiler 100 MMBtu/hr Boiler (40 CFR 98 Emission Factors) 7.42 MT CO2e for No. 2 Fuel Oil 5.31 MT CO2e for Natural Gas Increased Energy Efficiencies for all Systems Optimize heat recovery Clinker cooler upgrades Increased maintenance Raw Material Alternatives (Need to Be Permitted) Slag Fly ash (Geopolymers) Silica fumes Gypsum
18 GHG Emission Inventory Case Study Purchase Carbon Offsets Chicago Climate Exchange European Climate Exchange Carbon Sequestration Agricultural sinks Biomass energy It should be noted that all of these recommendations will improve sustainability equally as much as reducing GHG and most will reduce costs as well
19 Current EPA Reporting Requirements EPA issued the Final Rule for Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) on September 22, 2009 EPA anticipates the rule will capture GHG emissions from large emitters responsible for approximately 85 percent of the GHG emission in the U.S. This rule will apply to approximately 10,000 facilities
20 Who Does the Rule Affect? Fossil fuel and industrial GHG suppliers Motor vehicle and engine manufacturers Any facility and supplier emitting 25,000 metric tons or more of CO 2 equivalent per year Facilities will need to perform the calculation if they have stationary fuel combustion equipment with an aggregate maximum rated heat input capacity greater than or equal to 30 mm BTU/hr
21 Exemptions to the Rule Most small business should be below the 25k metric ton threshold Agricultural sector except manure management systems exceeding 25k metric ton threshold Research and development Activities Manufacturers of vehicles and engines outside of the light-duty sector will begin reporting for the 2011 model year
22 Source & Supply Categories Not Included in the Rule Electronics manufacturing Ethanol production Fluorinated GHG production Food processing Industrial landfills Magnesium production Oil and natural gas systems SF 6 from electrical equipment Underground coal mines Wastewater treatment Suppliers of coals
23 Requirements of the Rule Start collecting and tracking data on January 1 Implement monitoring methods to calculate GHG emissions no later than March 2010 Submit annual report by March 31, 2011 Develop a written GHG monitoring plan Conduct certification and Quality Assurance tests of the monitoring systems Retain all applicable records for 3 years
24 Required Information to Report Annual GHG report must include the following information: Facility or supplier name and address Year and months covered by the report Description of any best available monitoring method used for 2010 Missing data procedures, including data elements and total hours in the year, used to fill gaps in monitoring data
25 Required Information to Report Facilities that directly emit GHGs: Annual facility emissions in metric tons CO 2 e aggregated for all source categories Annual emissions for each source category located at the facility in metric tons of each GHG Additional information, such as unit or process level emissions, activity data or QA/QC data specified in an applicable subpart.
26 Required Information to Report Suppliers: Annual quantity of GHGs supplied, aggregated for all GHGs from all applicable supplier categories and expressed in metric tons of CO 2 e Annual quantity of each GHG supplied from each supplier category, expressed in metric tons of each GHG Additional information specified in each applicable subpart, such as data used to calculate GHG quantities or support QA/QC
27 Next Steps Determine the rule s applicability to your facility Conduct a comprehensive GHG Emission Inventory Implement a GHG Tracking Program on or before January 1, 2010 Document the GHG monitoring plan Maintain records of all applicable information Consider reducing GHG emissions to eliminate your facility s reporting requirements Submit an annual GHG Report to the EPA on or before March 31, 2011
28 Case Study Client Secondary Aluminum smelter (mill) and provides finish and painted coils. Facility produces 3000 series alloy. Raw material used to produce the 3000 series alloy is 100 percent scrap-based.
29 Case Study: Methodology As required by 40 CFR 98, three applicability scenarios must be considered to identify sources required to maintain records of GHG emissions for the EPA. Facility is not one of the primary regulated source categories listed in Per 40 CFR 98.2(a)(1). Facility is not one of the secondary regulated source categories listed in Per 40 CFR 98.2(a)(2). Facility is subject to the general reporting threshold per 40 CFR 98.2(a)(3) and must quantify certain emissions.
30 Case Study: Methodology If a facility has a total combined maximum rated heat input capacity of 30 million British thermal units per hour (mmbtu/hr) or more from all stationary combustion units on site, then calculations must be performed to determine GHG emissions for the facility. Determine maximum rated heat capacity from stationary sources.
31 Case Study Emission Unit Name Emission Unit ID Maximum Rated Heat Input Unit of Measure Capacity Boiler #1 Boiler # mmbtu/hr Boiler #2 Boiler # mmbtu/hr Annealing Furnace #1 Annealing Furnace #1 9 mmbtu/hr Annealing Furnace #2 Annealing Furnace #2 16 mmbtu/hr Annealing Furnace #3 Annealing Furnace #3 16 mmbtu/hr Annealing Furnace #4 Annealing Furnace # mmbtu/hr Annealing Furnace #5 Annealing Furnace # mmbtu/hr Aluminum Reverberatory Furnace Furnace #2 20 mmbtu/hr #2 Aluminum Reverberatory Furnace Furnace #6 20 mmbtu/hr #6 Holding Furnace Holding Furnace #1 10 mmbtu/hr Aluminum Dross-Only Furnace #7 Furnace #7 6.0 mmbtu/hr Dross-Only Rotary Furnace #8 Rotary Furnace #8 7.5 mmbtu/hr Plant-wide Heating Activities Insignificant Activities 14 mmbtu/hr TOTAL mmbtu/hr
32 Case Study: Applicability Client has a total maximum rated heat input capacity of mmbtu/hr site wide; therefore, emission calculations are required to determine applicability. Based upon fuel usage determine which GHG are emitted. After determination calculate CO 2 e.
33 Case Study: GHG Emission Year Emissions - Metric Tons CO 2 Equivalent - Metric Tons CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Total , , , , , , , , ,208.48
34 Case Study: Comparison to Regulatory Threshold Year Reporting Threshold (metric tons CO 2 e) Actual CO 2 e Emitted (metric tons CO 2 e) Percent of Threshold ,000 7, % ,000 20, % ,000 20, %
35 Summary Many Good Reasons to Measure Carbon Footprint Setting Boundary Conditions are the Key Part of Carbon Emission Inventories Must Consider all Aspects (Production, Permitting, Product Quality, Etc.) When Setting Goals for GHG Reductions New Reporting Regulation is in Effect NOW with 2011 Reporting Deadline
36 Questions? Geoffrey A. Glanders President and Principal Hydrogeologist