STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF VASCULAR PLANTS

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1 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF VASCULAR PLANTS

2 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF VASCULAR PLANTS The vascular plant body plan Root system Shoot system Stems Leaves Flowers 2

3 PLANT TISSUES Tissue = collection of similar cells that perform a common specialized function Ground tissue Bulk of the plant body Vascular tissue Conduct water (xylem) and nutrients (phloem) Dermal tissue Cover plant outer surfaces 3

4 Meristems Stem cells that give rise to other plant tissues and direct plant growth Apical meristems Lateral meristems 4

5 Apical Meristems Tips of shoots and roots Growth in length & height (primary growth) Give rise to other tissue layers Ground, vascular, dermal 5

6 Tissue Development Development of meristems Ground meristem Ground tissue Procambium Vascular tissue Protoderm Epidermis 6

7 Lateral Meristems Periphery of shoots and roots Growth in width (secondary growth) Woody plants Vascular cambium Produces secondary vascular tissue Cork cambium Produces bark 7

8 Ground Tissue Tissues forming bulk of plant body Simple tissues 1 type of cell 3 categories of ground tissue 8

9 Ground Tissue Parenchyma Soft moist tissues Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits Function Photosynthesis, food storage, water storage 9

10 Collenchyma Ground Tissue Function Flexible support Elongated cells layered with pectin Holds cellulose fibers Maintains pliability 10

11 Sclerenchyma Ground Tissue Function Strength, protection, support Lines water conducting cells Thick cell walls fortified with lignin Fibers or sclereids Fibers support vascular system E.g., woven rope (Agave) Sclereids: e.g., peach stones, pear grit, coconut shell 11

12 Conducting tissues Vascular Tissue Xylem Transport of water & dissolved minerals Phloem Transport of sugars and other solutes 12

13 Xylem Transports water & dissolved minerals Form continuous pipelines from roots to leaves H 2 O diffuses through pores in walls Mature cells die: provide support 2 types of elements Tracheids Tapered / overlap Vessel members End-end 13

14 Phloem 14 Transport of sugars and other solutes 2 types of elements Sieve tube members Sieve plate Pores (large) between cells Companion cells Assist in sugar loading Sieve cells No companion cells Gymnosperms & seedless vascular plants

15 Dermal Tissue Epidermis 15 Provides protective outer covering over plant surfaces Specialized structures Cuticle Waxy outer covering Stomata Pores (stoma) Trichomes Root hairs Replaced with secondary growth (bark) in woody plants

16 Carniverous plants Dermal Tissue 16

17 SHOOT SYSTEM Stems Dicots Vascular bundles Arranged in ring Large 17

18 Dicot Stem 18

19 Vascular Bundle 19

20 Shoot System Stems Dicots Monocots Vascular bundles Distributed throughout Smaller 20

21 Dicot Monocot Stem 21

22 Shoot System 22 Leaves Structure Node Petiole / sheath Blade Forms Simple Undivided May be lobed Compound Blades divided into leaflets On same plane

23 Leaf Structure 23

24 Root structure ROOT SYSTEM Primary root Lateral roots Root hairs 24

25 Types of roots Root Structure Tap root Fibrous root 25

26 Fibrous Roots & Competition 26

27 Vascularization Root Structure Dicots Vascular cylinder at core of root Surrounded by cortex (parenchyma) 27

28 Dicot Root 28

29 Vascularization Root Structure Dicots Monocots Vascular cylinders in ring Divide ground tissue Pith Cortex 29

30 Monocot Root Dicot 30

31 Growth in width Secondary Growth Occurs in woody plants over multiple seasons Due to cell proliferation at lateral meristems 31

32 Secondary Growth 32

33 Secondary Growth secondary_growth 33

34 Wood Wood & Bark Accumulated secondary xylem Heartwood No longer transporting water Waste storage: resins and gums Darken, strengthen heartwood Sapwood Actively transporting water 34

35 Bark Cork Cork cambium Secondary phloem Wood & Bark 35

36 Wood Growth rings Reflect seasonal activity Temperate regions 1 ring per year Wood & Bark 36

37 Growth Rings Spring xylem (early wood) Lighter / wider Larger diameter xylem Optimum growing season (light, water, temp) Summer xylem (late wood) Darker / narrower Smaller diameter xylem Slower growth (heat/cold, less water) 37

38 Hardwoods vs. Softwoods Hardwood E.g., oak, maple, cherry Higher number of vessel members in xylem Reinforced with collenchyma / sclerenchyma fibers Softwood E.g., pine, fir, hemlock Gymnosperms (conifers) Xylem = tracheids (no vessel members) Lack supportive ground tissue fibers 38

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