ENERGY BALANCE. Heat liberated within the reactor due to reaction = kcal/kmol


 Frank Quinn
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1 ENERGY BALANCE Deulphurzer ere Sulphur n Naphtha made to react wth ydrogen n preence of catalyt to gve ydrogen Sulphde. h reacton take place at a temperature of 63 K + S ydrogen and Naphtha are aumed to be tored at 303 K Specfc eat capacty of naphtha aumed to be /kmol Specfc eat capacty of ydrogen =( ) /kmol K = n d = x10 ence heat requred to rae ther temperature from 303 K to 693 K Aumng that the fuel ued Natural ga (calorfc value = kj/m 3 ) hu amount of fuel needed to upply th quantty of heat =15.5 m 3 / 6 eat lberated wthn the reactor due to reacton = /kmol ul = n nc 63 d = r ence total heat lberated = 11.1 x = / h heat releaed utlzed n ncreang the temperature of the effluent Solvng the equaton by a tral and error proce we obtan the outlet temperature value a 63.8 K. ence t aumed that the outlet temperature 63 K telf. Prmary Reformer Wthn the reformer team react wth Naphtha and produce Carbon monoxde and ydrogen. Sde reacton alo take place producng Carbon doxde and C ( m n) n m + n O nco + +
2 Methane. he ext gae from the reformer are at a temperature of 1093 K. r x 10 3 /kmol x 10 / CO + + r.83 x 10 3 /kmol 0.89 x 10 / CO + 3 C + O r 9.1 x x 10 / eat requred to rae the temperature of the reacton product from 63 K to 1093 K hu total heat to be uppled um of all the heat requrement and the enthalpy of reacton = x 10 / Fuel requred for upplyng th amount of heat m 3 / of natural ga. Secondary Reformer In the econdary reformer methane produced converted nto CO and. ere ar mxed wth the effluent tream n uch a quantty that the ext tream contan 1:3 rato of N:. It aumed that the nlet to the reformer enter at 1093 K and reacton take place at th temperature. eat requred to rae the temperature of ar from ambent condton at 303 K to 1093 K O CO ref = n nc h heat uppled by natural ga. ence fuel requred to provde th amount of heat 59.3 m 3 / C + O CO x 10 / 63 ar= n nc 63 d = x10 d =.1635x10
3 + 1 O O x 10 / x 10 / CO + 1 O CO otal heat lberated durng reacton.66 x 10 /. h heat utlzed n heatng the effluent from 1093 K to the ext temperature. = n 1093 d =.66x10 hu by a tral and error proce the temperature found to be 16 K. eat Recovery between Secondary Reformer and SC he tream enterng the SC at 693 K (value obtaned from lterature). ence the tream cooled from 16 K to 693 K. he heat recovered from th tream utlzed n producng team n quencher. eat recovered = n Amount of team at 33 K at 1 atm produced from th heat m = = 01. kmol C + λ 8 pw gh emperature Shft Converter In the SC Carbon monoxde percentage reduced to around 3% by volume of the extng tream by convertng t to Carbon doxde by the water hft reacton. CO + + O CO r.963 x 10 3 /kmol at 693 K x 10 /. h heat utlzed n ncreang the heat content of the ext tream. = n d =.66x10 d = 0.180x10 Solvng for by a tral and error proce we get = 00 K 6
4 eat recovery from SC to LSC he effluent from the SC are at a temperature of 00 K. he nlet tream nto the LSC at a temperature of 53 K. he heat recovered from th tream utlzed n producng team at 33 K and 1 atm n quencher. eat recovered = n Amount of team produced wll be Low emperature Shft Converter ere the Carbon monoxde content reduced to 0.3% by volume of the total effluent gae. he reacton beng exothermc heat lberated whch ued to ncreae the temperature of the outlet tream. r 8.3 x 10 3 /kmol at 53 K 0.5x 10 / he temperature of the outlet tream can be found out by makng a heat balance By a tral and error proce the temperature found to be 53 K. Condener d =.13555x10 m = = 181. kmol C + λ 36 pw CO + + = n O CO 53 he ext tream from the LSC contan team whch would be an addtonal unwanted load on the aborber. ence team removed by condenaton and the dry gae leave the condener at 93 K and are cooled to 33 K whch the temperature at whch the gae enter the aborber. It aumed that all team produced removed by condenaton eat removed by condenaton Q C = n λ =.16939x10 d = 0..5x10
5 eat Exchanger he gae are cooled from 93 K to 33 K. he heat tranferred durng th proce = n Methanator d = x10 ere the trace quantte of CO and CO are converted to Methane by reacton wth n the preence of catalyt. he methanator operate at a temperature of 63K. he enterng gae have to be heated from 33 K to 63 K. eat uppled = n d = x10 h heat may be uppled by condenng team and utlzng the heat of condenaton. m kmol = = λ Amount of team at 33 K and 1 atm requred to heat the gae Reacton takng place n the methanator are CO + + O CO r 9.1 x 10 3 /kmol at 63 K x 10 6 / CO + 3 C + O r 39.33x 10 3 /kmol at 63 K x 10 6 / otal heat lberated wthn the methanator ued to ncreae the temperature of the ext gae.
6 = n C 63 d = 1.699x10 6 he temperature of the ext tream found out by a tral and error proce 63 K. he gae from the Methanator are cooled, water removed by condenaton and the dry gae cooled to 313 K and tored. Ammona Synthe Loop he ynthe ga enter the converter at a temperature of 63 K. From the compreor ecton t aumed that the gae come out at 313 K. he nlet tream heated by the ext tream to the converter nlet temperature. he converter ext ga then cooled to 313 K at whch temperature at the hgh preure of 50 MPa ammona condene. CO + 3 C + O r.301x 10 3 /kmol at 63 K.3698x 10 / h heat produced utlzed n heatng the ext gae to a fnal ext temperature, found by dong a heat balance. = n 63 d =.3698x10 he ext temperature from the condener found out by a tral and error proce = 8 K Ammona condene at a temperature of 313 K at the gven preure and mole fracton of eat evolved by coolng gae from 8 K to 313 K = n d = x10 eat needed to rae the temperature of ynthe gae from 313 K to 63 K = n d = 9.500x10
7 hu the exce heat, whch to be removed by the eat Exchanger, =.19 x 10 / A the heat load very hgh fve E n parallel are ued. he nlet temperature of the hot gae found by a tral and error proce 05 K. he ext temperature ammona aturaton temperature of 313 K. Coolng water aumed to enter at 93 K and ext at 308 K. he ma flow rate of coolng water calculated and found to be 9. kg/ per E. Condener heat load may be calculated a Q C = nn λn =.08x10 Where λn the latent heat of vaporzaton of ammona at the gven preure = 1.65 /kmol he condener coolant ued are refrgerant becaue water cannot be ued to cool the content.
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