# Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p ) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7"

## Transcription

1 G109: 7. Moisture 1 7. MOISTURE Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p ) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 1. Introduction Moisture in the atmosphere: in the form of o vapor: humidity o droplets: clouds, fog, rain o ice: clouds, fog, hail, snow, pellets All three phases can exist at the same time Moisture in the atmosphere: is the most important agent of weather. It affects: o humidity: - radiation balance (longwave rad.!) - human comfort (high humidity) o clouds: - radiation balance longwave emissivity shortwave reflectivity - energy balance (latent heat!) - precipitation Important concepts: o vapor pressure: see CD tutorial 3, 4 o saturation: see CD Int. Ex. Moisture

2 G109: 7. Moisture 2 2. Moisture Content: Measures of Humidity Important in latent heat transfer (i.e. energy transfer) Expresses amount of moisture in the air Many different ways to express moisture content or humidity of the atmosphere. For example: Absolute humidity or vapor density (ρ v ) Specific humidity (q) Relative humidity (RH) Dew point temperature (T dew ) Actual vapor pressure (e or e a ) (i) Vapor Pressure - Equilibrium - Saturation Recall concept of gas pressure: out P out some of these molecules are water vapor: total (air) pressure= dry-air pressure + vapor pressure P tot = P d + e

3 G109: 7. Moisture 3 Thought Experiment: Liquid water and dry air in a closed volume Some water molecules have enough energy to escape liquid evaporation vapor molecules With more vapor molecules in air: o vapor pressure (e) increases o some return to liquid condensation water When evaporation rate equals condensation rate: o equilibrium (output = input) o no more net water to vapor no net evaporation o equilibrium saturation Figure 5-1 (A&B) escape rate ( evaporation ): return rate ( condensation ):

4 G109: 7. Moisture 4 saturation vapor pressure (equilibrium) is only dependent on temperature Saturation (equilibrium) vapor pressure (e s ) Relation e s vs. T is expressed in Clausius-Clapeyron curve (see Lab #7):

5 G109: 7. Moisture (Saturation) Vapor Pressure (es) (mb) Significance of the Clausius-Clapeyron curve: T dew Super saturated es=14 mb Saturated Vapor Pressure ea=11.5 mb T=12 Nonsaturated Vapor Pressure (e): Vapor pressure is the partial pressure exerted by the water molecules in the atmosphere Vapor pressure is expressed in [Pa] or mb Vapor pressure is connected to vapor density (ρ v ) and temperature through the ideal gas law: e = ρ v R v T. R v : specific gas constant for water vapor = 462 J kg -1 K -1

6 G109: 7. Moisture 6 (ii) Vapor Density Absolute Humidity (ρ v ) Absolute humidity (ρ v ) = Mass of H 20 vapor kg g Volume of air m 3 m 3 dependent on temperature and pressure occurs in vapor gas law not used widely (iii) Specific Humidity (q) Specific humidity (q) = Mass of H 20 vapor Total mass of air kg g kg kg Relative to: total mass of air = dry air + vapor If the volume changes - the mass remains constant: Changes in q always indicate a change in the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (e.g. from evaporation, condensation)

7 G109: 7. Moisture 7 (vi) Relative Humidity (RH) Relative humidity (RH) = actual amount of vapor x 100 % max. amount of vapor RH: extent of unsaturation in percent (%) RH: can be expressed in terms of vapor pressure (e a, e s ) or specific humidity (q, q s ): RH = e a /e s 100% = q/q s 100% e a or q: actual amount of water vapor in the air e S or q s : saturation amount of water vapor in the air RH is very strongly temperature dependent!!!

8 G109: 7. Moisture 8 80 (Saturation) Vapor Pressure (es) (mb) Super saturated no change in vapor content 100% cooling 50% 30% Typically, RH varies inversely with temperature: if: T goes, e s goes..., RH goes... if: T goes, e s goes..., RH goes... if: add H 2 0 vapor, RH goes... if: remove H 2 0 vapor, RH goes...

9 G109: 7. Moisture 9 (v) Dew Point Temperature (T d ) T d : moist air that is cooled (without loss of vapor, at constant pressure) until saturation is reached, is at the dew point temperature, T d [K] when air T is cooled to saturation, dew will form (water condenses). T d T air High T dew Small difference: T air - T dew Add water vapor: Remove water vapor: Problem

10 G109: 7. Moisture 10

11 G109: 7. Moisture 11 Figure 1: Graph of vapor pressure (mb) as a function of air temperature ( C) Saturated Vapor Pressure (Saturation) Vapor Pressure (es) (mb) Super- Non-saturated es=14 mb ea=11.5 mb T=12 Tdew (Air) Temperature ( C)

12 G109: 7. Moisture Variations in Atmospheric Moisture When comparing atmospheric moisture in space and time need to remember what is going to vary E.g. RH varies with T (i) Diurnal (within 24 h) variations of RH RH varies inversely with T (ii) Spatial variation Relative Humidity, RH - high in tropics - low 30 - warm desert - high poles

13 G109: 7. Moisture 13 Specific Humidity, q - - (iii) Ocean current impacts Scenario: Air comes across the ocean towards land It is likely about the same T as the water Important: what the sea surface Temperature is Distinguish : ocean currents warm/cold? Summertime: When the air comes on to the land - air will warm up. Important: temperature difference between the water and land Example in US compare California and Georgia In both cases, air comes on to warm land from the sea. What happens to RH? CA: GA:

### Atmospheric Humidity. Chapter 4

Atmospheric Humidity Chapter 4 Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere A general definition of humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Remember, humidity is not constant through time or space,

### Chapter 5. Measures of Humidity. Phases of Water. Atmospheric Moisture

Chapter 5 Atmospheric Moisture Measures of Humidity 1. Absolute humidity 2. Specific humidity 3. Actual vapor pressure 4. Saturation vapor pressure 5. Relative humidity 6. Dew point Phases of Water evaporation

### Effects of moisture on static stability & convection

Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature

### Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds-I. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology

Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds-I GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology 1 Overview Water Circulation in the Atmosphere Properties of Water Measures of Water Vapor in the Atmosphere (Vapor Pressure,

### Weather Basics. Temperature Pressure Wind Humidity. Climate vs. Weather. Atmosphere and Weather

Climate vs. Weather Atmosphere and Weather Weather The physical condition of the atmosphere (moisture, temperature, pressure, wind) Climate Long term pattern of the weather in a particular area Weather

### Vapor pressure (mb) is the pressure exerted by water vapor molecules. Relative humidity (%) is the moisture content relative to the saturation point.

January Lab 06 5 Atmospheric Moisture Concepts about atmospheric humidity will be introduced in this lab along with the role of atmospheric moisture in the formation of clouds and precipitation. Moisture

### Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

### How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air?

How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air? Materials 2 Centigrade Thermometers Gauze Fan Rubber Band Tape Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many

### Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair

Fog and Cloud Development Bows and Flows of Angel Hair 1 Ch. 5: Condensation Achieving Saturation Evaporation Cooling of Air Adiabatic and Diabatic Processes Lapse Rates Condensation Condensation Nuclei

### q SAT = saturation specific humidity

Temp q sat Temp q sat 5 C 5.6 g/kg 25 C 20 g/kg 10 C 7.7 g/kg 30 C 28 g/kg 15 C 11 g/kg 40 C 47 g/kg 20 C 15 g/kg 50 C 80 g/kg @ sea level pressure q SAT = saturation specific humidity SATURATION: Represents

### Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

### Name Lab Partner Section

HUMIDITY Name Lab Partner Section Introduction Humidity refers to the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air. The air in our environment is rarely ever dry. The amount of moisture present varies

### The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

### Measure Humidity - Basics

Dalton s Law Air is a mixture of different gases. Under normal environmental conditions the gases have an ideal behaviour, i.e. each gas molecule can act independently from all others. Dalton s law is

### Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

### V. Water Vapour in Air

V. Water Vapour in Air V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated the presence of water vapour in the air through the vapour pressure e that it exerts. V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated

### CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING Weather patterns on Earth are complicated and chaotic. Weather is a result of the atmosphere s constant attempt to reach equilibrium. This equilibrium is continually upset

### Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

### THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Relative Humidity... 3 Partial Pressure... 4 Saturation Pressure (Ps)... 5 Other Absolute Moisture Scales... 8 % Moisture by Volume (%M

### Weather and Climate Review

Weather and Climate Review STUFF YOU NEED TO KNOW and to UNDERSTAND! 1) Because water has a higher specific heat than land, water will warm and cool more slowly than the land will. Because of this: a)

### Review and apply Investigation 6. Let s review Pages

Review and apply Investigation 6 Let s review Pages 376-377 1. Think back to the movement of the color in hot and cold water. Does adding heat energy make water molecules move faster, slower, or have no

### Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide

Name: Class: Date: Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Earth s atmosphere contains more

### Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 20 Psychometrics (Contd.) We have seen what the humidity

### Vapor pressure deficit is the difference between the saturation vapor pressure at air temperature, minus the vapor pressure of the air.

1 Vapor pressure deficit is the difference between the saturation vapor pressure at air temperature, minus the vapor pressure of the air. It has units of Pascals, pressure. It is also a function of relative

### Physical and chemical properties of water Gas Laws Chemical Potential of Water Rainfall/Drought

Lecture 14, Water, Humidity, Pressure and Trace Gases, Part 1 Physical and chemical properties of water Gas Laws Chemical Potential of Water Rainfall/Drought Atmospheric Gas Composition constitue nt percent

### Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414)

NCEA Level 3 Earth and Space Science (91414) 2014 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) Evidence Statement

### EXERCISE D: ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY

Name: Section: Date: EXERCISE D: ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY REFERENCE: Textbook: Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography Ch.7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture PURPOSE: The purpose

### The Sun and Water Cycle

reflect Think of the last time it rained in your city. When the rain stopped, you probably saw puddles on the ground. After a few hours, though, the ground was dry again. Where did all that rainwater go?

### Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab.

Radiation Balance 1 Radiation Balance Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p. 60-73) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. 5 Radiation = Mode of Energy transfer

### 6 th Grade Science Mini Assessment #4

Multiple Choice Directions: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Why does precipitation occur more often near the equator than near the poles? A. Colder air

### Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity

Earth Science Name Date Per. Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity 1. Explain the difference between Specific Humidity and Relative Humidity. Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of water vapor

### Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

### UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

### Temperature and Humidity

Temperature and Humidity Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many things like condensation and the formation of clouds and rain, as well as how hot or cold

### 1. Use the Skew-T in Figure 4 to calculate the relative humidity values for the four levels above 999 mb.

ANSWER KEY Part I: Introduction to the Skew-T 1. Use the Skew-T in Figure 4 to calculate the relative humidity values for the four levels above 999 mb. Table 3 Calculations of Relative Humidity from a

### Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water

Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water Introduction: Water is a substance commonly found on Earth and in the atmosphere in all three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). This unique property of water

### Chapter 4 Atmospheric Moisture

4.1 Introduction We said in the first chapter that the three main topics that will be studied to describe weather and meteorology in general are heat, moisture, and air motion. As we saw in the last chapters,

### Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions. d. citing source material e. units

Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions c. linking figures with text d. citing source material e. units In the News: http://www.reuters.com In the News: warmer waters in the Pacific

### Quick Review: Rising Air and Clouds

Quick Review: Rising Air and Clouds Remember that clouds form when air rises. Specifically - As air rises, it expands and cools... - And as it cools, its RH increases... - And once its RH hits 100% (saturation),

### increasing thermal energy of particles sublimation melting freezing deposition decreasing thermal energy of particles requires energy (heat)

10.3 The Water Cycle Key Question: How does water move through the water cycle? You may see water as ice, snow, rain, and steam. On very humid days, you can sense it as water vapour. Water is the only

### 3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts

1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars

### Clouds, Fog, & Precipitation

firecatching.blogspot.com Kids.brittanica.com Clouds and fog are physically the same just location is different Fog is considered a stratus cloud at or near the surface What does one see when looking at

### SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the properties of water. LAB: Experimenting with different soap mixtures. POST: Analyzing

### 2. Record both the wet and dry bulb temperatures.

Name: LAB: Dewpoint and Relative Humidity Date: Introduction: (adapted from L. Wood, 2003) Evaporation of water is happening all the time. As long as there is water vapor molecules above the liquid, there

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Covered with Water 6 th Grade Subject Area: Science Grade: 6

One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

### Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport

Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport Water vapor transport in porous materials Due to the thermal conductivity of water and other unfavourable properties and effects in porous

### Humidity, Evaporation, and

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Dew drops like these, on a banana leaf photographed just after sunrise, form when the air temperature drops to or below the dew point. At the dew

### 3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change

When at least two states of the same substance are present, scientists describe each different state as a phase. A phase change is the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from

### state and explain how the internal energy and the absolute (kelvin) temperature are related....

6 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ A2. This question is about ideal gases. (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas....... For an ideal gas define internal energy. state and explain how the internal energy and

### During this activity, students will use a psychrometer to measure humidity in the classroom.

Overview: During this activity, students will use a psychrometer to measure humidity in the classroom. Objectives: The student will measure classroom humidity using a psychrometer. Levels III-IV Grades

### 6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

### Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review Name Date S6E4 Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. a. Demonstrate that land and water absorb and lose

### Temperature affects water in the air.

KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

### Global warming and its implications for conservation.

Global warming and its implications for conservation. 4. Greenhouse gasses and the lapse rate The layer model is a reasonable heuristic model, but it assumes that the atmosphere acts as a perfect blackbody

### Materials 10-mL graduated cylinder l or 2-L beaker, preferably tall-form Thermometer

VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER Introduction At very low temperatures (temperatures near the freezing point), the rate of evaporation of water (or any liquid) is negligible. But as its temperature increases, more

### 7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

### CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

### Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 6-1 Introduction By observing, recording, and analyzing weather conditions, meteorologists attempt to define the principles that control the complex interactions

### Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: air mass, air pressure, anemometer, barometer, cyclone, dew point, front, isobar, isotherm, meteorology, precipitation, psychrometer, relative humidity, saturated, transpiration

### More Kinetic Theory of Gases

More Kinetic Theory of Gases Physics 1425 Lecture 32 Michael Fowler, UVa Vapor Pressure and Humidity The H 2 O molecules in liquid water strongly attract each other, holding the liquid together. But these

### Thermodynamics of Moist Air

Thermodynamics of Moist Air Phase transitions: what are the equilibrium conditions for a mixed-phase system, e.g. a mixture of water and water vapor? Consider a system consisting of liquid water and H

### Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction

Scientist Guide Let s Talk About the Weather Introduction Agriculture is highly dependent on the weather. Ever since the first seed was sown, farmers have been watching the sky and hoping for good weather.

### This PowerPoint file contains information about the water cycle. The first slide shows a picture that includes all processes in the water cycle.

This PowerPoint file contains information about the water cycle. The first slide shows a picture that includes all processes in the water cycle. Subsequent slides discuss each process individually. The

### 1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two

### Weather Vocabulary. Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.

Weather Vocabulary Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Meteorologist-A scientist who studies weather Weather maps- a map or chart showing the meteorological conditions,

### How does snow melt? Principles of snow melt. Energy balance. GEO4430 snow hydrology 21.03.2006. Energy flux onto a unit surface:

Principles of snow melt How does snow melt? We need energy to melt snow/ ice. GEO443 snow hydrology 21.3.26 E = m L h we s K = ρ h = w w we f E ρ L L f f Thomas V. Schuler t.v.schuler@geo.uio.no E energy

### How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least the past 650,000

### Weather Unit Test. Page 1. 2 The cartoon below shows a strong wind blowing from right to left.

Name Weather Unit Test Page 1 1 The diagram below shows the flow of air over a mountain from point A to point C. Which graph best shows the approximate temperature change of the rising and descending air

### Water, Phase Changes, Clouds

TUESDAY: air & water & clouds Water, Phase Changes, Clouds How can freezing make something warmer? 'warm air can hold more water' why? How do clouds form? The (extraordinary) properties of Water Physical

### Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt 5.1-5.2) In this lecture Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Radiative and material properties of different surfaces Conductive

### 1a. Mole fraction How many moles of X per mole of air? 1b. Volume mixing ratio how many liters of X per liter of air? 2. Partial pressure what is the

1a. Mole fraction How many moles of X per mole of air? 1b. Volume mixing ratio how many liters of X per liter of air? 2. Partial pressure what is the pressure exerted by X in the air? Remember that for

### 4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff).

4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff). The Water Cycle Water changes form and cycles between the surface, the air, and back again.

### Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago?

Stability and Cloud Development AT350 Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability in the atmosphere An Initial Perturbation Stable Unstable Neutral If an air parcel is displaced

### This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development

Stability & Cloud Development This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Movement A rock,

### Summary This lesson will introduce the concept of the water cycle by using a simple demonstration.

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Water Cycle Grade Level 4 Sessions Seasonality

### Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

Weather, Climate and Ecosystems Dennis Baldocchi University of California, Berkeley 2/1/2013 Weather, Climate and Ecosystems: Outline Concepts Atmospheric Meteors and Composition Greenhouse-Effect Principles

### Weather: Air Patterns

Weather: Air Patterns Weather: Air Patterns Weather results from global patterns in the atmosphere interacting with local conditions. You have probably experienced seasonal shifts, such as winter in New

### Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to help the student become familiar with various ways of measuring atmospheric moisture, with the ways of

Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to help the student become familiar with various ways of measuring atmospheric moisture, with the ways of expressing atmospheric moisture content, and with the

### The Water Cycle. 1. The diagram below is a cross-sectional view of rain falling on a farm field and then moving to the water table.

1. The diagram below is a cross-sectional view of rain falling on a farm field and then moving to the water table. Which word best describes the movement of the rainwater through zone A? A. runoff B. saturation

### WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture Air Masses And Fronts Weather Theory- Page 77 Every physical process of weather is a result of a heat exchange. The standard sea level temperature is 59

### Pressure, Forces and Motion

Pressure, Forces and Motion Readings A&B: Ch. 4 (p. 93-114) CD Tutorials: Pressure Gradients, Coriolis, Forces & Winds Topics 1. Review: What is Pressure? 2. Horizontal Pressure Gradients 3. Depicting

### Cycles of Matter. Chapter 13- Lesson 3

Cycles of Matter Chapter 13- Lesson 3 What processes are involved in the water cycle? Matter in an ecosystem includes water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other substances. The water cycle is the

### Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Energy transmission ( a a refresher) There are three modes of energy transmission to consider. Conduction: the transfer of energy in a substance by means

### Identify how scientists measure weather conditions in different parts of the atmosphere. Compare 2 types of satellite image s.

Lesson 3 Weather Forecasts LA.6.2.2.3, MA.6.A.3.6, SC.6.E.7.7, SC.6.N.1.1, SC.6.N.3.4 Skim or scan the heading, boldfaced words, and pictures in the lesson. Identify or predict three facts you will learn

### 8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

### The Sun and Water Cycle

reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

### Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land?

Ocean and Weather Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? On the left is the Illustration of major ocean currents throughout the globe. Ocean currents

### TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: 49717 GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Matter Page 1 of 30 Student: Class: Date: 1. What is the MAJOR role of the Sun in the water cycle?

### HAY MOISTURE & WEATHER:

HAY MOISTURE & WEATHER: IMPLICATIONS FOR HAY HARVEST Paul Brown Extension Specialist, Biometeorlogy University of Arizona Harvest Losses vs. Moisture From Collins & Owens, 1995 Losses During Haymaking

### WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

### Answers. The Water Cycle. Year 7 Science Chapter 7

Answers The Water Cycle Year 7 Science Chapter 7 p153 1 Change of state from liquid to vapour happens over the water as liquid water evaporates into water vapour in the atmosphere. 2 The sun is the source

### In Search of Indoor Comfort

ENGS 44 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN In Search of Indoor Comfort Benoit Cushman Roisin 11 April 2016 Fact: People spend 90% of their time being indoors. Questions: What is comfort? How do you define it? Is this

### Cloud Notes for SIO 218

Cloud Notes for SIO 218 October 11 and 16, 2001 Satellite Observations Satellites observe cloudiness by measuring electromagnetic radiation at a variety of wavelengths (e.g., visible, infrared, microwave).

### Mountain Leader Training. Introduction to mountain weather

Mountain Leader Training Introduction to mountain weather Mountain Weather Why worry about the weather! How is weather created! The atmosphere Weather systems Airmass modification Depressions and fronts

### Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor What are some properties of the atmosphere? Solar Radiation - initial source of energy to