1 EvaPig Evaluation of Pig feeds Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs EvaPig Tutorial 1.0.0
2 Welcome to EvaPig! EvaPig is a calculator of energy, amino acids and phosphorus values of ingredients and diets for growing and adult pigs. EvaPig includes the chemical composition and nutritive values for the pig from about 100 reference ingredients, mostly derived from the INRA-AFZ Tables. You can create new ingredients either by copying and modifying the reference ingredients, or by using your own data. You can also create and calculate nutritive values of complete diets either by mixing ingredients or by providing a chemical composition. Specific and generic equations will calculate energy, amino acids and phosphorus values.
3 Challenges in pig feeding Many ingredients are available Ingredients have variable compositions Feed accounts for > 50% of the cost of pig production Animals, farm conditions and production targets are variable The main component of feed cost is energy Feeds impact upon technical and economic results Environmental concerns about the excretion of N, P etc.
4 Why use EvaPig? EvaPig provides (NE), standardised amino acid digestibility and phosphorus digestibility values. Because these values are consistent with animal requirements, using them in formulation is highly beneficial: Better ranking of ingredients More efficient use of feed nutrients Lower feed costs Reduced excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus into the environment
5 Use EvaPig to calculate nutritional values Tables give values for typical ingredients. Soybean meal 48 But ingredients have variable compositions EvaPig uses the ingredients chemical composition to calculate their nutritional values.
6 EvaPig and pig nutrient requirements EvaPig generates diet nutritional values. Diet specifications should be adapted to animal requirements These requirements are highly variable according to bodyweight, stage of production, sex, genotype, etc. EvaPig proposes specific criteria in diet characteristics for adaptation to animal requirements.
7 EvaPig and pig nutrient requirements (examples) You use DE or ME values and you want to implement the NE system of EvaPig : NE requirements can be estimated as 0.71 x DE or 0.75 x ME. Optimal amino acid profile (ideal protein): EvaPig calculates the amino acid profile (digestible amino acid as % of digestible lysine) of the diet. The protein:energy ratio is highly variable between pigs according to physiological stage, body weight, etc. EvaPig provides the ratio between digestible lysine and NE, which is the best indicator of the protein:energy ratio. It is important to get an optimal ratio between Ca and digestible phosphorus (Pd): EvaPig calculates the Ca:Pd ratio of the diet
8 Standardised amino acids digestibility
9 Energy utilization Gross Energy (GE) Fecal energy Digestible Energy (DE) Urinary and gas energy Metabolizable Energy (ME) Heat increment Net Energy (NE)
10 Net Energy EvaPig includes Digestible, Metabolisable and Net Energy values for the main feed ingredients. Different energy values are given for the growing pig and for the adult pig. EvaPig makes it easy to calculate and store energy values for new ingredients and diets.
11 Changes in ingredient ranking Rankings of soybean meal and wheat are inverted when using NE instead of DE Ingredients Corn DE 103 NE 112 Wheat Wheat bran Soybean meal Fat The contribution of fat to the energy of the diet increases Values are expressed as % of the energy value of a compound feed (wheat: 67%, soybean meal: 16%, fat: 2.5%, wheat bran: 5%, peas: 5%, )
12 Calculated NE values values depend on many parameters Protein Fibre Fat values for soybean meal 48 calculated with EvaPig
13 Standardised digestible amino acids EvaPig includes both total amino acids and standardised digestible amino acids. Using standardised digestible amino acids is the best way to provide a balanced amino acid supply while reducing nitrogen excretion.
14 Standardised digestible amino acids Standardised amino acid digestibilities are meant to be independent from the feed protein content. The standardised digestible amino acid values of the ingredients are additive. Ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients are supposed to be identical at all stages of pig production. There are not enough literature data yet to take into account the effects of processing.
15 Partition of ileal amino acid flux in the growing pig Ileal flux of AA g/kg DM intake Indigestible (feed related) Basal endogenous loss (animal related) When the protein intake decreases, the relative importance of the basal endogenous loss increases and the apparent digestibility decreases Apparent digestibility is therefore dependent on protein intake AA intake, g/kg DM intake Apparently Indigestible
16 Apparent and standardised ileal digestibility of amino acids Standardised values are independent from the protein intake Ileal Digestibility Standardised Apparent Ingested amino acid, g/d Apparent digestibility = (AA feed - AA digesta)/aa feed Standardised digestibility = (AA feed -(AA digesta - Basal AA loss))/ AA feed
17 Digestible phosphorus EvaPig includes digestible phosphorus values for pelleted and mashed feeds. The calculation of digestible phosphorus in diets takes into account: The presence of endogenous phytase The addition of exogenous phytase The physical form of the diet (pellet or mash) The amount of digestible phosphorus depends on the amount of phytase and on its biological activity (expressed as g of released digestible P per 500 IU of phytase).
18 Digestible phosphorus Diet with phytase supplementation but without endogenous phytase (absent or deactivated by processing) Phytase types Released P is calculated using the amount and activity of the exogenous phytase
19 Digestible phosphorus Diet with phytase supplementation and active endogenous phytase Phytase types Released P due to endogenous phytase Total released P
20 Choose the language Manage and create ingredients Start this tutorial Choose your units Ask for help Create, manage and compare diets Visit Check for updates Quit EvaPig
21 Units Choose your preferred units: As fed vs dry matter basis Kcal/kg vs MJ/kg % vs g/kg These units be used throughout EvaPig : forms, graphs, reports
22 Managing and creating ingredients
23 Ingredients EvaPig includes a reference database from more than 100 ingredients. You can create your own ingredients and add them to the database. The following data are available: Proximate composition Energy values (DE, ME, NE) and ratios for growing and adult pigs Total and standardised digestible amino acids Total and digestible phosphorus
24 Each tab corresponds to a group of nutrients Click on the tab to display the values Energy values tab Proximate analysis tab Filter the list by class of ingredients, database or name
25 Reference database and user database Reference ingredients are shown in pink User created ingredients are shown in blue Click on the Database checkbox to display either the reference data or the user data
26 Sort the values Click on the header to sort the values by ascending order
27 Sort the ingredients Click on the header to sort the ingredients alphabetically again
28 View an ingredient Select an ingredient Double-click on the selection or click on the View button
29 Chemical composition and nutritional values Proximate analysis Energy values Energy ratios Mineral values Total and digestible amino acids Print or export the data in PDF or CSV format
30 Energy values per weight unit Ratios between energy values Energy values (detail) Values for growing pigs Values for boars and sows Energy bonus in % of digestible energy (> or <0) Ratios adult / growing
31 Create a new ingredient You can create your own ingredients by two methods: Create an ingredient using a reference ingredient as a basis. This is the recommended method. Create an ingredient using only its chemical composition. EvaPig calculates the energy values of new ingredients using specific and/or generic equations.
32 Add an energy bonus Processes like intensive grinding, pelleting, extrusion or enzyme addition improve energy digestibility. Technology Mash Pellet Wheat-SBM Corn-SBM Corn Full-fat rapeseed Linseed (extrusion) INRA data
33 Add an energy bonus Because the reference data were obtained on mashed ingredients, the calculations in EvaPig may underestimate the energy values of processed ingredients. To correct for this problem, you can use the «energy bonus» feature to boost the digestible energy up to 5%. The reference data for oilseeds (rapeseed, linseed ) already correspond to processed ingredients: the energy bonus is unnecessary. For ingredients, you can give a negative bonus if you think that the default calculated values overestimate the actual values.
34 Create a new ingredient Select a reference ingredient if you want to use it as a basis for the new ingredient Click on the Create button
35 Create a new ingredient Click on this tab to create a new ingredient from the selected reference ingredient Click on this tab to create a new ingredient from its chemical composition
36 Create a new ingredient from a reference It is highly preferable to create a new ingredient from a reference ingredient: The chemical composition will be copied from the reference ingredient. The new ingredient will use the energy ratios and prediction equations specific to the reference ingredient rather than less accurate generic equations. Use the reference ingredient that is the closest (from a biological / botanical point of view) to the ingredient you want to create.
37 Create a new ingredient from a reference Name the new ingredient Choose a class Choose a reference ingredient Choose a dry matter value Add a comment (optional) Choose wisely: you will not be able to change it later Click on the OK button to validate
38 Create a new ingredient from a reference The new ingredient takes the values of the reference ingredient Click on the checkboxes to replace the reference values by your own Add an energy bonus (-5% to + 5%) to correct for processing or possible over/underestimation Click on the OK button to validate
39 Values in italics are the Net unchanged energy values of the reference View your new ingredient The name of the reference ingredient is kept in the Origin field Click on the Modify button to change the values again Click on the Delete button to delete your ingredient Print or export the data in PDF or CSV format
40 Create a new ingredient from its chemical composition If you cannot find a suitable reference ingredient, you can create a new ingredient from its chemical composition alone: The energy values will be calculated using generic equations. The amino acid digestibilities will be default values. Because this method is less accurate, it should be used only when no reference ingredient is available.
41 Create a new ingredient from its chemical composition Name the new ingredient Choose a class Click on the Next button to validate Choose a dry matter value
42 Create a new ingredient from its chemical composition Click on the checkboxes to type your values More nutrients values will allow for more precise energy values Click on the OK button to validate
43 Create a new ingredient from its chemical composition Click on the Net checkboxes energy Amino to add/modify acids values You can now complete the profile with minerals and amino acid digestibilities amino acid content Click on the OK button to validate
44 View your new ingredient The Origin field is set to «Original Amino item acids» Click on the Modify button to change the values again Click on the Delete button to delete your ingredient Print or export the data in PDF or CSV format
45 Energy calculations When you create and modify an ingredient that is based on a reference ingredient: Gross energy is calculated from the reference ingredient using generic coefficients : GE New = GE Ref + a x (Protein New - Protein Ref + b x (Fat New - Fat Ref ) + c x (Ash New - Ash Ref ) New: new ingredient Ref: reference ingredient
46 Energy calculations Energy digestibility (Ed) for growing pigs is calculated from the reference ingredient using fibre as a predictor: Ed New = Ed Ref + a x (Fibre New Fibre Ref ) Crude fiber, NDF or ADF can be used. When several types of fibre analysis are available, the final Ed is the average of the predicted values. The fibre coefficients are specific to the ingredient.
47 Energy calculations The ME/DE ratio for growing pigs is calculated using a generic coefficient for protein: ME/DE New = ME/DE Ref + a x (Protein New Protein Ref ) / DE New The NE/ME ratio for growing pigs is calculated using generic coefficients: NE/ME New = NE/ME Ref + a x (Protein New Protein Ref ) + b x (Fat New FAt Ref ) + c x (Starch New Starch Ref ) / ME New
48 Energy calculations The digestible energy (DE) value for adult pigs is derived from the DE for the growing pigs: DE Adult = DE Growing + a x (Organic matter) x (1- b x Ed Growing ) The coefficients a and b are specific to the ingredient. The ME and NE values are calculated as for the growing pigs.
49 Energy calculations To summarise: GE = f(composition) Ed = f(fibre) DE = GE x Ed ME/DE = f(protein, DE) ME = DE x ME/DE NE/ME = f(protein, fat, starch, ME) NE = ME x NE/ME The new values are derived from the reference values using corrections either generic or specific to the reference ingredient.
50 Energy calculations When you create a new ingredient from its chemical composition: Gross energy is calculated using generic coefficients for protein, fat, fibre, ash, starch and sugar, depending on the combination of values that was provided. Energy digestibility for growing pigs is calculated using generic coefficients for fibre. The ME and NE values for growing pigs are calculated using generic coefficients for protein, fat, fibre, ash, starch and sugar. The energy values for adult pigs are derived from the previous ones using generic coefficients. The energy values are calculated from the composition alone and do not take into account other nutritional specifications.
51 Managing and creating diets
52 Diets EvaPig lets you formulate complete diets using the reference ingredients or the ingredients that you have created. You can compare the contributions of each nutrient and ingredient to the nutritional values of one or several diets. You can compare the nutrients of several diets.
53 Click on the tab to see the corresponding nutrients List of the Net diets energy you have already created This list is empty when you use EvaPig for the first time Click on the View button to see the values of the selected diet (or doubleclick on the diet) Click on the Create button to create a new diet Click on the Graphs button to compare diets
54 Chemical and nutritional values Minerals Proximate analysis Energy values The criteria will be calculated only if they are available for ALL the ingredients! Click on the Modify button to change the ingredient composition Print or export the data in PDF or CSV format Click on the Graphs button to visualise the diet and compare nutrients
55 Create a new diet Name the new diet You Main can menu use a previous diet as a template for ingredient composition Click on the Create button to create a new diet Click OK to validate
56 Full list of ingredients Create a new diet Use the arrows to add or remove ingredients (or double-click) Diet ingredients Choose a physical form: mash or pellet Inclusion levels Phytase supplementation Energy bonus for growing and adult pigs Click OK to validate
57 Energy bonus for diets The energy bonus can be used when a technological process is applied to the diet. Do not use the energy bonus for the diet when it has already been used for its ingredients. Unlike the bonus for ingredients, the bonus for diets can be only positive.
58 Phytase supplementation Calculating the effect of phytase supplementation on diet phosphorus requires 3 values: Biological activity: g of digestible P released per 500 IU of phytase (as indicated by the supplier) Concentration: IU per g of phytase additive Inclusion: IU per kg of feed Calculated amount of phytase additive in % of the diet
59 (from the diet view) Choose the Single graph tab Choose the nutrient The pie chart shows the contributions of the ingredients to the nutrient Click on the Graphs button to visualise the diet and compare nutrients
60 Choose the Graphs comparisons tab (from the diet view) You can compare up to 4 nutrients for the same diet The vertical bar shows the contributions of the ingredients to the nutrient value
61 (from the list of diets) Choose the Single graph tab to Net compare energythe nutrient content of several diets Choose a nutrient You can compare up to 6 diets The diet comparison graphs are called from the list of diets Draw a rectangle with the mouse to zoom in Click on the Graphs button to compare diets
62 (from the list of diets) Choose Graphs comparison to compare the contributions of the Amino ingredients acids of several diets for the same nutrient Choose a nutrient You can compare up to 4 diets
63 for diets Sometimes the diet ingredients are unknown The calculator is for diets only! Do not use it to calculate the energy values of ingredients! but its chemical composition is known! Click on the Calculator button to calculate the energy values of a diet from its chemical composition
64 You Amino can acids provide in vitro organic matter digestibility Energy bonus for processed diets (equations were Diet obtained creationon mashed diets) Choose a dry matter value Name the diet Click on the checkboxes to enter the other values Click on Next More chemical data will give more precise energy values Click on the View button to validate Click on the Reset button to cancel the values
65 The energy values are calculated using generic equations Print or export the data in PDF or CSV format
66 Visit our website Software and database updates Documents: equations, publications, presentations etc. Ask questions about EvaPig and its concepts. We thank in advance the people who will help to make EvaPig better and more useful, notably by providing us with nutritional values for new ingredients or more accurate and up to date information. If you are willing to share such data, please contact us through the website.
67 INRA, UMR Systèmes d'elevage, Nutrition Animale et Humaine - Domaine de la Prise, Saint-Gilles, France Association Française de Zootechnie - 16 rue Claude Bernard, Paris Cedex 05, France AJINOMOTO EUROLYSINE S.A.S , rue de Courcelles, PARIS Cedex 17, France