Porotherm Training April 2014 PONT-DE-VAUX - FRANCE

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1 Porotherm Training April 2014 PONT-DE-VAUX - FRANCE 1

2 Thermal insulation Aim of thermal insulation: to substantially reduce energy consumption, to guarantee a better comfort all over the year inside the house. 2

3 Thermal insulation Basic principles: 1) prevent winter cold not to enter the house and keep the heat inside 2) during summer avoid the heat to enter the house and keep the coolness inside. Walls 19 % Roof 13 % Thermic bridges 18 % New air 13 % Bottom floors 22 % Windows 16 % NOTE: on individual houses, percentages can vary 3

4 Thermal insulation Technical process: Insulating materials: Either materials with a homogeneous structure and same thickness (Perlite,polyester batts, MagRoc ) Or materials with a heterogeneous structure (multi-perforation pattern clay blocks, cement conglomerate, ). 4

5 Thermal insulation What are heat transfers? Inside Outside Radiation Radiation 5

6 Thermal insulation COEFFICIENT OF OVERALL THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U-value): T - 1 Rate of heat flow per square meter for a temperature difference of 1 kelvin between both wall sides. 1 m T The lower the U, the better the wall insulation. 6

7 Thermal insulation U-VALUE CALCULATION U = 1 / R (including superficial resistance ) T - 1 Rse 1 m T 1 m Rsi Rsi = thermal resistance of internal surface Rse = thermal resistance of outside surface 7

8 Thermal insulation Overall thermal resistance R = Rse + R mortar coating + R block wall + R insulating material + R plaster + Rsi unit Rse 1 m Rsi Rse = superficial thermal resistance of external surface Rsi = superficial thermal resistance of interior surface For an horizontal heat flow: Rse = 0,04 m².k/w and Rsi = 0,13 m².k/w (except Rse in several EWI* cases) The R-value of a wall is given WITHOUT superficial resistances. * EWI = External Wall Insulation 8

9 Thermal insulation THERMAL RESISTANCE (R-value): Opposite of thermal flow. Aptitude to slow down calorific energy spreading Homogeneous material: Unit: R= e / l -- T m T Heterogeneous material: Thermal resistances are given by Thermal Regulation or manufacturers according to data modeling based on laboratory measures. e The higher the R, the better the insulating material. 9

10 Thermal insulation THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (λ): T - 1 Thermal flow per sqm going through a material with 1-m thickness for a temperature difference of 1 kelvin between both wall sides. 1 m 1 m T unit THE LOWER THE λ, THE BETTER THE INSULATION MATERIAL. 10

11 Thermal insulation THERMAL RESISTANCE (R): Either specified by Thermal Regulations: Blocks Thickness E of 1 unit in cm Or calculated by the manufacturer. Values in brackets correspond to 1 vertical joint filled in with mortar (paraseismic construction) 11

12 Thermal insulation VOLUMETRIC HEAT CAPACITY (VHC): Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a chase transition. It corresponds to energy volume enabling 1 m³ to raise its temperature by 1 degree. It measures the capacity of this element to accumulate heat. This value is close to notions such as inertia and accumulation/restitution. Unlike specific heat capacity it takes into account product structure (perforations/cavity). It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material). If given a specific heat value of a substance, one can convert it to the VHC by multiplying the specific heat by the density of the substance. unit ρ = bulk density 12

13 Thermal insulation THERMAL BRIDGES (ψ): A thermal bridge, also called cold bridge, ] is a fundamental of heat transfer where a penetration of the insulation layer by a highly conductive or non-insulating material takes place in the separation between the interior (or conditioned space) and exterior environments of a building assembly (also known as the building enclosure, building envelope, or thermal envelope). UNIT: W/m Thermal bridge values are given by Thermal Regulations or manufacturers according to specific calculations. THE LOWER THE Ψ, THE BETTER THE CORRECTION OF THERMAL BRIDGE 13

14 Thermal insulation Masonry typ (a or b) Definition of insulating masonry type (a or b) according to French Thermal Regulation Same thermal conductivity : λ e = e/r Insulating masonry typ a : λ e <= 0.2 W/(m.K). Insulating masonry typ b : 0.2 < λ e <= 0,4 W/(m.K). In our French catalogue, typ (a or b) is indicated for each Porotherm wall Influence on the thermal bridge value 14

15 Thermal insulation Masonry typ (a or b) Example blocks R25 and R25 Th+ 15

16 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Requirements 1. Requirement regarding minimum efficent energy use of the building Bbio Bbiomax Heating + cooling + lighting = bio-climatic need 2. Requirement regarding maximum consumption Cep Cepmax = maximum consumption in kwhep/m² SHONRT (average 50) 3. Requirement regarding temperature well-being in summer Tic Ticréf Bbio = Bioclimatic need / Cep = Conventional overall primary energy consumption Tic = Inside conventional temperature 16

17 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Requirements 4. Minimum requirements: - Thermal bridge treatment - Air tightness - Renewable energy - Energy estimation - Various 17

18 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Building performance : Bbio Target: define a coefficient about full impact of building design on building energy performance including energy supplies. Determine needs of: - heating, - cooling, - lighting Develop bio-climatic design (natural lighting, large glass surfaces on southern side of house, etc ) and semi-detached housing. 18

19 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Building performance : Bbio Take into account all characteristics of the building: Surface and line losses of opaque walls Losses on glass walls Inertia Sun contributions Impact of sun protection devices and related monitoring Occupancy scenarios (agreement) and internal contributions of occupants Other internal contributions Contributions through passive devices as part of the building (greenhouses, verandas, parieto-dynamic walls) Air infiltrations on places where building permeability is not sufficient Losses during air renewal (calculated on agreement basis: average value of lowenergy buildings) Input of natural lighting to the premises 19

20 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Building performance : Bbio Bbiomax = Bbiomaxmoyen (Mbgéo + Mbalt + Mbsurf) Bbiomaxmoyen : according to building type and related category CE1 or CE2. Example for housing buildings: Mbgéo : modulation coefficient according to geographical area Mbalt : modulation coefficient according to altitude Mbsurf : for individual or semi-detached houses, modulation coefficient according to housing average surface of the building or of a section of the building. CE1: buildings with need for air conditioning to guarantee a certain level of summer comfort inside CE2: buildings with air conditioning + French south-eastern climate zones + altitude lower than 400 m + determined noise areas 20

21 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Cep consumption Primary energy consumption = Cep 5 uses are taken into consideration - heating - hot water - air conditioning - lighting - additional devices Average value: 50 kwhep/m² Conversion coefficient for primary energy for electricity - 1 for all other energies 21

22 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Cep consumption Cepmax = 50 Mctype (Mcgéo + Mcalt + Mcsurf + McGES) Definitions: Mctype : modulation coefficient according to building type or part of building and its category CE1/CE2 (with/without cooling) Mcgéo : modulation coefficient according to geographical zone Mcalt : modulation coefficient according to altitude Mcsurf : for individual or semi-detached houses and multi-family residential buildings, modulation coefficient according to average housing surface of the building or part of it McGES : modulation coefficient according to greenhouse gazes caused by used energies 22

23 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Cep consumption Multi-family residential buildings Building permits registered before 31/12/2014: Cepmax = 57,5 Mctype (Mcgéo + Mcalt + Mcsurf + McGES) Building permits registered after 01/01/2015: Cepmax = 50 Mctype (Mcgéo + Mcalt + Mcsurf + McGES) 23

24 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Cep consumption Examples Individual houses Multi-family buildings (before 31/12/2014) Climatic zone H1b H1b Altitude 0 à 400 m 0 à 400 m Building category CE1 CE1 Timber No No SHONrt (net surface) Numbers of accommodations 1 40 Cepmax

25 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Cep consumption Adjusted according to surface (only residential buildings) Examples : - 55 for 100m² - 50 for 130m² - 45 for 170m² 25

26 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Tic (Inside conventional temperature during hot season) Reduction of summer through use of air conditionning Same calculation as for Thermal Regulation

27 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Thermal bridges Global average ratio of thermal linear transmission of thermal bridges of a building can not exceed 0.28 W/(m²SHON RT.K) Thermal bridge limitation of intermediate floors L9 0.6 W/(m.K) 27

28 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Air permeability Permeability measured under 4Pa must be < to : 0.6 m 3 /h/m² of surfaces (walls, partitions, bays) causing energy loss except lower floor for individual housings 1m 3 /h/m² of surfaces (walls, partitions, bays) causing energy loss except lower floor for multi-family buildings 28

29 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Air permeability Implementation of a quality approach certified by Housing Ministry Survey for certification application - Quality approach description - Measurement - For individual housing: 5 to 10% to be tested - For multi-family houses and non-residential buidlings: 15 to 30% to be checked - Requested values - For individual housing value between 0.3 and For multi-family buildings value between 0.3 and

30 30 Where are sources of energy loss?

31 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Further requirements Individual housing: Use of renewable energy Input of natural lighting to housing facilities: Total surface of windows 1/6 of living surface 31

32 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Energy calculation for residential buildings Target: information to inhabitants Estimate or calculation systems regarding energy consumption of each housing facilities (except wood or biomass consumption) Once a month information to inhabitants regarding their consumption per energy type according to following categories : - heating - air conditioning - warm water - Electrical outlet - various Distribution based either on measured data or on estimated data. 32

33 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Energy calculation for residential buildings Calculation system: For heating: per 400 m² or per switchboard or per floor or per direct output source For air conditioning: same as for heating For warm water production: per 40 beds for hotels For lighting: per 400 m² or switchboard or floor For kitchen if collective kitchen or restaurant For electrical outlet: same as for lighting For ventilation station: per station Per direct electrical output of more than 80 amperes 33

34 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Controls Project draft Permit registration Detailed design Work achievement Acceptance of work done Certificate of acceptance Certificate of Thermal Regulation observation Detailed thermic survey Measurement of air permeability Calculation of Bbio according to minimum requirements Calculation of Cep, Bbio and Tic Standard report about thermal survey Certificate of compliance DPE 34

35 French Thermal Regulation 2012 Controls Certification according to French Thermal Regulation Calculation Bbio Generation File XML Control Bbio thermic bridge use of renewable energy ( ENR) Certificate of compliance 35

36 36

37 Important landmarks: 2012, 2020 Housing -2012: General implementation of low-consumption new housing Housing (<50KWh / m².year) : General implementation of new housing with passive or positive energy -Housing with PASsive energy : BEPAS (in French) -Housing with POSitive energy : BEPOS (in French) (energy production > energy consumption) 37

38 Cliquez pour ajouter un titre Thanks for your attention 38

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