Level 7 Post Graduate Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Aerospace engineering

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "9210-228 Level 7 Post Graduate Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Aerospace engineering"

Transcription

1 Level 7 Post Graduate Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Aerospace engineering You should have the following for this examination one answer book non-programmable calculator pen, pencil, drawing instruments No additional data is attached General instructions This paper consists of nine questions. Answer any five questions. A non-programmable electronic calculator may be used but candidates must show sufficient steps to justify their answers. Drawings should be clear, in good proportion and in pencil. Do not use red ink. All questions carry equal marks. The maximum marks for each section within a question are shown. The City and Guilds of London Institute 2014 ST H1 PO

2 1 a) An aerofoil (NACA 4412) is mounted on an aircraft flying at an altitude of 3000 m. The characteristics of the aerofoil are shown in Figure Q1. Chord length of the aerofoil is 1.2 m. Determine i) the Lift per Unit Span, if the aircraft is flying at a speed of 50 m/s and the effective angle of attack is 4 degrees, ii) the minimum speed at which the aerofoil can produce lift per unit span of 3000 N/m. b) Compare and contrast incompressible flow from compressible flow. c) Explain the following terms. i) Critical Mach Number. (2 marks) ii) Aerodynamic Centre. (2 marks) d) Explain why a tapered wing is more likely to stall at the tip than a rectangular wing and describe why tip stall is a serious problem for an aircraft with an un-swept wing. Figure Q1 2

3 2 a) An elliptical orbit of a satellite is illustrated below in Figure Q2. Figure Q2 i) Redraw the Figure Q2 and identify the following parameters. 1. Semi-major axis 2. Radius of perigee 3. Radius of apogee 4. Major-axis ii) Calculate the eccentricity and Semi-Major axis of an orbit with a radius of perigee of 6600 km and a radius of apogee of km. b) During a typical mission, any spacecraft would encounter three environments. i) Name the three environments. (2 marks) ii) Selecting one of the three environments, explain the factors that the designer of the spacecraft must take into consideration to ensure the survival of the spacecraft. iii) A satellite is required to transfer from a lower earth orbit (LEO) with a particular inclination to a higher orbit with a different inclination. Explain a Hohmann Transfer Orbit and Inclination change manoeuvre that can be performed to achieve the new orbit. 3 a) Define Specific Impulse, I sp. Explain why it is desirable to use propellants with high I sp. b) A three stage rocket is used to send a 1000 kg payload into an orbit. Description about each stage is given in Table Q3. Stage Structure Mass (kg) Propellant Mass (kg) Propellant Type Specific Impulse (seconds) 1 6,000 60,000 LO 2 / RP I sp1 2 4,000 40,000 LO 2 / LK2 310 I sp2 3 2,000 20,000 N 1 O 4 / MMH 320 I sp3 Table Q3 The ideal burnout velocity is given by, m V BO = gi sp1 ln 1 m + gi sp2 ln 3 m + gi sp3 ln 5 m 2 m 4 m 6 where g gravitational force (9.81 ms 2 ) m 1, m 2 initial mass and final mass of stage 1 m 3, m 4 initial mass and final mass of stage 2 m 5, m 6 initial mass and final mass of stage 3 Find the ideal burnout velocity of the final stage. (10 marks) c) Outline the advantages and disadvantages of rockets with i) liquid propellant ii) solid propellant. 3 See next page

4 4 A four engine turbofan aircraft has the following characteristics: Mass kg Thrust 120 kn (From four engines) Wing Area 77 m 2 2 Drag Polar C L µ c l.ground roll 0.6 C L.max 2.0 a) Determine the initial acceleration and the acceleration when the aircraft is moving at 40 m/s. b) Estimate the distance required to reach a speed of 40 m/s. (If you could not solve part a), assume an acceleration of 3 m/s 2 for this part). c) Assume that an engine fails at a speed of 40 m/s. If the pilot takes 2 seconds to react and then brakes with a deceleration of 0.5g, determine the stopping distance. You may neglect acceleration during the reaction time. d) Briefly explain why aircraft use maximum flap setting during landing and not during takeoff. (5 marks) (5 marks) 5 a) i) Explain the formation of vortices with respect to a finite wing and describe how this affects lift and drag properties. ii) How do aspect ratio and elliptical lift distribution negate the effects of vortices? b) Describe the use of swept-back wings to increase the critical Mach number. (8 marks) 6 a) There are two types of aircraft navigation sensors, which are used in Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNNS). Accelerometers and Gyros are the main INS sensors. Write a technical note on Accelerometers and Gyros among aircraft navigation sensing systems. (8 marks) b) Briefly explain the purpose and operation of i) Instrument Landing System (ILS) (3 marks) ii) Marker Beacon System. (3 marks) c) Name three other navigation aids available in the cockpit and explain how each helps in flight navigation. 7 a) Write the design objectives of a supersonic intake. b) There are essentially two primary types of options available for designing a supersonic intake, Normal Shock Diffusers and Oblique Shock Diffusers. Sketch them and discuss the advantages and disadvantages. c) A turboprop engine is selected for a general aviation aircraft. The drag when the aircraft is cruising at 70 m/s at an altitude of 2000 m is expected to be 950 N. i) Determine the required engine power if propeller efficiency is 85%. (2 marks) ii) Determine the fuel flow, if the Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is 60 µg/j. iii) The power is roughly proportional to the atmospheric density. Determine the sea level power, if the power required in part c) i) is at 2500 m altitude. 4

5 8 a) Explain the criterion for longitudinal static stability with the use of pitching moment variation with angle of incidence. b) i) Define the control fixed static stability condition. (2 marks) ii) With the information given in the graph below in Figure Q8 determine the control fixed neutral point. C L lift coefficient, η elevator angle, h centre of gravity. (2 marks) Figure Q8 c) i) Explain the two longitudinal dynamic stability modes and two of the three stability modes with the use of sketches. ii) Out of the following forces and moments identify the ones that describe lateral and directional dynamics. X Axial Force, Y Lateral Force, Z Normal Force, L Rolling Moment, M Pitching Moment, N Yawing Moment. (8 marks) 9 a) Explain how a pitot static tube is used to measure Equivalent Air Speed (EAS) and state why this speed measurement is called the EAS. b) Explain the primary and secondary effects of Aileron and Rudder. c) Explain why propeller engines are hardly used for large transport aircraft. (5 marks) d) Describe helicopter autorotation manoeuvre. (5 marks) 5

Chapter 4 Estimation of wing loading and thrust loading (Lectures 9 to 18)

Chapter 4 Estimation of wing loading and thrust loading (Lectures 9 to 18) Chapter 4 Estimation of wing loading and thrust loading (Lectures 9 to 18) Keywords : Choice of wing loading based on considerations of landing field length, prescribed flight speed, absolute ceiling,

More information

CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS

CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS Aerospace Engineering - PLtW Levels: 11-12 Units of Credit: 1.0 CIP Code: 14.0201 Core Code: 38-01-00-00-150 Prerequisite: Principles of Engineering, Introduction to Engineering Design Test: #967 Course

More information

If we let the vertical tail lift coefficient depend on a vertical tail lift curve slope and a rudder deflection we can write it as:

If we let the vertical tail lift coefficient depend on a vertical tail lift curve slope and a rudder deflection we can write it as: Roll and Yaw Moments and Stability Yaw Moment Equation The yaw moment is the moment about the z body axis and is positive if it moves the nose of the plane to the right. The big contributor to the yaw

More information

APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing. Briefing. Figure 3-B.1

APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing. Briefing. Figure 3-B.1 APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing Industry Solutions for Large Swept-Wing Turbofan Airplanes Typically Seating More Than 100 Passengers Briefing Figure 3-B.1 Revision 1_August 2004 Airplane

More information

Propeller Fundamentals. A propeller is an interface between an engine and an aircraft. It creates thrust for flying an aircraft.

Propeller Fundamentals. A propeller is an interface between an engine and an aircraft. It creates thrust for flying an aircraft. 28 1 Propeller Fundamentals A propeller is an interface between an engine and an aircraft. It creates thrust for flying an aircraft. 2 Propeller blade 4-bladed propeller 3-bladed propeller 3 All propulsors

More information

Performance. 10. Thrust Models

Performance. 10. Thrust Models Performance 10. Thrust Models In order to determine the maximum speed at which an aircraft can fly at any given altitude, we must solve the simple-looking equations for : (1) We have previously developed

More information

Lecture L17 - Orbit Transfers and Interplanetary Trajectories

Lecture L17 - Orbit Transfers and Interplanetary Trajectories S. Widnall, J. Peraire 16.07 Dynamics Fall 008 Version.0 Lecture L17 - Orbit Transfers and Interplanetary Trajectories In this lecture, we will consider how to transfer from one orbit, to another or to

More information

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,

More information

Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Formulas

Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Formulas Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Formulas Aerodynamics Formulas. Definitions p = The air pressure. (P a = N/m 2 ) ρ = The air density. (kg/m 3 ) g = The gravitational constant. (Value at sea level

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT AND SPACECRAFT

CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT AND SPACECRAFT TYPES OF AIRCRAFT CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT AND SPACECRAFT Aircraft can be classified into various types based on the mode of classification. In the following slide, a general classification of aircraft

More information

6.1 AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL AND GENERAL AEROPLANE AIRFRAME AND SYSTEMS Fuselage. types of construction

6.1 AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL AND GENERAL AEROPLANE AIRFRAME AND SYSTEMS Fuselage. types of construction 6.1 IRCRFT TECHNICL ND GENERL EROPLNE 6.1.1 IRFRME ND SYSTEMS 6.1.1.1 Fuselage types of construction structural components and materials used stress 6.1.1.2 Cockpit and passenger cabin windows construction

More information

Forces on a Model Rocket

Forces on a Model Rocket Forces on a Model Rocket This pamphlet was developed using information for the Glenn Learning Technologies Project. For more information, visit their web site at: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/aboutltp/educationaltechnologyapplications.html

More information

Performance. 15. Takeoff and Landing

Performance. 15. Takeoff and Landing Performance 15. Takeoff and Landing The takeoff distance consists of two parts, the ground run, and the distance from where the vehicle leaves the ground to until it reaches 50 ft (or 15 m). The sum of

More information

SIX DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MODELING OF AN UNINHABITED AERIAL VEHICLE. A thesis presented to. the faculty of

SIX DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MODELING OF AN UNINHABITED AERIAL VEHICLE. A thesis presented to. the faculty of SIX DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MODELING OF AN UNINHABITED AERIAL VEHICLE A thesis presented to the faculty of the Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University In partial fulfillment of the requirement

More information

Chapter 6 Lateral static stability and control - 2 Lecture 20 Topics

Chapter 6 Lateral static stability and control - 2 Lecture 20 Topics Staility and control Chapter 6 Lateral static staility and control - Lecture Topics 6.1 Roll control 6.1.1 Aileron, diferential aileron and spoiler aileron 6.1. Rolling moment due to aileron 6.1.3 Damping

More information

Circular and Elliptical Orbit Geometries.

Circular and Elliptical Orbit Geometries. Circular and Elliptical Orbit Geometries. Satellite orbits ollow either circular or elliptical paths based on Keplers' laws o motion. Intrinsic assumptions are that the mass o the satellite is insigniicant

More information

APP Aircraft Performance Program Demo Notes Using Cessna 172 as an Example

APP Aircraft Performance Program Demo Notes Using Cessna 172 as an Example APP Aircraft Performance Program Demo Notes Using Cessna 172 as an Example Prepared by DARcorporation 1. Program Layout & Organization APP Consists of 8 Modules, 5 Input Modules and 2 Calculation Modules.

More information

AE 430 - Stability and Control of Aerospace Vehicles

AE 430 - Stability and Control of Aerospace Vehicles AE 430 - Stability and Control of Aerospace Vehicles Atmospheric Flight Mechanics 1 Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Performance Performance characteristics (range, endurance, rate of climb, takeoff and landing

More information

MAE 180A: Spacecraft Guidance I, Summer 2009 Final Exam Saturday, August 1st.

MAE 180A: Spacecraft Guidance I, Summer 2009 Final Exam Saturday, August 1st. MAE 180A: Spacecraft Guidance I, Summer 2009 Final Exam Saturday, August 1st. Part I: Questions. (40pt) 8:00AM-8:35AM. Guidelines: Please turn in a neat and clean exam solution. Answers should be written

More information

Lecture L14 - Variable Mass Systems: The Rocket Equation

Lecture L14 - Variable Mass Systems: The Rocket Equation J. Peraire, S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2008 Version 2.0 Lecture L14 - Variable Mass Systems: The Rocket Equation In this lecture, we consider the problem in which the mass of the body changes during

More information

Introduction to Flight

Introduction to Flight Introduction to Flight Sixth Edition John D. Anderson, Jr. Curator for Aerodynamics, National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Professor Emeritus University of Maryland Boston Burr Ridge, IL

More information

air aerodynamics & flight vocabulary

air aerodynamics & flight vocabulary TERM DEFINITION PICTURE OR CONNECTION Aerodynamics The science of moving through the air. Air Airfoil Air pressure Atmosphere An invisible mixture of gases, which make up earths atmosphere it consists

More information

Lab 8 Notes Basic Aircraft Design Rules 6 Apr 06

Lab 8 Notes Basic Aircraft Design Rules 6 Apr 06 Lab 8 Notes Basic Aircraft Design Rules 6 Apr 06 Nomenclature x, y longitudinal, spanwise positions S reference area (wing area) b wing span c average wing chord ( = S/b ) AR wing aspect ratio C L lift

More information

DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA

DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA MT DIREION DE PERSONL ERONUTIO DPTO. DE INSTRUION PREGUNTS Y OPIONES POR TEM Pag.: 1 TEM: 0114 TP - (HP. 03) ERODYNMIS OD_PREG: PREGUNT: RPT: 8324 When are inboard ailerons normally used? OPION : Low-speed

More information

Forces on the Rocket. Rocket Dynamics. Equation of Motion: F = Ma

Forces on the Rocket. Rocket Dynamics. Equation of Motion: F = Ma Rocket Dynamics orces on the Rockets - Drag Rocket Stability Rocket Equation Specific Impulse Rocket otors Thrust orces on the Rocket Equation of otion: = a orces at through the Center of ass Center of

More information

AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 1, No. 1 (2006) 89-98 School of Engineering, Taylor s College AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS MUSHTAK AL-ATABI School of Engineering, Taylor s College

More information

Performance 4. Fluid Statics, Dynamics, and Airspeed Indicators

Performance 4. Fluid Statics, Dynamics, and Airspeed Indicators Performance 4. Fluid Statics, Dynamics, and Airspeed Indicators From our previous brief encounter with fluid mechanics we developed two equations: the one-dimensional continuity equation, and the differential

More information

Fundamentals of Airplane Flight Mechanics

Fundamentals of Airplane Flight Mechanics Fundamentals of Airplane Flight Mechanics David G. Hull Fundamentals of Airplane Flight Mechanics With 125 Figures and 25 Tables 123 David G. Hull The University of Texas at Austin Aerospace Engineering

More information

F-104 Flight Controls

F-104 Flight Controls Information regarding the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter F-104 Flight Controls An article published in the Zipper Magazine #46 June-2001 Author: Country: Website: Email: Theo N.M.M. Stoelinga The Netherlands

More information

Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight Principles of glider flight [ Lift, drag & glide performance ] Richard Lancaster R.Lancaster@carrotworks.com ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher GmbH & Co. All other content Copyright

More information

Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.

Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1. IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational

More information

Aircraft Design. Lecture 9: Stability and Control. G. Dimitriadis. Introduction to Aircraft Design

Aircraft Design. Lecture 9: Stability and Control. G. Dimitriadis. Introduction to Aircraft Design Aircraft Design Lecture 9: Stability and Control G. Dimitriadis Stability and Control Aircraft stability deals with the ability to keep an aircraft in the air in the chosen flight attitude. Aircraft control

More information

AOE 3104 Aircraft Performance Problem Sheet 2 (ans) Find the Pressure ratio in a constant temperature atmosphere:

AOE 3104 Aircraft Performance Problem Sheet 2 (ans) Find the Pressure ratio in a constant temperature atmosphere: AOE 3104 Aircraft Performance Problem Sheet 2 (ans) 6. The atmosphere of Jupiter is essentially made up of hydrogen, H 2. For Hydrogen, the specific gas constant is 4157 Joules/(kg)(K). The acceleration

More information

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12 2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit

More information

Wing Design: Major Decisions. Wing Area / Wing Loading Span / Aspect Ratio Planform Shape Airfoils Flaps and Other High Lift Devices Twist

Wing Design: Major Decisions. Wing Area / Wing Loading Span / Aspect Ratio Planform Shape Airfoils Flaps and Other High Lift Devices Twist Wing Design: Major Decisions Wing Area / Wing Loading Span / Aspect Ratio Planform Shape Airfoils Flaps and Other High Lift Devices Twist Wing Design Parameters First Level Span Area Thickness Detail Design

More information

The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts

The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts Warm-Up Questions CPS Questions 1-2 Lesson Overview How the fuselage and wing shape correspond to an aircraft s mission The types, purpose, and function of airfoil

More information

Aeroelasticity and Fuel Slosh!

Aeroelasticity and Fuel Slosh! Aeroelasticity and Fuel Slosh! Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics! MAE 331, 2014" Aerodynamic effects of bending and torsion" Modifications to aerodynamic coefficients" Dynamic coupling" Fuel shift

More information

8 High Lift Systems and Maximum Lift Coefficients

8 High Lift Systems and Maximum Lift Coefficients 8-1 8 High Lift Systems and Maximum Lift Coefficients In Section 7 the wing was examined with flaps retracted (clean wing). According to the assumptions from Section 5, the wing is, however, supposed to

More information

Effect of Propeller on Airplane Dynamics

Effect of Propeller on Airplane Dynamics Effect of Propeller on Airplane Dynamics The propeller creates considerable unfavorable forces that need to be trimmed out to keep the airplane flying in a desirable manner. Many airplanes are rigged to

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF AERODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF AERODYNAMICS TRAINEE GUIDE FOR PREFLIGHT C-9B-0020 Unit 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF AERODYNAMICS Prepared by NAVAL AVIATION SCHOOLS COMMAND 181 CHAMBERS AVE SUITE C PENSACOLA, FL 32508 Prepared for CENTER FOR NAVAL AVIATION

More information

Chapter 5 Directional static stability and control - 3 Lecture 18 Topics

Chapter 5 Directional static stability and control - 3 Lecture 18 Topics Chapter 5 Directional static stability and control - 3 Lecture 18 Topics 5.8.3 Control in asymmetric power, steady flight after engine failure and minimum control speed Example 5.3 5.8.4 Control for spin

More information

Learning Objectives 5.1 PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT: aeroplane

Learning Objectives 5.1 PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT: aeroplane 080 00 00 00 PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 081 00 00 00 PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT AEROPLANE 081 01 00 00 SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS 081 01 01 00 Basics, laws and definitions 081 01 01 01 Laws and definitions LO - List the

More information

ExpressJet Airlines Pilot Job Knowledge Test Outline

ExpressJet Airlines Pilot Job Knowledge Test Outline ExpressJet Airlines Pilot Job Knowledge Test Outline The job knowledge test administered as part of the pilot interview process consists of questions in four major knowledge areas essential to piloting

More information

Development of models for high precision simulation of the space mission MICROSCOPE

Development of models for high precision simulation of the space mission MICROSCOPE Development of models for high precision simulation of the space mission MICROSCOPE Stefanie Bremer Meike List Hanns Selig Claus Lämmerzahl Outline The space mission MICROSCOPE High Performance Satellite

More information

ESTIMATING R/C MODEL AERODYNAMICS AND PERFORMANCE

ESTIMATING R/C MODEL AERODYNAMICS AND PERFORMANCE ESTIMATING R/C MODEL AERODYNAMICS AND PERFORMANCE Adapted from Dr. Leland M. Nicolai s Write-up (Technical Fellow, Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Company) by Dr. Murat Vural (Illinois Institute of Technology)

More information

Principles of Flight. There are four major forces acting on an aircraft: Gravity Lift Drag Thrust. lift. thrust. drag. gravity

Principles of Flight. There are four major forces acting on an aircraft: Gravity Lift Drag Thrust. lift. thrust. drag. gravity Principles of Flight There are four major forces acting on an aircraft: Gravity Lift Drag Thrust Gravity Gravity is the downward force that keeps the airplane on the ground or pulls the airplane toward

More information

Chapter 6 Lateral static stability and control - 3 Lecture 21 Topics

Chapter 6 Lateral static stability and control - 3 Lecture 21 Topics Chapter 6 Lateral static stability and control - 3 Lecture 21 Topics 6.11 General discussions on control surface 6.11.1 Aerodynamic balancing 6.11.2 Set back hinge or over hang balance 6.11.3 Horn balanace

More information

Does currently available technology have the capacity to facilitate a manned mission to Mars?

Does currently available technology have the capacity to facilitate a manned mission to Mars? Furze Platt Senior School Does currently available technology have the capacity to facilitate a manned mission to Mars? Daniel Messias Date: 8/03/2015 Candidate Number: 7158 Centre Number: 51519 Contents

More information

Flight Controls. Control The Wright Brothers described flight in three axes roll, pith and yaw.

Flight Controls. Control The Wright Brothers described flight in three axes roll, pith and yaw. Flight Controls The Wright Brothers were engineers first, pilots second. Introduction We have learned about the four forces that act on an airplane. The Wright Brothers were the first to fly because they

More information

GATE 2012 Online Examination AE : AEROSPACE ENGINEERING Duration: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100

GATE 2012 Online Examination AE : AEROSPACE ENGINEERING Duration: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100 GATE 0 Online Examination AE : AEROSPACE ENGINEERING Duration: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 00 Read the following instructions carefully.. The computer allotted to you at the examination center runs a specialized

More information

Compute the average effective exhaust velocity for the propulsion system as a whole and from this also the average specific impulse.

Compute the average effective exhaust velocity for the propulsion system as a whole and from this also the average specific impulse. 2 2.1 Ariane 5 Thrust Initially at lift-off of an ARIANE 5 launch vehicle two P230 solid propellant boosters plus the main Vulcain engine are ignited. The two different components of the launch vehicle

More information

Cefiro: An Aircraft Design Project in the University of Seville

Cefiro: An Aircraft Design Project in the University of Seville Cefiro: An Aircraft Design Project in the University of Seville Carlos Bernal Ortega, Andrés Fernández Lucena, Pedro López Teruel, Adrián Martín Cañal, Daniel Pérez Alcaraz, Francisco Samblás Carrasco

More information

AOE 3134 Complete Aircraft Equations

AOE 3134 Complete Aircraft Equations AOE 3134 Complete Aircraft Equations The requirements for balance and stability that we found for the flying wing carry over directly to a complete aircraft. In particular we require the zero-lift pitch

More information

Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum

Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely

More information

Q. 1 Q. 5 carry one mark each.

Q. 1 Q. 5 carry one mark each. GATE 016 General Aptitude GA Set-8 Q. 1 Q. 5 carry one mark each. Q.1 The chairman requested the aggrieved shareholders to him. (A) bare with (B) bore with (C) bear with (D) bare Q. Identify the correct

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT INTRODUCTION

ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT INTRODUCTION ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT INTRODUCTION This section provides a discussion of the asymmetric flight of multi-engine airplanes following loss of power from an engine(s) mounted laterally either side of the centerline.

More information

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

More information

SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF A HOBBY ROCKET

SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF A HOBBY ROCKET SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF A HOBBY ROCKET WWW.NAKKA-ROCKETRY.NET February 007 Rev.1 March 007 1 Introduction As part of the design process for a hobby rocket, it is very

More information

CHAPTER 1. Fundamental Mathematics

CHAPTER 1. Fundamental Mathematics Volume 9 Performance (JAR Ref 032) Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 Fundamental Mathematics Introduction...1-1 Equations...1-1 The Principle of an Equation...1-1 Transposing Equations...1-1 Adding and Subtracting...1-1

More information

Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction In this lab the characteristics of airfoil lift, drag,

More information

Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1

Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 PURPOSE The purpose of this laboratory project is to calculate, verify and then simulate various satellite orbit scenarios for an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. First, there

More information

Performance. Power Plant Output in Terms of Thrust - General - Arbitrary Drag Polar

Performance. Power Plant Output in Terms of Thrust - General - Arbitrary Drag Polar Performance 11. Level Flight Performance and Level flight Envelope We are interested in determining the maximum and minimum speeds that an aircraft can fly in level flight. If we do this for all altitudes,

More information

Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles

Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles PURPOSE Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles The information contained herein has been developed for the purpose of compliance with 14 CFR 141.85. The main objective of this

More information

General aviation & Business System Level Applications and Requirements Electrical Technologies for the Aviation of the Future Europe-Japan Symposium

General aviation & Business System Level Applications and Requirements Electrical Technologies for the Aviation of the Future Europe-Japan Symposium General aviation & Business System Level Applications and Requirements Electrical Technologies for the Aviation of the Future Europe-Japan Symposium 26 March 2015 2015 MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

More information

High-Lift Systems. High Lift Systems -- Introduction. Flap Geometry. Outline of this Chapter

High-Lift Systems. High Lift Systems -- Introduction. Flap Geometry. Outline of this Chapter High-Lift Systems Outline of this Chapter The chapter is divided into four sections. The introduction describes the motivation for high lift systems, and the basic concepts underlying flap and slat systems.

More information

Date: 30 September East of Frankfurt/Main. Manufacturer / Model: Boeing / B

Date: 30 September East of Frankfurt/Main. Manufacturer / Model: Boeing / B Bundesstelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident Investigation Factual Report The Investigation Report was written in accordance with para 18 of the Law Relating to the

More information

Collaborative UAV Study. Tan Han Rong, Ronald

Collaborative UAV Study. Tan Han Rong, Ronald Collaborative UAV Study Tan Han Rong, Ronald Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore ABSTRACT This is a preliminary assessment into the feasibility of developing a UAV that

More information

Form And Function What Is Angle of Attack? By Ed Kolano

Form And Function What Is Angle of Attack? By Ed Kolano Form And Function What Is Angle of Attack? By Ed Kolano To new pilots with a military inclination, angle of attack might be another way to describe a military flanking maneuver. But the context here is

More information

Requirements to servo-boosted control elements for sailplanes

Requirements to servo-boosted control elements for sailplanes Requirements to servo-boosted control elements for sailplanes Aerospace Research Programme 2004 A. Gäb J. Nowack W. Alles Chair of Flight Dynamics RWTH Aachen University 1 XXIX. OSTIV Congress Lüsse, 6-136

More information

Summary. Engine Sizing & Selection. Propulsion Integration Extremely Important. Airframe Integrator s Motto. Piston Engine.

Summary. Engine Sizing & Selection. Propulsion Integration Extremely Important. Airframe Integrator s Motto. Piston Engine. Engine Sizing & Selection Copyright 2006 by Don Edberg Summary Engine Sizing & Arrangement Introduction Performance Requirements Engine Geometric Characteristics & Placement Airframe Integrator s Motto

More information

RS platforms. Fabio Dell Acqua - Gruppo di Telerilevamento

RS platforms. Fabio Dell Acqua - Gruppo di Telerilevamento RS platforms Platform vs. instrument Sensor Platform Instrument The remote sensor can be ideally represented as an instrument carried by a platform Platforms Remote Sensing: Ground-based air-borne space-borne

More information

A Sounding Rocket Launch Technique For Pico Satellite Payloads. Mark S. Goll and David W. Dunham Texas Rocket Company and Kinetx Inc.

A Sounding Rocket Launch Technique For Pico Satellite Payloads. Mark S. Goll and David W. Dunham Texas Rocket Company and Kinetx Inc. A Sounding Rocket Launch Technique For Pico Satellite Payloads Mark S. Goll and David W. Dunham Texas Rocket Company and Kinetx Inc. Texas Rocket Company 19785 Marbach Lane San Antonio, Texas 78266 ABSTRACT

More information

ANGARA 1. IDENTIFICATION. 1.1 Name. 1.2 Classification. Family : ANGARA Series : ANGARA Version : ANGARA 1.1

ANGARA 1. IDENTIFICATION. 1.1 Name. 1.2 Classification. Family : ANGARA Series : ANGARA Version : ANGARA 1.1 1. IDENTIFICATION 1.1 Name 1.2 Classification Family : Series : Version : 1.1 Category : SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE Class : Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) Type : Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) 1.3 Manufacturer

More information

Cessna Skyhawk II / 100. Performance Assessment

Cessna Skyhawk II / 100. Performance Assessment Cessna Skyhawk II / 100 Performance Assessment Prepared by John McIver B.Eng.(Aero) Temporal Images 23rd January 2003 http://www.temporal.com.au Cessna Skyhawk II/100 (172) Performance Assessment 1. Introduction

More information

Can Hubble be Moved to the International Space Station? 1

Can Hubble be Moved to the International Space Station? 1 Can Hubble be Moved to the International Space Station? 1 On January 16, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe informed scientists and engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) that plans to service

More information

A Shuttle Flight LAUNCH!

A Shuttle Flight LAUNCH! The Space Shuttle 1 LAUNCH! The Space Shuttle is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida. A Shuttle flight takes months of careful preparation. Each launch is preceded by a countdown,

More information

Aircraft Theory of Flight and Operation

Aircraft Theory of Flight and Operation Aircraft Theory of Flight and Operation Unit: 1 Content Standard(s) and Safety 1. Apply safety rules, regulations, and procedures for the Aviation Technology program, including safety concerns in the areas

More information

Orbital Dynamics: Formulary

Orbital Dynamics: Formulary Orbital Dynamics: Formulary 1 Introduction Prof. Dr. D. Stoffer Department of Mathematics, ETH Zurich Newton s law of motion: The net force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by

More information

Light Aircraft Design

Light Aircraft Design New: Sport Pilot (LSA) The Light Aircraft Design Computer Program Package - based on MS-Excelapplication was now extented with the new Sport Pilots (LSA) loads module, which includes compliance for the

More information

Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60

Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Unit 66: Theory of Flight Unit code: QCF Level 3: Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose A/600/7123 BTEC Nationals This unit will provide learners with an understanding of the atmosphere

More information

AIRBORNE ANALYTICAL FLIGHT RISK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HELICOPTERS

AIRBORNE ANALYTICAL FLIGHT RISK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HELICOPTERS Latest Research and Development Projects INSTITUTE FOR RISK PROBLEMS (IPR) AIRBORNE ANALYTICAL FLIGHT RISK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HELICOPTERS Contact information: 5, K. Marksa st., Ramenskoye, Moscow Region,

More information

IN FLIGHT MANEUVERS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES C-172

IN FLIGHT MANEUVERS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES C-172 Flight Training and Aircraft Rentals 14150 14532 SW 129th St. MIAMI, FL. 33186 www.flymiami.com 305-259-5611 IN FLIGHT MANEUVERS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES C-172 Normal Cruise: Straight and level flight

More information

WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS Weeks 12

WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS Weeks 12 ENGG378/948 Sustainable Energy Technologies WIN ENERGY SYSTEMS Weeks Theory of horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) Airfoils erivation of Blade Element Momentum Theory Solution procedure Objectives of lecture

More information

LEADER GUIDE for MODULE ONE

LEADER GUIDE for MODULE ONE LEADER GUIDE for MODULE ONE INTRODUCTION TO FLIGHT Chapter One Flight Learning Outcomes--Upon completion of this chapter, the cadet should know: The relationship between Bernoulli s Principle, Newton s

More information

Rocket Principles. Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology EG-108 February Outside Air Pressure

Rocket Principles. Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology EG-108 February Outside Air Pressure Rocket Principles Outside ir Pressure Inside ir Pressure ir Moves Balloon Moves rocket in its simplest form is a chamber enclosing a gas under pressure. small opening at one end of the chamber allows the

More information

Ideal Jet Propulsion Cycle

Ideal Jet Propulsion Cycle Ideal Jet ropulsion Cycle Gas-turbine engines are widely used to power aircrafts because of their light-weight, compactness, and high power-to-weight ratio. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle

More information

Gas Turbine Engine Performance Analysis. S. Jan

Gas Turbine Engine Performance Analysis. S. Jan Gas Turbine Engine Performance Analysis S. Jan Jul. 21 2014 Chapter 1 Basic Definitions Potential & Kinetic Energy PE = mgz/g c KE = mv 2 /2g c Total Energy Operational Envelopes & Standard Atmosphere

More information

A MONTE CARLO DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF A ROCKET FLIGHT SIMULATION SOFTWARE

A MONTE CARLO DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF A ROCKET FLIGHT SIMULATION SOFTWARE A MONTE CARLO DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF A ROCKET FLIGHT SIMULATION SOFTWARE F. SAGHAFI, M. KHALILIDELSHAD Department of Aerospace Engineering Sharif University of Technology E-mail: saghafi@sharif.edu Tel/Fax:

More information

Building Planetary Orbits (the Feynman way)

Building Planetary Orbits (the Feynman way) Building Planetary Orbits (the Feynman way) Using a method of computing known as finite differences we can quickly calculate the geometry of any planetary orbit. All we need are a starting position and

More information

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 20 Conservation Equations in Fluid Flow Part VIII Good morning. I welcome you all

More information

Design and Structural Analysis of the Ribs and Spars of Swept Back Wing

Design and Structural Analysis of the Ribs and Spars of Swept Back Wing Design and Structural Analysis of the Ribs and Spars of Swept Back Wing Mohamed Hamdan A 1, Nithiyakalyani S 2 1,2 Assistant Professor, Aeronautical Engineering & Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur,

More information

The Four Fundamental Flight Maneuvers: by: Darryl Kalthof c2010

The Four Fundamental Flight Maneuvers: by: Darryl Kalthof  c2010 The Four Fundamental Flight Maneuvers: by: Darryl Kalthof www.bayareaflyinglessons.com c2010 Note you will get even more out of this file if you read a chapter on aerodynamics first! Elements: Effect and

More information

NACA Nomenclature NACA 2421. NACA Airfoils. Definitions: Airfoil Geometry

NACA Nomenclature NACA 2421. NACA Airfoils. Definitions: Airfoil Geometry 0.40 m 0.21 m 0.02 m NACA Airfoils 6-Feb-08 AE 315 Lesson 10: Airfoil nomenclature and properties 1 Definitions: Airfoil Geometry z Mean camber line Chord line x Chord x=0 x=c Leading edge Trailing edge

More information

Content must not be changed in any way or reproduced in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holder(s)

Content must not be changed in any way or reproduced in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holder(s) nn Ferguson, K., and Thomson, D. (2015) Performance comparison between a conventional helicopter and compound helicopter configurations. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G:

More information

At What True Anomaly Should I Perform a Burn If I Want To Minimize Fuel Usage?

At What True Anomaly Should I Perform a Burn If I Want To Minimize Fuel Usage? At What True Anomaly Should I Perform a Burn If I Want To Minimize Fuel Usage? In this exercise you will create a scenario that will help you change the orbit of a satellite that is not at the proper altitude.

More information

INLET AND EXAUST NOZZLES Chap. 10 AIAA AIRCRAFT ENGINE DESIGN R01-07/11/2011

INLET AND EXAUST NOZZLES Chap. 10 AIAA AIRCRAFT ENGINE DESIGN R01-07/11/2011 MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AEROSPACE ENGINEERING PROPULSION AND COMBUSTION INLET AND EXAUST NOZZLES Chap. 10 AIAA AIRCRAFT ENGINE DESIGN R01-07/11/2011 LECTURE NOTES AVAILABLE ON https://www.ingegneriaindustriale.unisalento.it/scheda_docente/-/people/antonio.ficarella/materiale

More information

State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used. 5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

More information

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

More information

Flight path optimization for an airplane

Flight path optimization for an airplane Flight path optimization for an airplane Dorothée Merle Master's Thesis Submission date: June 2011 Supervisor: Per-Åge Krogstad, EPT Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Energy

More information