# The Euler class group of a polynomial algebra

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1 The Euler class group of a polynomial algebra Mrinal Kanti Das Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad. Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad , India. 1 Introduction Let A be a smooth affine domain of dimension n over a field k and I be a prime ideal of A[T ] of height r such that A[T ]/I is smooth and 2r n + 3. Let f 1 (T ),, f r (T ) I such that I = (f 1 (T ),, f r (T )) + (I 2 T ). Furthermore, assume that A/(f 1 (0),, f r (0)) is also smooth. In this set up Nori asked the following question (for motivation, see ([M 2], Introduction): Question: Do there exist g 1,, g r such that I = (g 1,, g r ) with g i f i (I 2 T )? This question has been answered affirmatively by Mandal ([M 2]) when I contains a monic polynomial, even without any smoothness assumptions. When I does not contain a monic polynomial, Nori s question has been answered in the affirmative in the following cases: 1) A is a local ring of a smooth affine algebra over an infinite field ([M-V], Theorem 4). 2) A is a smooth affine algebra over an infinite field and r = n (i.e dim A[T ]/I = 1) ([B-RS 1], Theorem 3.8). Moreover, an example is given in ([B-RS 1], Example 6.4) in the case when dim (A[T ]/I) = 1, which shows that the question of Nori does not have an affirmative answer in general without the smoothness assumption. So, in view of this example of ([B-RS 1]) one wonders where the obstruc- 1

2 tion for I to have a set of generators satisfying the required properties lies. In this paper we investigate this question when dim A[T ]/I = 1. Taking a cue from the above result of Mandal, we prove Theorem. Let A be a Noetherian ring of dimension n 3, containing the field of rationals. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n. Suppose that I = (f 1,, f n ) + (I 2 T ) and there exist F 1,, F n IA(T ) such that IA(T ) = (F 1,, F n ) and F i = f i mod I 2 A(T ). Then, there exist g 1,, g n such that I = (g 1,, g n ) and g i = f i mod (I 2 T ). Let A be a Noetherian ring of dimension n 2 and let J A be an ideal of height r such that J/J 2 is generated by r elements. It is of interest to know when a set of r generators of J/J 2 can be lifted to a set of r generators of J. This question was investigated in ([B-RS 3]) for ideals of height n, where, an abelian group E n (A), called the Euler class group of A is defined and corresponding to a set of generators of J/J 2 an element of this group is attached and it is shown that this set of generators of J/J 2 can be lifted to a set of generators of J if the corresponding element of E n (A) is zero. Now let R = A[T ] where A is a Noetherian ring of dimension n. Since every ideal I A[T ] of height n + 1 contains a monic polynomial, it can be shown, using a result of Mandal ([M 1]), that E n+1 (R) = 0. As one of the interesting consequences of our theorem, we can define a notion of the n th Euler class group of A[T ] (denoted by E n (A[T ])), where A is a Noetherian ring of dimension n. Further, to any set of n generators of I/I 2 where I A[T ] is an ideal of height n we attach an element of this group and show that if this element is zero, then the set of generators of I/I 2 can be lifted to a set of generators of I (Theorem 4.7). Moreover, there is a canonical injective homomorphism from E n (A) to E n (A[T ]) which is an isomorphism when A is a smooth affine domain over an infinite field. (This is an algebraic analogue of a well known result in algebraic topology as if A is a smooth affine domain over reals, then the set X of real points of Spec A is a manifold of dimension n and the groups E n (A) and E n (A[T ]) are algebraic analogues of the n-th cohomology groups H n (X) and H n (X I).) The layout of this paper is as follows: In Section 3, we prove our main theorem (3.10). In Section 4, as an application of our main theorem, we define the notion of the n th Euler class group of A[T ], as mentioned above. We also define the n th Euler class of a pair (P, χ), where, P is a projective A[T ]- 2

3 module of rank n (with trivial determinant) and χ is a generator of n (P ). In this section we also prove our main theorem in a more general form (4.8) and derive several analogoues of results of ([B-RS 3], Section 4) as consequences (see, for example, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12). In Section 5, a Quillen-Suslin theory for Euler class groups is developed. We prove a local-global principle for Euler class groups (5.4), which is an analogue of the Quillen localization theorem. An analogue of local Horrocks theorem is also proved. In Section 6, we define the notion of the n th weak Euler class group E0 n (A[T ]) which is a certain quotient of E n (A[T ]). Section 7 deals with the case when dimension of the base ring is two. In this section we prove a weaker version of the main theorem and apply it to obtain results similar to those in Sections 4, 5 and 6. In Section 2, we define some of the terms used in the paper and quote some results which are used in later sections. 2 Some preliminaries In this section we define some of the terms used in the paper and state some results for later use. All rings considered in this paper are commutative and Noetherian and all modules considered are assumed to be finitely generated. For a module M over a ring, µ(m) will denote the minimal number of generators of M. Definition 2.1 Let A be a ring. A row (a 1, a 2,, a n ) A n is said to be unimodular if there exist b 1, b 2,, b n in A such that a 1 b a n b n = 1. Definition 2.2 Let A be a Noetherian ring. Let P be a projective A-module. An element p P is said to be unimodular if there exists a linear map φ : P A such that φ(p) = 1. We now state a theorem of Serre ([S]). Theorem 2.3 Let A be a Noetherian ring with dim A = d. Then any projective A-module having rank > d has a unimodular element. As an immediate consequence we have 3

4 Corollary 2.4 Let A be a Noetherian ring with dim A = 1. Then any projective A-module having trivial determinant is free. The following lemma has been proved in ([B]). Lemma 2.5 Let A be a ring and J A be an ideal of height r. Let P, Q be projective A/J-modules of rank r and let α : P J/J 2 and β : Q J/J 2 be surjections. Let ψ : P Q be a homomorphism such that βψ = α. Then ψ is an isomorphism. The following lemma is easy to prove and hence we omit the proof. Lemma 2.6 Let A be a Noetherian ring and P a finitely generated projective A- module. Let P [T ] denote projective A[T ]-module P A[T ]. Let α(t ) : P [T ] A[T ] and β(t ) : P [T ] A[T ] be two surjections such that α(0) = β(0). Suppose further that the projective A[T ]-modules ker α(t ) and ker β(t ) are extended from A. Then there exists an automorphism σ(t ) of P [T ] with σ(0) = id such that β(t )σ(t ) = α(t ). The next lemma follows from the well known Quillen Splitting Lemma ([Q], Lemma 1) and its proof is essentially contained in ([Q], Theorem 1). Lemma 2.7 Let A be a Noetherian ring and P be a finitely generated projective A-module. Let s, t A be such that As + At = A. Let σ(t ) be an A st [T ]- automorphism of P st [T ] such that σ(0) = id. Then, σ(t ) = α(t ) s β(t ) t, where α(t ) is an A t [T ]-automorphism of P t [T ] such that α(t ) = id modulo the ideal (st ) and β(t ) is an A s [T ]-automorphism of P s [T ] such that β(t ) = id modulo the ideal (tt ). Now we state two useful lemmas. The proofs of these can be found in ([B-RS 1]). Lemma 2.8 Let A be a Noetherian ring and let I be an ideal of A. Let J, K be ideals of A contained in I such that K I 2 and J + K = I. Then there exists c K such that I = (J, c). 4

5 Lemma 2.9 Let A be a Noetherian ring containing an infinite field k and let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n. Then there exists λ k such that either I(λ) = A or I(λ) is an ideal of height n in A, where I(λ) = {f(λ) : f(t ) I}. Now we quote a theorem of Eisenbud-Evans ([E-E]), as stated in ([P]). Theorem 2.10 Let A be a ring and M be a finitely generated A-module. Let S be a subset of Spec A and d : S N be a generalized dimension function. Assume that µ Q (M) 1 + d(q) for all Q S. Let (m, a) M A be basic at all prime ideals Q S. Then there exists an element m M such that m + am is basic at all primes Q S. As a consequence of (2.10), we have the following corollary. For a proof one can look at ([B-RS 3], 2.13). Corollary 2.11 Let A be a ring and P be a projective A-module of rank n. Let (α, a) (P A). Then there exists an element β P such that ht (I a ) n, where I = (α + aβ)(p ). In particular, if the ideal (α(p ), a) has height n then ht I n. Further, if (α(p ), a) is an ideal of height n and I is a proper ideal of A, then ht I = n. The following lemma is an application of (2.8) and (2.11). Its proof is essentially contained in ([B-RS 3], 2.14). Lemma 2.12 Let A be a Noetherian ring of dimension n 2 and let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n and let α : P/IP I/I 2 be a surjection. Then there exists an ideal I A[T ] and a surjection β : P I I such that: (i) I + I = A[T ]. (ii) β A[T ]/I = α. (iii) ht (I ) n. (iv) Furthermore, given finitely many ideals I 1, I 2,, I r of height 2, I can be chosen with the additional property that I is comaximal with each of them. Definition 2.13 Let A be a commutative Noetherian ring, P a projective A[T ]- module. Let J(A, P ) A consist of all those a A such that P a is extended from A a. It follows from ([Q], Theorem 1), that J(A, P ) is an ideal and J(A, P ) = J(A, P ). This is called the Quillen ideal of P in A. 5

6 Remark 2.14 It is easy to deduce from Quillen-Suslin theorem ([Q], [Su1]) that ht J(A, P ) 1. If determinant of P is extended from A, then by ([B-R], 3.1), ht J(A, P ) 2. The following result is due to Lindel ([L], Theorem 2.6). Theorem 2.15 Let A be a commutative Noetherian ring with dim A = d and R = A[T 1,, T n ]. Let P be a projective R-module of rank max(2, d + 1). Then E(P R) acts transitively on the set of unimodular elements of P R. 3 Main theorem In this section we prove the main theorem. This section is divided into two parts. 3.1 The semilocal case In this part we prove the main theorem in semilocal situation. We need the following lemmas and propositions. Lemma 3.1 Let B be a Noetherian ring with dim B = n and J B be an ideal contained in the Jacobson radical of B. Let I B[T ] be an ideal such that I + JB[T ] = B[T ]. Then any maximal ideal of B[T ] containing I has height n. Proof Suppose M B[T ] is a maximal ideal of height n + 1. Then M B is a maximal ideal of B. Hence M B contains J. Since I + JB[T ] = B[T ], it follows that I is not contained in M. This proves the lemma. The following proposition is implicit in ([N]). We give a proof for the sake of completeness. Proposition 3.2 Let A be a semilocal ring and I A be an ideal such that I = (a 1,, a n ) + L, where L is an ideal contained in I 2 and n 1. Then, I = (b 1,, b n ) with a i = b i mod L. 6

7 Proof Since I = (a 1,, a n ) + L and L I 2, from (2.8) we get, I = (a 1,, a n, e) where e L is such that e(1 e) (a 1,, a n ). So, if L is contained in the Jacobson radical of A, we have I = (a 1,, a n ). Suppose that L is not contained in the Jacobson radical of A and say, M 1,, M r are those maximal ideals which do not contain L. After rearranging the M i s we may assume that a 1 belongs to M 1,, M t and does not belong to M t+1,, M r. By Prime avoidance we can choose b L M t+1 M r such that b / M 1 M t. Then a 1 + b, a 2,, a n generate I as they do so locally. As a consequence we have the following corollary. Corollary 3.3 Let R be a semilocal ring and K R[T ] be an ideal containing a monic polynomial. Suppose that K = (g 1,, g n ) + (K 2 T ) where n 2. Then K = (k 1,, k n ) such that, k 1 is monic and k i = g i mod (K 2 T ). Proof Let f K be monic. Adding f p T (p 2) to g 1 for suitably large p we can assume that g 1 is monic. Let A = R[T ]/(g 1 ) and bar denote reduction modulo (g 1 ). It is clear that A is a semilocal ring. Now, K = (g 2,, g n )+(K 2 T ). From the proof of the above proposition it follows that K = (g 2 + h,, g n ) where h (K 2 T ). So, h = k + g 1 l, where k (K 2 T ) and l R[T ]. Now it is clear that K = (g 1, g 2 + k, g 3,, g n ). The following lemma is an analogue of Mandal s theorem (2.1 of [M 2], or 2.2 of [M-RS]). Lemma 3.4 Let C be a ring and M C[Y ] be an ideal which contains a monic polynomial and is such that the ring C 1+L is semilocal, where L = M C. Suppose that M/(M 2 Y ) is generated by n elements (n 2). Then, any set of n generators of M/(M 2 Y ) can be lifted to a set of n generators of M. Proof Suppose that M = (F 1,, F n ) + (M 2 Y ). We can clearly assume that F 1 is monic. Going to C 1+L [Y ] and applying the corollary above we get that M 1+L = (F 1, G, F 3,, F n ) where G F 2 (M 2 Y ) 1+L. Therefore we can find s L such that, M 1+s = (F 1, G, F 3,, F n ) and G F 2 (M 2 Y ) 1+s. Now we can adapt the proof of ([M 2], 2.1) to get the result. 7

8 With the above lemma in hand one can prove the following analogue of a theorem of Mandal-Raja Sridharan (Theorem 2.3, [M-RS]). Lemma 3.5 Let C be a ring. Let M, N C[Y ] be ideals such that 1. M contains a monic polynomial. 2. C 1+L is semilocal where L = M C. 3. N = N(0)[Y ] is an extended ideal. 4. M + N = C[Y ]. Let J = M N. Suppose J(0) = (a 1,, a n ) and M = (F 1 (Y ),, F n (Y )) + M 2 such that F i (0) = a i mod M(0) 2. Then J = (G 1 (Y ),, G n (Y )) with G i (0) = a i. Proof Same as in [M-RS]. Now we turn to the main problem. We first state a lemma whose proof is the same as that of ([B-RS 3], 5.3). Lemma 3.6 Let R be a semilocal ring of dimension n 3, I R[T ] be an ideal of height n such that I + J R[T ] = R[T ] where J is the Jacobson radical of R. Let ω I : (R[T ]/I) n I/I 2 be a surjection. Suppose that ω I can be lifted to a surjection α : R[T ] n I. Let f R[T ] be a unit modulo I and θ GL n (R[T ]/I) be such that det (θ) = f 2. Then, the surjection ω I θ : (R[T ]/I) n I/I 2 can be lifted to a surjection β : R[T ] n I. Now we prove the semilocal version of the main question in the following form. Theorem 3.7 Let R be a semilocal ring with dim R = n 3 and I be an ideal of R[T ] of height n such that I + J R[T ] = R[T ], where J is the Jacobson radical of R. Suppose that I = (f 1,, f n ) + (I 2 T ). Also suppose that, IR(T ) = (u 1,, u n ) such that u i = f i mod I 2 R(T ). Then, there exist h 1,, h n I such that I = (h 1,, h n ) and h i = f i mod (I 2 T ). Proof Since I + J R[T ] = R[T ], it follows that I is not contained in any ideal which contains a monic polynomial and hence, any monic polynomial of R[T ] is unit modulo I. In particular, I(0) = R. 8

9 We also note that, to prove the theorem, it is enough to prove that I = (h 1,, h n ) with h i = f i mod I 2. Let us briefly explain why this is so. Consider the unimodular rows (f 1 (0),, f n (0)) and (h 1 (0),, h n (0)) over the semilocal ring R. Since E n (R) acts transitively on the set of unimodular rows over a semilocal ring R, there is a θ E n (R) such that (h 1 (0),, h n (0))θ = (f 1 (0),, f n (0)). Suppose that θ = ΠE ij (r ij ), where r ij R. Since I(0) = R, we can find f ij I such that f ij (0) = r ij. We consider the elementary matrix θ = ΠE ij (f ij ) E n (R[T ]). Then, it is easy to see that (h 1,, h n )θ is a desired set of generators of I. We give the proof in steps. Step 1. We have, I = (f 1,, f n ) + I 2. From the given condition we see that there is a monic polynomial f R[T ] such that I f = (u 1,, u n ), where u i = f i mod I f 2. Let f k be so chosen such that f 2k u i I, 1 i n. Write f 2k u i = g i. Then, I = (g 1,, g n ) + I 2 and g i f 2k f i I 2. Now I = (g 1,, g n ) + I 2 implies that (g 1,, g n ) = I K where K is an ideal of R[T ] such that K + I = R[T ]. Since I f = (g 1,, g n ) f, we see that K f = R[T ] f, i.e. K contains a monic polynomial. Also note that K = (g 1,, g n ) + K 2. Since f is a unit modulo I, by (3.6), it is enough to get I = (m 1,, m n ) where, m i f 2k f i I 2. Therefore it is enough to get I = (m 1,, m n ) with m i g i I 2. Step 2. Using (3.3) we find that K = (k 1,, k n ) such that k i = g i mod K 2. Note that k 1 is a monic polynomial. The row (k 1,, k n ) is unimodular mod I 2. Since k 1 is monic, it is unit mod I 2. Therefore we can elementarily transform the above row so that k n = 1 mod I 2 ( note that this transformation does not affect k 1 ). Since elementary transformations can be lifted via surjection of rings, we can find σ E n (R[T ]), which is a lift of the above elementary transformation. Let (g 1,, g n )σ = (h 1,, h n ). Therefore, we have I K = (h 1,, h n ), K = (k 1,, k n ) and h i = k i mod K 2. ( We are still calling the new set of generators of K as (k 1,, k n ). ) Write C = R[T ] and consider the following ideals in the polynomial extension C[Y ]: M = (k 1,, k n 1, Y + k n ), N = IC[Y ], J = M N. 9

10 Clearly M + N = C[Y ]. Suppose L = M C. Since k 1 L is a monic polynomial in T, we see that C/L = R[T ]/L is integral over R/(L R). Therefore C/L is a semilocal ring as R/(L R) is so. Consequently, C 1+L is also semilocal. So conditions 1-4 of (3.5) are satisfied. We have J(0) = I K = (h 1,, h n ) and M = (k 1,, k n 1, Y + k n ) where k i = h i mod M(0) 2. Therefore, applying (3.5), we get, J = (G 1 (Y ),, G n (Y )) such that G i (0) = h i. Putting Y = 1 k n we get I = J(1 k n ) = (G 1 (1 k n ),, G n (1 k n )). Now k n = 1 mod I 2 implies that G i (1 k n ) = h i mod I 2. Writing l i for G i (1 k n ) we have I = (l 1,, l n ) with l i = h i mod I 2. Let (l 1,, l n )σ 1 = (m 1,, m n ). Then, clearly m i = g i mod I 2 where I = (m 1,, m n ). This completes the proof. 3.2 The general case Now we proceed to prove the main theorem. We begin with a lemma. Lemma 3.8 Let A be a Noetherian ring containing the field of rationals with dim A = n 2, I A[T ] an ideal of height n. Let P be a projective A[T ]- module of rank n. Write J = I J(A, P ) where J(A, P ) is the Quillen ideal of P in A and B = A 1+J. Suppose that there is a surjection φ : P I/(I 2 T ). Assume further that there exists a surjection θ : P 1+J I 1+J such that θ is a lift of φ B. Then there exists a surjection Φ : P I such that Φ is a lift of φ. Proof We choose an element s J such that θ : P 1+s I 1+s is surjective. Note that since s J(A, P ), the projective A s [T ]-module P s is extended. Let φ s (0) denote the map (P/T P ) s I(0) s induced from φ s by setting T = 0 and γ = φ s (0) A s [T ] : P s I s (= A s [T ]). Then the elements θ A s(1+sa) [T ] and γ A s(1+sa) [T ] are unimodular elements of Ps(1+sA) and they are equal modulo (T ). Since dim A s(1+sa) n 1, rank P = n 10

11 and A contains the field of rationals, by ([R], Corollary 2.5), the kernels of the surjections θ A s(1+sa) [T ] and γ A s(1+sa) [T ] are locally free projective modules and hence by Quillen s local-global principle ([Q], Theorem 1), these kernels are projective modules which are extended from A s(1+sa). Hence, by (2.6), there exists an automorphism σ of P s(1+sa) such that σ = id modulo (T ) and (θ A s(1+sa) [T ])σ = γ A s(1+sa) [T ]. Therefore, there exists an element t A of the form 1+rs such that t is a multiple of 1+s and σ is an automorphism of P st with σ = id modulo (T ) and (θ A st [T ])σ = γ A st [T ]. We note that, since s J(A, P ), it follows that P st is extended from A st. Since P st is extended, we can adjoin a new variable W and consider the A st [T, W ]-automorphism of P st [W ] given by τ(w ) = σ(t W ). Since τ(0) is identity, by (2.7), it follows that τ = α s β t, where α is an A t [T, W ]- automorphism of P t [W ] such that α = id modulo the ideal (st W ) and β is an A s [T, W ]-automorphism of P s [W ] such that β = id modulo the ideal (tt W ). Putting W = 1 and using a standard patching argument, we see that the surjections (θ A t [T ]).α(1) : P t I t and (γ A s [T ]).β(1) 1 : P s I s patch to yield a surjection Φ : P I. It is easy to see that Φ is a lift of φ. This proves the lemma. The following is a restatement of (Lemma 3.6, [B-RS 1]) in our set up. We give the proof for the sake of completeness. Lemma 3.9 Let A be a Noetherian ring of dimension n 3, I A[T ] an ideal of height n and J be any ideal contained in I A such that ht J 2. Let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n. Suppose ψ : P I/(I 2 T ) is a surjection. Then we can find a lift φ Hom A[T ] (P, I) of ψ, such that the ideal φ(p ) = I satisfies the following properties: (i) I + (J 2 T ) = I. (ii)i = I I, where ht (I ) n. (iii) I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ]. Proof We choose any lift φ Hom A[T ] (P, I) of ψ. Since φ(p ) + (I 2 T ) = I, by (2.8) we can choose b (I 2 T ) such that (φ(p ), b) = I. Let C = A[T ]/(J 2 T ) and bar denote reduction modulo (J 2 T ). Now applying (2.11) to the element (φ, b) of P A[T ]/(J 2 T ), we see that, there exists β P, such that if N = (φ + bβ)(p ), then ht (N b ) n. 11

12 Since b (I 2 T ), the element φ+bβ is also a lift of ψ. Therefore, replacing φ by φ + bβ, we may assume that N = φ(p ). Now as (N, b) = I and b (I 2 T ), it follows that N = I K, (K, b) = A[T ]. Since b I, N b = K b. Therefore we have (1) N = I K with ht (K) = ht (K b ) = ht (N b ) n. (2) (b) + K = C. We claim that K = C. Assume, to the contrary, that K is a proper ideal of C. Since b (I 2 T ), in view of (1) and (2), we have n ht (K) = ht (K T ) dim (C T ) = dim (A/J 2 )[T, T 1 ] = dim (A/J) + 1 (n 2) + 1 = n 1. This is a contradiction. Thus K = C and φ(p ) + (J 2 T ) = I. This proves (i). We choose, by (2.8), an element c (J 2 T ) such that (φ(p ), c) = I. As before, using (2.11), we can add a suitable multiple of c to φ and assume that the ideal φ(p ) = I satisfies (ii) and (iii). This proves the lemma. Now we prove the main theorem. The proof of this theorem is motivated by ([B-RS 1], Theorem 3.8). Theorem 3.10 Let A be a Noetherian ring of dimension n 3, containing the field of rationals. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n. Suppose that I = (f 1,, f n ) + (I 2 T ) and there exist F 1,, F n IA(T ) such that IA(T ) = (F 1,, F n ) and F i = f i mod I 2 A(T ). Then, there exist g 1,, g n such that I = (g 1,, g n ) and g i = f i mod (I 2 T ). Proof We give the proof of the theorem in steps. Step 1. Let J = I A. Applying lemma (3.9) we get k 1,, k n I and an ideal I A[T ] of height n such that, (i) (k 1,, k n ) + (J 2 T ) = I where k i = f i mod (I 2 T ), (ii) (k 1,, k n ) = I I, (iii) I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ]. Let J = I A. We claim that dim (A/(J + J )) = 0. Proof of the claim. Since ht (I) = n and ht (I ) n, we have dim A/J 1 and dim A/J 1. Without loss of generality we may assume that dim 12

13 A/J = dim A/J = 1. It suffices to show that there is no prime ideal Q of A containing J and J and having the property that dim A/Q = 1. Suppose, to the contrary, that such a prime ideal exists. Let I = K 1 K 2 K r be a primary decomposition of I, with Kl = P l. Then J = (K 1 A) (K r A). Since dim A/J =dim A/Q = 1, it follows that Q is minimal over J. therefore Q = P l A for some l. We have K l = P l I + QA[T ] I + JA[T ]. But by property (iii) of (3.9), I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ]. This yields a contradiction and proves the claim. Step 2. Write B = A 1+J. We have, from (3.9), I I = (k 1,, k n ) and the ideals I and I are comaximal. Going to the ring B[T ] we get, IB[T ] I B[T ] = (k 1,, k n )B[T ]. Therefore, I B[T ] = (k 1,, k n )B[T ] + I 2 B[T ]. Now as I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ], we have I (0) = A. Note that JB is contained in the Jacobson radical of B. We claim that we can lift the above set of generators of I B[T ]/I 2 B[T ] to a set of generators of I B[T ], i.e., there exist l 1,, l n I B[T ] such that I B[T ] = (l 1,, l n ) and l i = k i mod I 2 B[T ]. Proof of the claim. Since I B[T ] = (k 1,, k n ) + I 2 B[T ] and I (0) = A, it is easy to see, using the Chinese remainder theorem, that there exist α 1,, α n such that I B[T ] = (α 1,, α n ) + (I 2 T )B[T ], where α i = k i mod I 2 B[T ]. Write R = B 1+J B. In order to prove the claim, in view of (3.8), it is enough to show that I R[T ] = (β 1,, β n ) such that β i = α i modulo (I 2 T )R[T ]. Since R = B 1+J B = A 1+J+J, it follows from Step 1 that R is semilocal. Now we consider the ring R(T ). Using the subtraction principle ([B-RS 3], 3.3), we get I R(T ) = (v 1,, v n ) with the property that v i = α i modulo I 2 R(T ). Therefore, by (3.7), we obtain a set of n generators of I R[T ] with the desired property. Thus the claim is proved. Step 3. Recall that we have : (i) (k 1,, k n ) + (J 2 T ) = I. (ii) (k 1,, k n ) = I I, ht (I ) = n. (iii) I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ]. 13

14 (iv) (l 1,, l n ) = I B[T ], such that l i = k i mod I 2 B[T ]. Since I B[T ] + (J 2 T )B[T ] = B[T ], it follows that the row (l 1,, l n ) is unimodular modulo (J 2 T )B[T ]. Let D = B[T ]/(J 2 T )B[T ] and bar denote reduction modulo (J 2 T )B[T ]. We want to show that (l 1,, l n ) Um n (D) can be elementarily transformed to (1, 0,, 0). Since JB is contained in the Jacobson radical of B, it is easy to see that JD is contained in the Jacobson radical of D. Therefore, it suffices to show that the row (l 1,, l n ) can be elementarily completed over the ring D/JD. But this follows from (2.15) because D/JD (A/J)[T ], dim A/J 1 and n 3. Since elementary transformations can be lifted via surjection of rings, it follows that there is an elementary automorphism τ E n (B[T ]) such that (l 1,, l n )τ = (m 1,, m n ) where (m 1,, m n ) = (1, 0,, 0) modulo (J 2 T )B[T ]. Applying (2.11), we can find d 1,, d n 1 B[T ] such that ht ((m 1 + d 1 m n,, m n 1 + d n 1 m n ) mn ) n 1. We write h i = m i + d i m n, i = 1, 2,, n 1. Since I B[T ] = (h 1,, h n 1, m n ) and ht (I ) n, it is easy to verify that ht (h 1,, h n 1 ) = n 1. We have (h 1,, h n 1 ) + (J 2 T )B[T ] = B[T ] and we note that (J 2 T )B[T ] is contained in the Jacobson radical of B. Therefore, it follows from (3.1) that dim B[T ]/(h 1,, h n 1 ) 1. We take h n = h 1 + m n. Then h n = 1 modulo (J 2 T )B[T ]. Note that the automorphism of B[T ] which transforms (l 1,, l n ) to (h 1,, h n ) is elementary. Let us call it σ. Step 4. Recall that we have IB[T ] I B[T ] = (k 1,, k n )B[T ] and I B[T ] = (l 1,, l n ) such that l i = k i mod I 2 B[T ] for i = 1,, n. From Step 3 we have σ E n (B[T ]) such that (l 1,, l n )σ = (h 1,, h n ). Therefore, I B[T ] = (h 1,, h n ). Let (k 1,, k n )σ = (u 1,, u n ). Then, since σ is elementary, IB[T ] I B[T ] = (u 1,, u n ). Also note that h i = u i modulo I 2 B[T ] for i = 1,, n. Let C = B[T ], R = C[Y ]. Let K 1 be the ideal (h 1,, h n 1, Y + h n ) of R, K 2 = IC[Y ] and K 3 = K 1 K 2. Since from Step 3 we have dim B[T ]/(h 1,, h n 1 ) 1, we see that 14

15 all the conditions of ([M-RS], Theorem 2.3) are satisfied. Applying that theorem it follows easily that K 3 = (H 1 (T, Y ),, H n (T, Y )) such that H i (T, 0) = u i. Putting Y = 1 h n, we see that IB[T ] = (H 1 (T, 1 h n ),, H n (T, 1 h n )). Since h n = 1 modulo (I 2 T )B[T ], it follows that H i (T, 1 h n ) = H i (T, 0) (= u i ) modulo (I 2 T )B[T ]. Let (H 1 (T, 1 h n ),, H n (T, 1 h n ))σ 1 = (w 1,, w n ). Then, IB[T ] = (w 1,, w n ) whereas w i = k i modulo (I 2 T )B[T ] and hence w i = f i modulo (I 2 T )B[T ]. Now we can apply (3.8) to obtain the desired set of generators of I. This proves the theorem. It is not hard to see that, adapting the same proof, we can prove the main theorem in the following form. Theorem 3.11 Let A, I be as above and P be a projective A-module of rank n with trivial determinant. Suppose there exists a surjection φ : P [T ] I/(I 2 T ). Suppose that φ A(T ) can be lifted to a surjection φ : P [T ] A(T ) IA(T ). Then, there is a surjection ψ : P [T ] I which lifts φ. Another similar result will be proved in the next section (Theorem 4.8). 4 The Euler class group of A[T ] For the rest of the paper, A will denote a commutative Noetherian ring containing the field of rationals. Remark 4.1 Let A be a commutative Noetherian ring containing the field of rationals with dim A = n 3. Let us describe the general method of approach to the problems we will be considering. In the following two sections, we will frequently use our main theorem, proved in the last section. In most cases, we will try to find a suitable ideal I A[T ] of height n and a surjection ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 in such a manner that the question reduces to finding a set of n generators of I which lifts ω I. Now, since 15

16 A contains Q, it follows from (2.9), that there is a λ Q such that either I(λ) = A or I(λ) is of height n. Therefore, if necessary, we can replace T by T λ and assume that I(0) = A or I(0) is of height n. To lift ω I to a surjection from A[T ] n to I, we will consider the induced surjections: ω I(0) (= ω I A[T ]/(T )) : (A/I(0)) n I(0)/I(0) 2 over the ring A and ω I A(T ) : (A(T )/IA(T )) n IA(T )/I 2 A(T ) over A(T ). Since dim (A) = dim (A(T )) = n and there is a well-studied description of Euler class group of an arbitrary Noetherian ring which deals with top height ideals only, using results on them (mostly from [B-RS 3] ), we will ensure that ω I(0) and ω I A(T ) can be lifted. Then we appeal to the main theorem to conclude that ω I is liftable. An explicit description of this method is given in the following proposition. Proposition 4.2 (Addition principle) Let dim A = n 3, and I, J be two comaximal ideals in A[T ], each of height n. Suppose that I = (f 1,, f n ) and J = (g 1,, g n ). Then I J = (h 1,, h n ) where h i = f i mod I 2 and h i = g i mod J 2. Proof Write K = I J. Since I and J are comaximal, the generators of I and J induce a set of generators of K/K 2. Say, K = (k 1,, k n ) + K 2 where k i = f i mod I 2 and k i = g i mod J 2. Since A contains the field of rationals, by (2.9) we get some λ Q such that K(λ) = A or K(λ) has height n. Therefore, if necessary, we can replace T by T λ and assume that K(0) = A or ht (K(0)) = n. If K(0) = A, by (Remark 3.9, [B-RS 1]), we get K = (l 1,, l n ) + (K 2 T ) with l i = k i modulo K 2. Now assume that ht (K(0)) = n. Since I and J are comaximal ideals in A[T ], it is easy to see that K(0) = I(0) J(0). Therefore, ht (I(0)) n and ht (J(0)) n. Both of them cannot equal A, as K(0) is proper. If one of them, say I(0) = A, then K(0) = J(0) = (g 1 (0),, g n (0)) whereas g i (0) = k i (0) modulo J(0) 2. Since I(0) = A, it follows that g i (0) = k i (0) modulo K(0) 2. Therefore, again by (3.9, [B-RS 1]) we can get K = (l 1,, l n ) + (K 2 T ) with l i = k i modulo K 2. Now assume that both I(0) and J(0) are proper ideals. In this case, by the addition principle (Theorem 3.2, [B-RS 3]) we get K(0) = (a 1,, a n ) such that a i = f i (0) modulo I(0) 2 and a i = g i (0) modulo J(0) 2. There- 16

17 fore, a i = k i (0) modulo I(0) 2 and a i = k i (0) modulo J(0) 2, implying that a i = k i (0) modulo K(0) 2. Then, as before, by (3.9, [B-RS 1]) we get K = (l 1,, l n ) + (K 2 T ) with l i = k i modulo K 2. So, in any case, we can lift the given set of generators of K/K 2 to a set of generators of K/(K 2 T ). Now we go to the ring A(T ). Note that dim A(T ) = n. Applying the addition principle (3.2, [B-RS 3]), we get, KA(T ) = ( k 1,, k n ) such that k i = f i modulo I 2 A(T ) and k i = g i modulo J 2 A(T ). Therefore, k i = k i modulo I 2 A(T ) and k i = k i modulo J 2 A(T ) implying that k i = k i modulo K 2 A(T ). Now we can appeal to the main theorem (3.10) and obtain the desired set of generators for K. Proposition 4.3 (Subtraction principle) Let dim A = n 3 and I, J be two comaximal ideals in A[T ], each of height n. Suppose that I = (f 1,, f n ) and I J = (h 1,, h n ) such that h i = f i mod I 2. Then, J = (g 1,, g n ) where h i = g i mod J 2. Proof The method of proof is the same as that of (4.2) and therefore we will just outline the proof here. Let K = I J. As above, we can assume that K(0) = A or ht (K(0)) = n. First note that J = (h 1,, h n )+J 2. If J(0) = A or I(0) = A then, as before, we can lift the above set of generators of J/J 2 to a set of generators of J/(J 2 T ). So assume ht (K(0)) = n and both I(0) and J(0) are proper. Then we can apply the subtraction principle (Theorem 3.3, [B-RS 3]) and conclude that J(0) = (a 1,, a n ) where a i = h i (0) mod J(0) 2. Therefore, by (3.9, [B-RS 1]) again, we get J = (l 1,, l n ) + (J 2 T ). Next we go to the ring A(T ) and apply the subtraction principle(3.3, [B-RS 3]) there to conclude that JA(T ) = ( h 1,, h n ) with h i = h i modulo J 2 A(T ). Therefore, using (3.10) we get the desired set of generators for J. Now we proceed to define the n th Euler class group of A[T ] where A is a commutative Noetherian ring with dim (A) = n 3 and which contains the field of rationals. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n such that I/I 2 is generated by n elements. Let α and β be two surjections from (A[T ]/I) n to I/I 2. We say 17

18 that α and β are related if there exists an automorphism σ of (A[T ]/I) n of determinant 1 such that ασ = β. It follows easily that this is an equivalence relation on the set of surjections from (A[T ]/I) n to I/I 2. Let [α] denote the equivalence class of α. We call such an equivalence class [α] a local orientation of I. We note that following the remark (4.1) it is not hard to derive that if a surjection α from (A[T ]/I) n to I/I 2 can be lifted to a surjection θ : A[T ] n I then so can any β equivalent to α (However, we give a proof below for the convenience of the reader). Therefore, from now on we shall identify a surjection α with the equivalence class [α] to which it belongs. Proposition 4.4 Let α and β be two surjections from (A[T ]/I) n to I/I 2 such that there exists σ SL n (A[T ]/I) with the property that ασ = β. Suppose that α can be lifted to a surjection θ : A[T ] n I. Then β can also be lifted to a surjection φ : A[T ] n I. Proof Since A contains Q, by (2.9) we can find some λ Q such that I(λ) = A or I(λ) is an ideal of height n. If necessary, we can replace T by T λ and assume that either I(0) = A or ht I(0) = n. If I(0) = A, by (Remark 3.9, [B-RS 1]), we can lift β to a surjection γ : A[T ] n I/(I 2 T ). On the other hand, if ht I(0) = n, then we consider the surjections α(0) : (A/I(0)) n I(0)/I(0) 2 and β(0) : (A/I(0)) n I(0)/I(0) 2 and note that α(0)σ(0) = β(0). Since dim (A/I(0)) = 0, we have, SL n (A/I(0)) = E n (A/I(0)) and since elementary matrices can be lifted via a surjection of rings, it follows that σ(0) can be lifted to an element τ E n (A). Composing τ with θ(0) (which is a lift of α(0)), we get a lift of β(0) to a surjection from A n to I(0). So, again by (Remark 3.9, [B-RS 1]), we can lift β to a surjection γ : A[T ] n I/(I 2 T ). Now we move to the ring A(T ) and consider the induced surjections α A(T ) and γ A(T ). Since dim (A(T )/IA(T )) = 0, it follows that SL n (A(T )/IA(T )) = E n (A(T )/IA(T )). Following the same method as in the above paragraph, we get a lift of γ to a surjection from A(T ) n to IA(T ). Now we can apply (3.10) and conclude that β can be lifted to a surjection φ : A[T ] n I. We call a local orientation [α] of I a global orientation of I if the surjection α : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 can be lifted to a surjection θ : A[T ] n I. 18

19 Let G be the free abelian group on the set of pairs (I, ω I ), where I A[T ] is an ideal of height n having the property that Spec (A[T ]/I) is connected and I/I 2 is generated by n elements, and ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 is a local orientation of I. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n. Then I can be decomposed as I = I 1 I r, where the I k s are ideals of A[T ] of height n, pairwise comaximal and Spec (A[T ]/I k ) is connected for each k. The following lemma shows that such a decomposition is unique. We shall say that I k are the connected components of I. Lemma 4.5 The decomposition of I into its connected components, as described above, is unique. Proof Suppose that we have another decomposition I = I 1 I s, where I i are pairwise comaximal and Spec(A[T ]/I i ) is connected. By set topological arguments, it follows that r = s, and after suitably renumbering, that Spec(A[T ]/I i ) = Spec(A[T ]/I i ) for every i. Hence I i = I i. Since I i are pairwise comaximal, it follows that there exists f I 1 and g I 2 I r, such that f + g = 1. Let S be the multiplicative closed set {1, g, g 2, }. It follows easily using the fact that f + g = 1, that I 1 = S 1 I A[T ]. Now using the facts that I i = I i, and I = I 1 I r, it follows easily that I 1 S 1 I A[T ]. Hence, I 1 I 1. Similarly, I 1 I 1. Therefore, I 1 = I 1. Similarly, I i = I i for every i. This proves the lemma. Now assume that I A[T ] be an ideal of height n such that I/I 2 is generated by n elements. Let I = I 1 I r be the decomposition of I into its connected components. Then, ht (I k ) = n and I k /Ik 2 is generated by n elements. Let ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 be a surjection. Then ω I induces surjections ω Ik : (A[T ]/I k ) n I k /Ik 2. By (I, ω I) we mean the element Σ(I k, ω Ik ) of G. Let H be the subgroup of G generated by set of pairs (I, ω I ), where I is an ideal of A[T ] of height n generated by n elements and ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 has the property that ω I can be lifted to a surjection θ : A[T ] n I ( in other words, a global orientation of I). We define the n th Euler class group of A[T ], denoted by E n (A[T ]), to be G/H. By a slight abuse of notation, we will write E(A[T ]) for E n (A[T ]) throughout the paper. 19

20 Let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n having trivial determinant. Let χ : A[T ] n P be an isomorphism. To the pair (P, χ), we associate an element e(p, χ) of E(A[T ]) as follows: Let λ : P I 0 be a surjection, where I 0 is an ideal of A[T ] of height n. Let bar denote reduction modulo I 0. We obtain an induced surjection λ : P/I 0 P I 0 /I0 2. Note that, since P has trivial determinant and dim (A[T ]/I 0 ) 1, by (2.4), P/I 0 P is a free A[T ]/I 0 -module of rank n. We choose an isomorphism γ : (A[T ]/I 0 ) n P/I 0 P, such that n (γ) = χ. Let ω I0 be the surjection λγ : (A[T ]/I 0 ) n I 0 /I0 2. Let e(p, χ) be the image in E(A[T ]) of the element (I 0, ω I0 ). We say that (I 0, ω I0 ) is obtained from the pair (λ, χ). Lemma 4.6 The assignment sending the pair (P, χ) to the element e(p, χ), as described above, is well defined. Proof Let µ : P I 1 be another surjection where I 1 A[T ] is an ideal of height n. Let (I 1, ω I1 ) be obtained from (µ, χ). Applying (2.12) we can find an ideal K A[T ] of height n such that K is comaximal with I 0, I 1 and there is a surjection ν : A[T ] n I 0 K such that ν A[T ]/I 0 = ω I0. Since K and I 0 are comaximal, ν induces a local orientation ω K of K. Clearly, (I 0, ω I0 ) + (K, ω K ) = 0 in E(A[T ]). Let L = K I 1. Note that ω K and ω I1 together induce local orientation ω L of L. We wish to show that (L, ω L ) = 0 in E(A[T ]) which proves the lemma because (L, ω L ) = (K, ω K ) + (I 1, ω I1 ) in E(A[T ]). It is easy to see that applying (2.9) we can assume that each of the ideals K(0), I 0 (0), I 1 (0) in A is either of height n or equal to A. We take the case when ht(k(0)) = ht (I 0 (0)) = ht (I 1 (0)) = n (other cases can be handled similarly). Since e(p/t P, χ A[T ]/(T )) is well defined in E(A) (see [B-RS 3], Section 4), it follows that (L(0), ω L(0) ) = 0 in E(A). Therefore, we can lift ω L to a surjection A[T ] n L/(L 2 T ). On the other hand, using the fact that e(p A(T ), χ A(T )) is well defined in E(A(T )), it follows that ω L A(T ) is a global orientation of LA(T ). Therefore, in view of (4.1), using (3.10) we see that ω L is a global orientation. This proves the lemma. 20

21 We define the Euler class of (P, χ) to be e(p, χ). Theorem 4.7 Let A be of dimension n 3, I A[T ] be an ideal of height n such that I/I 2 is generated by n elements and let ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 be a local orientation of I. Suppose that the image of (I, ω I ) is zero in the Euler Class group E(A[T ]) of A[T ]. Then, I is generated by n elements and ω I can be lifted to a surjection θ : A[T ] n I. Proof Without loss of generality we can assume that either I(0) = A or ht (I(0)) = n. Suppose I(0) A. Now (I, ω I ) gives an element (I(0), ω I(0) ) of E(A). Since (I, ω I ) = 0 in E(A[T ]), we have (I(0), ω I(0) ) = 0 in E(A). Therefore, by (Theorem 4.2, [B-RS 3]), ω I(0) can be lifted to a set of generators of I(0), which in turn implies that ω I can be lifted to a set of generators of I/(I 2 T ). If I(0) = A, we can also lift ω I to a set of generators of I/(I 2 T ). In E(A(T )) also, the element (IA(T ), ω IA(T ) ) is zero, which, by (Theorem 4.2, [B-RS 3]) implies that ω IA(T ) can be lifted to a set of generators of IA(T ). Using (3.10), the theorem follows. Now we prove our main theorem in a more general form. Theorem 4.8 Let A be a Noetherian ring containing Q with dim A = n 3 and I A[T ] be an ideal of height n. Let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n whose determinant is trivial. Assume that we are given a surjection ψ : P I/(I 2 T ). Assume further that ψ A(T ) can be lifted to a surjection ψ : P A(T ) IA(T ). Then, there exists a surjection Ψ : P I such that Ψ is a lift of ψ. Proof We fix an isomorphism χ : A[T ] n P. Let J(A, P ) denote the Quillen ideal of P in A. Let J = J(A, P ) I. Since the determinant of P is trivial, we have, ht J(A, P ) 2. So it follows 21

22 that, ht J 2. Therefore we can apply lemma (3.9) and obtain a lift φ Hom A[T ] (P, I) of ψ and an ideal I A[T ] of height n such that (1) I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ], (2) φ : P I I is a surjection and (3) φ(p ) + (J 2 T ) = I. It follows that e(p, χ) = (I I, ω I I ) in E(A[T ]) where the local orientation ω I I is obtained by composing φ A[T ]/(I I ) with a suitable isomorphism λ : (A[T ]/I I ) n P/(I I )P, as described above in the definition of an Euler class. Therefore, e(p, χ) = (I, ω I ) + (I, ω I ). We note that since I (0) = A, we can lift ω I to a surjection from A[T ] n I /(I 2 T ). Moreover, considering the equation e(p A(T ), χ A(T )) = (IA(T ), ω I A(T )) + (I A(T ), ω I A(T )) in E(A(T )) and using the condition of the theorem it is easy to deduce that (I A(T ), ω I A(T )) = 0 in E(A(T )) ( Actually, the condition of the theorem tells that e(p A(T ), χ A(T )) = (IA(T ), ω I A(T )) ). As a result, by (3.10), (I, ω I ) = 0 in E(A[T ]). Therefore, by (4.7), I = (l 1,, l n ) such that this set of generators is a lift of ω I. Let us write B = A 1+J. Note that we have I + (J 2 T ) = A[T ] and JB is contained in the Jacobson radical of B. Therefore, proceeding as in Step 3 of (3.10), and using (2.15) we can alter the above set of generators of I B[T ] by an elementary transformation σ E n (B[T ]) and assume that (i) ht (l 1,, l n 1 ) = n 1, (ii) dim B[T ]/(l 1,, l n 1 ) 1 and (iii) l n = 1 modulo (J 2 T )B[T ]. We set C = B[T ], R = C[Y ], K 1 = (l 1,, l n 1, Y + l n ), K 2 = IC[Y ], K 3 = K 1 K 2. Let us denote P 1+J by P. We claim that there exists a surjection η(y ) : P [Y ] K 3 such that η(0) = φ B[T ]. We first show that the theorem follows from the claim. Specializing η at Y = 1 l n, we obtain a surjection θ : P IB[T ]. Since l n = 1 modulo (J 2 T )B[T ], the following equalities hold modulo (J 2 T ): θ = η(1 l n ) = η(0) = φ. Therefore θ lifts ψ B[T ]. Now using lemma (3.8), the theorem follows. Proof of the claim: Recall that we chose an isomorphism λ : (A[T ]/I I ) n P/(I I )P such that n λ = χ A[T ]/(I I ). This induces an isomorphism 22

23 µ : (A[T ]/I ) n P/I P such that n µ = χ A[T ]/I. Also note that φ A[T ]/I = ω I µ 1. Since C[Y ]/K 1 B[T ]/(l 1,, l n 1 ), we have dim C[Y ]/K 1 1. Therefore, the projective C[Y ]/K 1 -module P [Y ]/K 1 P [Y ] is free of rank n. We choose an isomorphism τ(y ) : (C[Y ]/K 1 ) n P [Y ]/K 1 P [Y ] such that n τ(y ) = χ C[Y ]/K 1. Since n µ = χ B[T ]/I B[T ], it follows that τ(0) and µ differ by an element of SL n (B[T ]/I B[T ]). Since I B[T ]+(J 2 T )B[T ] = B[T ] and JB is contained in the Jacobson radical of B, we have, by (3.1), dim (B[T ]/I B[T ]) = 0. Hence, SL n (B[T ]/I B[T ]) = E n (B[T ]/I B[T ]). Since elementary transformations can be lifted via surjection of rings, we see that, we may alter τ(y ) by an element of SL n (C[Y ]/K 1 ) and assume that τ(0) = µ. Let α(y ) : (C[Y ]/K 1 ) n K 1 /K1 2 denote the surjection induced by the set of generators (l 1,, l n 1, Y + l n ) of K 1. Thus, we obtain a surjection β(y ) = α(y )τ(y ) 1 : P [Y ]/K 1 P [Y ] K 1 /K 2 1. Since τ(0) = µ, φ B[T ]/I B[T ] = ω I µ 1 and α(0) = ω I, we have β(0) = φ B[T ]/I B[T ]. Therefore, applying ([M-RS], Theorem 2.3), we obtain η(y ) : P [Y ] K 3 such that η(0) = φ B[T ]. Thus, the claim is proved and hence the theorem. To derive some corollaries of the above two theorems, we need the following lemma. Lemma 4.9 Let A be a ring, I A[T ] be an ideal and P be a projective A[T ]- module. Suppose that we are given surjections α : P I/I 2 and β : P I(0) = I/I (T ) such that α A[T ]/I A/I(0) = β A A/I(0). Then there is a surjection θ : P I/(I 2 T ) such that θ lifts α and β. Proof We choose lifts ψ 1, ψ 2 Hom A[T ] (P, I) of α and β respectively. We note that (ψ 1 ψ 2 )(P ) I 2 + (T ). Since I 2 + (T ) I 2 (T ) = I 2 I 2 (T ) (T ) I 2 (T ), considering (ψ 1 ψ 2 ) as a map from P to I 2 + (T )/I 2 (T ) we can decompose it as (ψ 1 ψ 2 ) = (η 1, η 2 ). 23

24 Write θ 1 = ψ 1 η 1, θ 2 = ψ 2 η 2. Note that θ 1 and θ 2 lift α and β respectively. It is also easy to see that θ 1 = θ 2. We call it θ. So we have a map θ : P I/I 2 (T ) which lifts both α and β. Write θ(p ) = K and consider the ideal K + (I 2 T ). Since K + I (T ) = I and K + I 2 = I, it follows that a maximal ideal M of A[T ] contains I if and only if it contains K + (I 2 T ). Note that since K + I 2 = I, for every maximal ideal M of A[T ] containing I we have K M = I M. Therefore, it follows that K + (I 2 T ) = I. In other words, θ is a surjection. Since θ lifts both α and β, this proves the lemma. Corollary 4.10 Let A be of dimension n 3. Let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n having trivial determinant and χ be a trivialization of n P. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n such that I/I 2 is generated by n elements. Let ω I be a local orientation of I. Suppose that e(p, χ) = (I, ω I ) in E(A[T ]). Then, there exists a surjection α : P I such that (I, ω I ) is obtained from (α, χ). Proof Since determinant of P is trivial, P/IP is a free A[T ]/I-module of rank n. We can choose an isomorphism λ : P/IP (A[T ]/I) n such that n λ = (χ A[T ]/I) 1. Therefore, we get a surjection ω I λ : P/IP I/I 2. We can assume that either I(0) = A or ht (I(0)) = n. First suppose that I(0) = A. Then, it follows using (4.9), that there is a surjection from P to I/(I 2 T ) which lifts ω I λ : P/IP I/I 2. If ht (I(0)) = n, then since e(p/t P, χ A[T ]/(T )) = (I(0), ω I(0) ) in E(A), it follows from (4.3, [B-RS 3]), that there is a surjection α : P/T P I(0) such that (I(0), ω I(0) ) is obtained from (α, χ A[T ]/(T )). Therefore, it follows from (4.9) that we have a surjection P I/(I 2 T ) which is a lift of ω I λ. So, in any case, we have a surjection γ : P I/(I 2 T ) which lifts ω I λ. Since e(p A(T ), χ A(T )) = (IA(T ), ω I A(T )) in E(A(T )), it follows from (4.3, [B-RS 3]) that there is a surjection Γ : P A(T ) IA(T ) such that (IA(T ), ω I A(T )) is obtained from (Γ, χ A(T )). This actually means that Γ is a lift of γ A(T ). Therefore, by (4.8), the result follows. 24

25 Corollary 4.11 Let A be as above. Let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n having trivial determinant and χ be a trivialization of n P. Then, e(p, χ) = 0 if and only if P has a unimodular element. In particular, if P has a unimodular element then P maps onto any ideal of A[T ] of height n generated by n elements. Proof Let α : P I be a surjection where I is an ideal in A[T ] of height n. Let e(p, χ) = (I, ω I ) in E(A[T ]), where (I, ω I ) is obtained from the pair (α, χ). First assume that e(p, χ) = 0. Then, e(p A(T ), χ A(T )) = 0 in E(A(T )). Therefore, by (4.4, [B-RS 3]), P A(T ) has a unimodular element. Consequently, by (Theorem 3.4, [B-RS 4]), it follows that P has a unimodular element. Now we assume that P has a unimodular element. But then, following (4.1), it is easy to see that (I, ω I ) = 0 in E(A[T ]). The last assertion of the corollary follows from (4.10). Corollary 4.12 Let dim A = n 2 and I A[T ] be an ideal of height n. Let P be a projective A[T ]-module of rank n with trivial determinant and α : P I be a surjection. Suppose that P has a unimodular element. Then I is generated by n elements. Proof If n = 2, then by (2.4) P is a free module and hence I is generated by n elements. Therefore, in what follows, we assume n 3. Let us fix an isomorphism χ : A[T ] n P. Suppose that (I, ω I ) E(A[T ]) is obtained from the pair (α, χ). Then we have e(p, χ) = (I, ω I ) in E(A[T ]). Since P has a unimodular element, it follows from (4.11) that e(p, χ) = 0. Now the corollary follows from (4.7). Now we prove the Subtraction Principle in a more general form in the following corollary. Corollary 4.13 Let A be a Noetherian ring with dim A = n 3. Let P and Q be projective A[T ]-modules of rank n and n 1 respectively, such that their determinants are free. Let χ : n (P ) n (Q A[T ]) be an isomorphism. Let 25

26 I 1, I 2 A[T ] be comaximal ideals, each of height n. Let α : P I 1 I 2 and β : Q A[T ] I 2 be surjections. Let bar denote reduction modulo I 2 and α : P I 2 /I2 2, β : Q A[T ] I 2/I2 2 be surjections induced from α and β respectively. Suppose that there exists an isomorphism δ : P Q A[T ] such that (i) βδ = α, (ii) n (δ) = χ. Then, there exists a surjection θ : P I 1 such that θ A[T ]/I 1 = α A[T ]/I 1. Proof Let us fix an isomorphism σ : A[T ] n (P ). Let (I 1 I 2, ω I1 I 2 ) be obtained from (α, σ). Then e(p, σ) = (I 1 I 2, ω I1 I 2 ) = (I 1, ω I1 ) + (I 2, ω I2 ) in E(A[T ]). On the other hand, let (I 2, ω I2 ) be obtained from (β, χσ). It is easy to see, from the conditions stated in the proposition, that (I 2, ω I2 ) = (I 2, ω I2 ) in E(A[T ]). But Q A[T ] has a unimodular element. Therefore, it follows that (I 2, ω I2 ) = 0. Consequently, e(p, σ) = (I 1, ω I1 ). Therefore, the result follows from (4.10). 5 A Quillen-Suslin theory for the Euler class groups In this section we investigate some questions concerning the relations among the Euler class groups E(A), E(A[T ]) and E(A(T )). The motivation for these questions comes from the Quillen-Suslin theory for projective modules. Remark 5.1 Let A be a Noetherian ring with dim A = n 3. Let I A[T ] be an ideal of height n and ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 be a local orientation of I. Let f A[T ]/I be a unit. Composing ω I with an automorphism of (A[T ]/I) n with determinant f, we obtain another local orientation of I which we denote by fω I. On the other hand, let ω I, ω I be two local orientations of I. Then, it is easy to see from (2.5), that ω I = fω I for some unit f A[T ]/I. Following is an improvement of (3.6). Lemma 5.2 Let A be a Noetherian ring with dim A = n 3, I A[T ] an ideal of height n and ω I : (A[T ]/I) n I/I 2 a surjection. Suppose that ω I can 26

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