TCP/IP: An overview. Syed A. Rizvi

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1 TCP/IP: An overview Syed A. Rizvi

2 TCP/IP The Internet uses TCP/IP protocol suite to establish a connection between two computers. TCP/IP suite includes two protocols (1) Transmission Control Protocol or TCP and (2) Internet Protocol or IP.

3 TCP/IP (Continued) TCP is an end-to-end transport protocol. TCP views IP as a mechanism that allows TCP software on a local computer to exchange messages with TCP software on a remotely located computer (and vice versa). Reliable communication between two computers is made possible via a time out and retransmission mechanism as explained next.

4 TCP/IP (Continued) Time out and transmission: Host 1 sends a message to Host 2. Host 2 responds by an acknowledgement sent back to Host 1, after receiving the message. If Host 1 does not receive acknowledgement for a certain period of time, the message is assumed to be lost and Host 1 re-transmits the message to Host 2.

5 TCP/IP (Continued)

6 TCP/IP (Continued) If two connections have different round-trip delays, TCP optimizes throughput by using a round-trip estimate to compute a retransmission timer.

7 TCP/IP (Continued) The 3-way handshake is used to close a connection. Acknowledgements sent in each direction are used to guarantee that all data has arrived before the connection is terminated. Host 1 sends a finish segment (FIN) and an acknowledgement. Host 2 receives FIN and acknowledgement and sends it back to Host 1. Host 1 receives FIN and acknowledgement and sends an acknowledgement to Host 2.

8 TCP/IP (Continued) Once Host 2 receives the acknowledgement the connection is terminated.

9 TCP/IP (Continued) TCP segment format: Each message sent from TCP on one machine to TCP on another uses this format, including data and acknowledgments.

10 IP Addressing There are five classes of IP addresses, where addresses assigned to hosts are either class A, B, or C. The prefix identifies a network, while the suffix is unique to a host on that network.

11 IP Addressing (Continued) A table is shown on the right that can be used to compute the class of an address. The first four bits of an address are extracted and used as an index into the table.

12 IP Addressing (Continued) IP addresses are 32-bit binary numbers. They are usually represented in equivalent dotted decimal notation. Each octet is written in decimal with periods (dots) used to separate octets.

13 IP Addressing (Continued) The range of decimal values found in the first octet of each address class is shown below.

14 IP Addressing (Continued) The number of networks and hosts per network in each of the three primary IP address classes are shown below.

15 IP Addressing (Continued) Figure below shows a private internet with IP addresses assigned to hosts.

16 IP Addressing (Continued) The size of the cloud used to denote a physical network corresponds to the number of hosts expected on the network. The size of a network determines the class of address assigned.

17 IP Addressing (Continued) Summary of the special IP address forms.

18 IP Addressing (Continued) Each IP address identifies a connection between a computer and network. A router is a computer with multiple network connections. Each connection on a router must be assigned an IP address. An example of IP addresses assigned to two routers is shown on the next page.

19 IP Addressing (Continued) Each interface is assigned an address that contains the prefix of the network to which the interface connects.

20 IP Datagram Each hardware technology (Ethernet, Token Ring, ATM, etc.) defines its own frame format and a physical addressing scheme. An IP datagram is encapsulated in a hardware frame. The entire datagram resides in the frame data area. The frame format used with some technologies may include a frame trailer as well as a frame header.

21 IP Datagram (Continued) The figure on the right shows an IP datagram as it appears at each step during a trip across an internet. When an IP datagram travels across a physical network, it is encapsulated in a frame appropriate to the network.

22 IP Datagram (Continued) Maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the maximum amount of data specified by a hardware technology that a frame can carry. Different networks connected together may have different MTUs. An example of a router that connects two networks with different MTU values is shown on the next page.

23 IP Datagram (Continued) A frame that travels across network 1 can contain 1500 octets of data, while a frame that travels across network 2 can contain at most 1000 octets of data.

24 IP Datagram (Continued) If a router receives a frame from a network with a larger MTU than that of the destination network, it divides the frame into smaller pieces, which are suitable for the network with the smaller MTU, called fragments. An example of an IP datagram divided into three fragments is shown on the next page.

25 IP Datagram (Continued) Each fragment carries some data from the original datagram, and has an IP header similar to the original datagram.

26 IP Datagram (Continued) An example internet in which hosts can generate datagrams that require fragmentation is shown below. Once a datagram has been fragmented, the fragments are forwarded to the final destination, which reassembles them.

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