# Simulation of solar off- grid photovoltaic system for residential unit

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3 International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy 2014; 4(3-1): Ah is considered, then 4 batteries are connected in series; to give an overall number of 4 batteries required for the PV system. because it has a simple feedback structure and fewer measured parameters Converter Model The most basic DC-DC converter is based on the idea that the power is converted while altering the current and voltage. A DC-DC converter is used to increase the efficiency of the PV system by matching the voltage generated by PV array to the voltage required by the load. The output power (P out ) of DC-DC converter is given by: Assuming the efficiency factor of x: Substituting V.I for P results:. /0 =. 12 (3). /0.3 =. 12 (4) 4 /0. /0. 3 = (5) For the DC-DC converter used in this model: V in = voltage across the PV array I in =current output of PV array x=0.9 (assume 90% efficiency) V out =V b = Battery voltage I out =current output from converter when all other values are known. The output voltage is related to the input voltage as a function of duty cycle of the switch (D)[16]. For the Cuk converter [17], the relationship is expressed as: 4.4. Controller Model 5 &67 = ) 5 8 )9: The MPPT controller is modeled in based on the DC-DC converter which is controlled by the MPPT algorithm in order to operate the PV array at its maximum power point. The MPPT algorithm has three inputs; PV module voltage (V PV ), ambient temperature (T a ) and solar radiation (G) to give two outputs which are the duty cycle and the optimum voltage at MPP. The block diagram of the MPPT controller model is shown in Fig. 3. The number of controllers required for the off-grid PV system, [18] is calculated using: (6) ;< =3 >?.4 D E5 (7) FG<< =3 > = 4 H 02IJJKI (8) DL=M? FG<< NL O = QRKI SE5 QRKI (9) I controller Maximum current the controller which can handle from the PV system to the battery bank N PV Total number of PV modules required to meet the residential load Perturb and Observe algorithm is used for MPP tracking 4.5. Inverter Model Figure 3. Block diagram of the controller The role of the inverter is to keep on the AC side the voltage constant at the rated voltage 230V and to convert the input power (P in ) into the output power (P out ) with the best possible efficiency. The inverter efficiency is thus expressed as: U = E &67 E 8 = 5 'VW 'V X 5 (V W (V (10) I ac is the output current by the inverter on the AC side. I dc is the current required by the inverter from the DC side (for example, from the controller) to be able to keep the rated voltage on the AC side (for example on the load). V dc is the input voltage for the inverter delivered by the DC side, for example by the controller Load Model The load existing in a solar PV system is an AC load with an equivalent resistance given by: Y JAZ = 5[ E The load current can be modeled as: (11) JAZ = 5 \ ]&'( (12) 5. Results of the PV System Simulation Module Current (A) Module Voltage (V) 75C 50C 25C Figure 4. I-V curves of the PV module at different temperatures (1kW/m 2 ) 0C

5 International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy 2014; 4(3-1): solar panels. During the day time, the PV system supplies the desired 12.4 kwh of energy. During the night time, battery storage system of 23.6 kwh (48V, 350 Ah) is employed to meet the night load. References [1] J.K. Kaldellis, Optimum technoeconomic energy autonomous photovoltaic solution for remote consumers throughout Greece, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 45, pp , [2] N.D. Kaushika, N.K. Gautam, and K. Kaushik, Simulation model for sizing of stand-alone solar PV system with interconnected array, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 85, pp , [3] T. Markvart, A. Fragaki, and J.N. Ross, PV system sizing using observed time series of solar radiation, Solar Energy, vol. 80, pp , [4] R. Posadillo, and R.L. Luque, Approaches for developing a sizing method for stand-alone PV systems with variable demand, Renewable Energy, vol. 33, pp , [5] P. Arun, and R. Banerjee, S. Bandyopadhyay, Optimum sizing of photovoltaic battery systems incorporating uncertainty through design space approach, Solar Energy, vol. 83, pp ,2009. [6] T. Khatib, A. Mohamed, K. Sopian, and M. Mahmoud, Optimal sizing of building integrated hybrid PV/diesel generator system for zero load rejection for Malaysia, Energy and Buildings, vol. 43, pp , [7] J. Abdulateef, K. Sopian, W. Kader, B. Bais, R. Sirwan, B. Bakhtyar and O. Saadatian, Economic analysis of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a residential home in Malaysia, in Proc. HTE'12, Istanbul, [8] H. A. Kazem, T. Khatib, and K. Sopian, Sizing of a standalone photovoltaic/battery system at minimum cost for remote housing electrification in Sohar, Oman, Energy and Buildings, vol. 61, pp , [9] M. Sh. Salim, J. M. Najim, S. M. Salih, Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city, International Journal of Energy and Environment, vol. 4 (6), pp , [10] bpsolar: bpsolar, [11] R.A. Messenger and J. Ventre, Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, CRC Press, New York, [12] G.R. Walker, Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a MATLAB PV model, Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, AUPEC Brisbane, [13] L. Castaner, and S. Santiago, Modelling Photovoltaic Systems Using PSpice, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, [14] M.M. Mahmoud, I.H. Ibrik, Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 10, pp , [15] S.R. Wenham, M.A. Green, M.E. Watt, Applied Photovoltaics, Center for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems: Australia, [16] Tyson Denherder, Design and simulation of photovoltaic super system using Simulink, Senior Project, Faculty of California Polytechnic. State University, [17] Diong Bill, Future energy challenge final report, University of Texas, EI Paso, ( /UTEP.pdf), [18] PVDI 2007: Solar Energy International, Photovoltaic Design and Installation Manual, New Society Publishers. [19] The German Solar Energy Society, Planning control apparatus and method and power generating system using them, Patent US5, 654,883, [20] M. R. Rivera, Small wind / photovoltaic hybrid renewable energy system optimization, Master s thesis, electrical engineering, University of Puerto Rico, 2008.

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