Photovoltaic Panel Bypass Diode Protection

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1 Photovoltaic Panel Bypass Diode Protection Sweetman (Soo Man) Kim - Vishay Diodes Market Development Introduction Most solar panels are assembled as photovoltaic (PV) panels attached to glass or poly-carbonate, materials which easily build up ESD due to wind and other factors. Schottky barrier are often used in bypass diodes for these PV panels, but are highly susceptible to ESD damage. This article will discuss how transient surge suppressor (TVS) devices can protect bypass diodes against high-power transients and induced electricity and the considerations to take into account when selecting a TVS for solar applications. In addition, metal oxide varistors (MOV) will be explored and how their clamping voltage compares to TVS devices and Schottky bypass diodes. Schottky Barrier Rectifiers in Bypass Applications Schottky barrier rectifiers are normally used in bypass diodes for monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline photovoltaic (PV) panels, where they protect PV cells at hot spots during low-shunt and high-shunt resistance conditions (Figure 1). Figure 1A: Low-shunt resistance cells in panel Figure 1B: High-shunt resistance cells in panel In bypass applications, Schottky barrier rectifiers have the advantage of low forward voltage drop, offering less power dissipation than normal P-N junction rectifiers. However, the devices also have low reverse voltage breakdown characteristics, and are easily damaged by the electrical over stress (EOS) of ESD (electrostatic discharge) and induced high voltages. Picture 1 shows a test where a Schottky rectifier fails at 250 V with a highvoltage 8/20 μs pulse.

2 Failed point Picture 1: Schottky rectifier failed at 250 V with a 8/20 μs pulse (2-Ω line impedance) ESD Electrostatic Discharge A PV cell is attached to glass or a transparent polycarbonate plate with laminating film or by potting with epoxy materials. Glass, chemical plates, and laminating film can all easily produce ESD, the strength of which is dependent on the surface dimension. ESD can damage the chip side of a Schottky rectifier, primarily through burn out (Picture 2A and 2B). Picture 2A and 2B: Burn track on the Schottky chip caused by ESD The maximum breakdown voltage of most bypass diodes is as low as 45 V to 60 V; however, their ESD-handling capabilities are also low. Vishay s SB15H45 and 150SQ045 have a typical ESD capability of 25 KV (air discharge) with 10 pulses of 100 pf / 1.5 KΩ (per IEC ). Test results for these devices are shown in Table 1.

3 Test Condition 25-KV Open-Air Discharge 100 pf / 1.5 KΩ (10 pulses) 150 pf / 330 Ω (Single pulse) 150 pf / 150 Ω (Single pulse) SB15H45 0 defects / 100 samples 0 defects / 100 samples 1 defect / 100 samples 150SQ045 0 defects / 100 samples 0 defects / 100 samples 0 defects / 100 samples Table 1: 25-KV Open-Air discharge test for SB15H45 and 150SQ045 This capability is not enough to protect against all ESD conditions or the induced high voltages from power lines and other sources. A typical ESD waveform with a pulse width of 60 ns is show in Picture 3. The difference between failures as a result of ESD and surges is the number of failed devices involved. In most failures due to ESD, one of the two or three devices in a junction box may fail. A surge, however, will destroy all of the bypass diodes. Picture 3: Typical ESD waveform Reactive Energy and Induced Energy Bypass diode failures can also be a result of reactive energy and induced energy. Induced transients and surges happen when high-power cables run across, or are in parallel to, solar panel cables. This is a very rare occurrence and is difficult to avoid through standardization. Reactive energy occurs when junction boxes are disconnected and the stored energy in the cables reacts to the bypass diode in the junction box. The energy levels are dependent on the cable length and supplied voltages. The avalanche capability of most Schottky rectifiers is under 20 mj, which is not enough to protect against reactive energy. Vishay s transient voltage suppressors (TVS), however, have a high avalanche capability from ¼ joule to 2 joules. Picture 4 shows a test in which 350 V (2-Ω line impedance) is applied to three bypass diodes in a junction box. All three bypass diodes failed as a result of an electrical short.

4 Picture 4: Standard 8/20 µs IEC waveform vs. bypass diodes at 350 V and 2-Ω line impedance TVS silicon avalanche breakdown diodes can be used to protect bypass diodes against high-power transients and surges from lightning, high-charged surface energy, and induced electricity from other sources, such as high-voltage power lines. To protect bypass diodes from this kind of transient or surge, it is best put a TVS device in parallel to every bypass diode, as shown in Picture 5. Picture 5: Vishay TVS device paralleled to each bypass diode The above circuit structure will perfectly protect bypass diodes in almost any transient or surge that occurs in PV panel production, installation in the field, and when driving the PV system. Another solution is to attach one TVS device per junction box, as shown in Picture 6. This method will also protect bypass diodes against most transients and surges.

5 Picture 6: TVS in parallel to each bypass diode string Selecting TVS for Bypass Diode Protection (For Circuit in Picture 6) There are several considerations to take into account when selecting a TVS for PV panels and bypass diodes in junction boxes. First is the TVS withstand voltage. The withstand voltage means that the TVS does not operate until the voltage is applied to the device. It is a higher voltage than the V OC of the PV panel at the flash test, which is 1.4 to 1.6 times the normal peak V OC. Picture 7: Normal V oc vs. V oc at flash test of photo voltaic panel Furthermore, the power rating for the TVS should be based on the transient and surge energy levels of the application. The axial P6KE and SMBJ series of surface-mount devices have a ¼-joule avalanche capability, which is enough to protect against ESD and

6 most reactive energy from short-length cables. For protecting bypass diodes and solar panels from high-power transients and surges, the 1.5KE and 5KP series of axial and SMCJ devices improve the reliability of the junction box in most cases of ESD, and reactive and induced surges and transients. Test Results (For Circuit in Picture 6) The following tables compare Schottky rectifiers for bypass diode functions under standard and non-standard ESD test conditions. Table 2 shows the result of an ESD test on the Schottky rectifiers under standard IEC ESD test conditions, with the device under test floating. Air discharge (150 pf / 150 Ω) 18 KV 20 KV 25 KV 30 KV Open ground (standard) 10 pulses SB15H45 0/10 0/10 1/10 1/10 150SQ045 0/10 0/10 0/10 0/10 Table 2: ESD test results of Schottky rectifiers Table 3 shows the results of an ESD test on Schottky rectifiers only and Schottky rectifiers with TVS in parallel under non-standard IEC ESD test conditions, with one lead connected to ground. Air discharge (150 pf / 150 Ω) 18 KV 20 KV 25 KV 30 KV Open ground (standard) 5 pulses to Schottky rectifier only 100 pulses to Schottky + TVS SB15H45 0/10 0/10 2/10 3/10 150SQ045 0/10 0/10 0/10 2/10 SB15H45 + P6KE56A 0/10 0/10 0/10 0/10 150SQ045 + P6KE56A 0/10 0/10 0/10 0/10 Table 3: ESD test results of Schottky rectifiers and TVS Picture 8 shows three failed bypass diodes at 750 V and a 2-Ω line impedance, in accordance with IEC surge immunity test conditions, with a 600-W P6KE52A TVS.

7 Picture 8: P6KE52A TVS in parallel to three bypass diodes in series Picture 9 shows three bypass diodes with one 5,000-W 5KP85A TVS. The devices do not fail at 1,000 V and a 2-Ω line impedance in accordance with IEC surge immunity test conditions. The current pass-through for the TVS is greater than 417 A. Picture 9: 5KP85A TVS in parallel to three bypass diodes in series Protection of Bypass Diodes on the Panel Backside A new approach to protecting against solar cell hot spot damage is to attach bypass diodes directly to the long copper straps of the silicon crystalline photovoltaic panel, without a junction box (shown in Picture 10). Picture 10: Bypass diodes soldered directly to the electrical connecting ribbon on the panel

8 In such instances, a power package such as the TO-220, D2PAK (TO-263), DPAK (TO-252), or SMPC (TO-277A) are used (shown in Picture 11 and Picture 12). Picture 11 and 12: Bypass diodes soldered directly to the electrical connecting ribbon on the panel The distance between each bypass diode on the panel shown in Picture 10, and the protection devices attached in parallel to each bypass diode in Picture 13, protect against ESD and other transients to reduce bypass diode failure rates. Picture 13: Vishay TVS devices in parallel to each bypass diode Selecting Clamping Voltages in Protection Devices The output voltage of most silicon mono and polycrystalline photo voltaic panels in the open circuit condition is 40 V to 45 V, and this voltage is shared by three bypass diodes.

9 So if the engaged voltage of one bypass diode in a 45-V panel is 15 V, then this is the standard stand-off voltage for the other diodes as well. The other condition to consider is the output voltage escalation at flash test, which simulates lightning (shown in Picture 7). The output voltage rises to 23 V or 24 V from the 15-V normal output voltage at flash test for each solar cell block. The protection device is non operational until the engaged voltage reaches a normal output of 16 V, or a 24-V peak output voltage at flash test. The stand-off voltage for the protection device is 16 V to 20 V for this kind of application. Vishay Diodes has several types of surface-mount TVS devices, featuring a range of packages and power ratings for various applications and transient types. Series name Package Peak power Remark dissipation SMP DO-220AA 400 W Typ.1-mm device height SMAJ DO-214AC 400 W SMA5J DO-214AC 500 W SMB10J DO-214AA 1,000 W SMCJ DO-214AB 1,500 W TPC16A TO-277A 1,500 W Typ. 1.1-mm device height Table4: Vishay surface-mount TVS series The series with the smallest package in Vishay Diodes TVS offering is the SMP. In this series, the SMP16A has a 15.4-A maximum peak pulse surge current at a 26-V clamping voltage in a 1-ms exponential waveform type transient. P/N Package Stand-off voltage Table 5: Stand-off voltage and maximum peak pulse surge capability of Vishay s surface mount TVS devices Test Results (Circuit in Picture 13) Max. clamping voltage at max. peak pulse surge current Max. peak pulse surge current at 10 X 1000 us pulse SMP16A DO-220AA 16 V 26 V 15.4 A SMAJ16A DO-214AC 16 V 26 V 15.4 A SMA5J16A DO-214AC 16 V 26 V 19.2 A SMB10J16A DO-214AA 16 V 26 V 38.5 A SMCJ16A DO-214AB 16 V 26 V 57.7 A TPC18A TO-277A 15.3 V 25.2 V 59.5 A All series in Table 4 have passed a 25-KV air discharge ESD test of 100 pulses of 150 pf / 150 Ω to Schottky + TVS in the open ground (standard) condition. As shown in Picture 14,

10 three SMPJ16As in series with Schottky bypass diodes failed at 1,000 V and 500 A with a 8/20 µs pulse. Picture 14: Voltage and current waveform of three SMPJ16As in series Picture 15 shows the clamped voltage and current of three SMPJ16As in series with Schottky bypass diodes at a 1,000-V, 200-A condition. As shown, the clamped voltage of the devices is 163 V, and the current pass-through is 141 A. Picture 15: Voltage and current waveform of three SMPJ16As in series Picture 16 shows the clamped voltage and current of three SMA5J16As in series with Schottky bypass diodes at 1,000 V and 500 A, in accordance with the IEC surge immunity test. As shown, the clamped voltage of the devices is 139 V and the current pass-through is 410 A.

11 Picture 16: Voltage and current waveform of three SMA5J16As in series Picture 17 shows the clamped voltage and current of three SMCJ16As in series with Schottky bypass diodes at 1,000 V and 500 A with a 8/20 µs transient surge condition. The clamped voltage of the devices is 90 V and the current pass-through is 440 A. Picture 17: Voltage and current waveform of three SMCJ16As in series Clamping Voltage of TVS and MOV vs. Avalanche Breakdown Voltage of Schottky Rectifiers (Optional Page) Another comparable protection device is the metal oxide varistor (MOV). Picture 18 shows three 18-V MOVs in series with Schottky bypass diodes at 1,000 V and 500 with a 8/20 µs transient surge condition.

12 Picture 18: Voltage and current waveform of three 18 V MOVs The MOV has a higher clamping voltage than the TVS and the avalanche voltages of three 45-V Schottky bypass diodes in series in a solar panel. The breakdown voltage of three 45-V Schottky diodes in series is 135 V, and the recommend clamping voltage of the protection circuit is not over 135V.The clamping voltage of three SMCJ16As and TPC18As in series is 90 V to 95 V at a 1,000-V, 500-A surge condition, which is lower than the breakdown voltage of the Schottky diodes. The clamping voltage of three of 18-V, 14-mm MOVs is 200 V at a 500-A condition, and that is higher than the breakdown voltage of three Schottky diodes doped in series.

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