# EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

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1 Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud Tallinn 2012

2 2 Contents Introduction Linear Circuits Diode Circuits Amplifiers Opamps Filters Math Converters Oscillators Introduction This is a tutorial aid to implement exercises in electronics. The students are expected to have acquired knowledge of electrical engineering, standard electrical wiring, electrical schematic symbols, and Multisim of National Instruments. The manual complies with the curriculum and the syllabus of the course AAR3320 "Electronics and Semiconductor Engineering". The student tasks are as follows: development and calculation of electronic circuits before the lesson, selection of electronic components, schematic assembling, voltage and current measuring, voltage and current waveforms analyzing, explanation and documentation of the results. Components and instruments: Supplies: dc voltage source, ac voltage source, function generator, and a ground. Basic: resistor and potentiometer, capacitor, inductor. Diodes: diode and Zener diode. Transistor: npn BJT. Analog IC: 3-terminal opamp, comparator. Indicators: voltmeter, ammeter. Instruments: oscilloscope, function generator, Bode plotter. Reference data: load resistance 1 to 100 kω, load voltage (dc or rms) 1 to 10 V, supply frequency 1 to 10 khz.

3 3 Circuits for study are shown in Figures 1 7. Fig. 1. Linear circuits Fig. 2. Diode circuits Fig. 3. Amplifiers = = Fig. 4. Opamps Fig. 5. Filters Fig. 6. Math converters

4 4 Fig. 7. Oscillators 1. Linear Circuits Report contents: circuit diagrams, calculations and diagrams of input voltage and output current, their time and phase shift and attenuation at the reference point, frequency responses, comparative data tables, and conclusions. Exercise 1.1. RL Circuit 1. To begin with, design a schematic using a resistor, an inductor, and a ground. Select an inductance about 100 mh and the reference resistance. Sketch expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Calculate the required supply, the circuit current, its phase, and voltage drops in the components. 2. Add a function generator. Feed the inductor from the positive terminal of the function generator and ground the common terminal and the resistor. Connect the inductor and resistor in series. In the function generator, set the sine waveform and assign the reference frequency. 3. To measure the rms voltages and current, add three multimeters. Set their modes of performance. Connect the first multimeter across the resistor and the second one across the inductor to measure the voltage drops. Connect the third one in series to measure the current. 4. Add an oscilloscope and connect its A channel to the inductor input to view the input voltage. Connect the B channel to the inductor output to view the load voltage and current. Then add a Bode plotter to view the frequency response. Connect its input to the inductor input and its output to the inductor output. 5. Activate the circuit simulation and view the results. Tune the oscilloscope and Bode plotter settings either before or during simulation. Set the horizontal scale in the range of a hertz to gigahertz. Set the vertical scale magnitude between about 0 and 200 db and phase between about 100 and 100 degrees. 6. Measure the circuit current, the component voltage drop, and the phase shift between the current and voltage traces. Compare the calculated results with the measured ones. Fill the calculated and measured data into the table. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses.

5 5 Exercise 1.2. RC Circuit 1. In the previous circuit, place a capacitor rather than the inductor and assign the capacity about 1 µf. Sketch expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Calculate the required supply, the circuit current, its phase, and voltage drops in the components. 2. Activate the circuit simulation and tune the oscilloscope and the Bode plotter to view the results. 3. Measure the circuit current, the component voltage drop, and the phase shift between the current and voltage traces. Compare the calculated results with the measured ones. Fill the calculated and measured data into the table. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses. Exercise 1.3. RLC Circuit 1. Return the inductor to the previous circuit. Connect the inductor, capacitor, and resistor in series. Sketch expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Calculate the required supply, the circuit current, its phase, and voltage drops in the components. 2. Connect the positive terminal of the function generator to the inductor and ground the common terminal and the resistor. Assign the amplitude, frequency, resistance, inductance, and capacitance values. 3. Activate the circuit simulation and view the results. Tune the oscilloscope and the Bode plotter settings. 4. Measure the circuit current, the component voltage drop, the phase shift between the current and voltage traces. Compare the calculated results with the measured ones. Fill the calculated and measured data into the table. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses. Exercise 1.4. Series Resonant Circuit 1. In the previous circuit, find the inductance and capacitance that provide the voltage resonance. Sketch expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Calculate the required supply, the circuit current, its phase, and voltage drops in the components. 2. Assign the required values. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages, currents, and the phase shift as well as the magnitude and phase Bode diagrams. 3. Measure the circuit current, the component voltage drop, the phase shift between the current and voltage traces. Compare the calculated results with the measured ones. Fill the calculated and measured data into the table. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses. Exercise 1.5. Parallel Resonant Circuit 1. In the previous circuit, reconnect the capacitor and the inductor in parallel to get the current resonance. Sketch the expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Calculate the required supply, the circuit current, its phase, and voltage drops in the components.

6 6 2. Assign the required voltage, inductance and capacitance. Then, add multimeters in series with each reactive component to measure their currents. 3. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages, currents, and the phase shift as well as the magnitude and phase Bode diagrams. Compare the calculated results with the measured ones. Fill the calculated and measured data into the table. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses. 2. Diode Circuits Report contents: circuit diagrams, calculations of the rectifier, clipper, and limiter circuits for the reference conditions, input and output voltage traces, data table and diagram of the voltampere characteristic of the forward and reverse biased diode, replacement circuits, and conclusions. Exercise 2.1. Diode Rectifier 1. Design a schematic with a diode and the load resistor connected in series. Sketch expected voltage and current traces at the sinusoidal supply. Calculate the required supply amplitude as π times the reference dc voltage. 2. Assemble the circuit. Feed the diode-resistor pair with a function generator and a ground. Connect the positive terminal of the function generator to the diode anode and link the ground with the common terminal and the resistor. 3. In the function generator, assign the sine waveform of the reference frequency and calculated amplitude. Set the required resistance. 4. To measure the voltage and current, add three multimeters. Connect the first of them across the diode, another across the load, and the latter in series. Set their modes of performance. 5. Add an oscilloscope and connect its A channel to the anode to view the diode voltage. Connect the B channel to the cathode to view the load voltage and current. Inspect and plot the supply and load traces. 6. Switch the axes of the oscilloscope to view one channel against the other, B/A. Now, the scale of the x-axis is determined by the volts-per-division setting for the B channel and vice versa. Activate the circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope, and inspect the voltampere characteristic. 7. Replace the function generator with the dc voltage source and decrease smoothly the supply amplitude from the positive supply level via the zero to the negative supply level. In every point, activate the circuit simulation and measure the diode voltage drop and current. Plot the volt-ampere diagram of the forward and reverse biased diode. 8. Build the tangent at the reference operating point and calculate the differential impedance as the slope, U AC / I A. Find the knee voltage. Exercise 2.2. Series Clippers 1. Design and assemble a schematic using a function generator, a dc voltage source, a diode, a resistor, and a ground. Connect the diode cathode to the voltage source +

8 8 2. Assign the load resistor and select other resistors much less. In the function generator, set the triangular waveform the reference frequency with amplitude above the reference voltage and the same offset. Calculate and establish the voltage sources. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its A channel to the positive terminal of the function generator to view the input voltage. Connect the B channel to the second anode to view the output voltage. 4. Activate the circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope, view, and measure the result. Compare the clipping levels with the reference values. Fine tune the dc voltage sources to obtain the required clipping levels. Plot the signal traces. 5. Turn the series limiter into the parallel one. To this aim, move away the second resistor, change the first diode with the first resistor (anode to + ) and connect the second diode between the first resistor and the second voltage source (cathode to + ). Activate the circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope, and view the result. Plot the signal traces and compare them with the series limiter. Exercise 2.5. Zener Circuits 1. Design and assemble a clipper using a function generator, a Zener diode, the buffer and load resistors, and a ground. Link both resistors with the cathode of the Zener diode. Connect the positive terminal of the function generator to the buffer resistor and ground the negative terminal, the anode and the load resistor. 2. Assign the load resistor and select the buffer by a factor less. In the function generator, establish the triangular waveform of the reference frequency and the amplitude above the reference voltage. Assign the Zener breakdown voltage to the reference voltage 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its A channel to the positive terminal of the function generator to view the input voltage. Connect the B channel to inspect the output voltage. 4. Activate the circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope, view, and measure the clipping level. Plot the signal traces. 5. Turn the clipper into the limiter by adding the second Zener diode in series, back-to-back with the first one. Activate the circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope, and view the result. Plot the signal traces and compare them with the clipper. 3. Amplifiers Report contents: circuit diagrams, calculations of the dc and ac current/voltage/power gains input/output impedances, cutoff voltage and saturation current, data tables, input characteristics, output characteristics with the load lines, and conclusions relatively the comparative properties of the amplifiers. Exercise 3.1. Common Emitter Amplifier 1. Design the CE amplifier using an npn BJT, a function generator to drive and bias the base, a dc voltage source to bias the collector, three resistors, and a ground. 2. To assemble the circuit, connect the positive terminal of the function generator to the base through the base resistor. Connect the + terminal of the voltage source to the

12 12 4. Opamps Report contents: circuit diagrams, voltage gain and cutoff frequency calculations, comparative data tables, input/output voltage traces and characteristics, bandwidth/gain diagrams, and conclusions. Exercise 4.1. Non-Inverting Voltage Amplifier 1. Design a schematic using an opamp, input, feedback and load resistors, and a ground. Assemble the non-inverting voltage amplifier and drive it by the function generator. 2. In a function generator, set the sine waveform of the required frequency and the input resistance in the range of kω. 3. Calculate and assign the required feedback resistance and the function generator amplitude to provide the reference MPP unclipped output. 4. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to the function generator to view the input voltage and channel B to the opamp output to inspect the output voltage. Then add a Bode plotter to build the frequency response and connect its inputs across the oscilloscope. To measure voltages, add two multimeters and connect them across the input and output. 5. Activate the circuit simulation and measure the voltages as well as the magnitude and bandwidth. Calculate the voltage gain. 6. Smoothly raise the resistances approaching the maximum voltage gain that provides an MPP unclipped output. At every step, activate circuit simulation and measure the voltages, the gain, and the bandwidth. Then, plot the dependence of the bandwidth versus voltage gain. Exercise 4.2. Inverting Voltage Amplifier 1. Design and assemble an inverting voltage amplifier using the same components. 2. Calculate and assign the required feedback resistance and the function generator amplitude that provide the required MPP unclipped output. 3. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages as well as the magnitude and bandwidth. Calculate the voltage gain. 4. Again, find the bandwidth dependence on the voltage gain and plot the new diagram of the bandwidth versus voltage gain. Exercise 4.3. Detectors on Comparators 1. Design and assemble a zero-crossing detector using a comparator with a balanced supply, a load resistor, and a ground, and drive it by the function generator. Connect the positive terminal of the function generator to the first comparator input. Then ground the common terminal of the function generator and the second input of the comparator. Connect the load. 2. Provide the comparator with the required supply. Set the sine waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency and amplitude above the comparator supply.

13 13 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to the function generator to view the input voltage and channel B to the comparator output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages versus time. Switch the axes of the oscilloscope to show one input channel against the other, B/A. Find and measure the hysteresis. 5. Develop a positive reference detector rather than a zero-crossing detector. For this purpose, add a dc voltage source between the second input of the comparator and the ground. Keep its voltage on the reference level. Again, view voltages versus time and input/output characteristics of the positive reference detector. 6. Assemble a negative reference detector instead of the positive reference detector. To this aim, turn the polarity of the dc voltage source. Again, inspect voltages versus time and input/output characteristics of the negative reference detector. Find and measure the offset and hysteresis. Exercise 4.4. Schmitt Trigger 1. Design and assemble a Schmitt trigger using a comparator with a balanced supply, three resistors, and a ground, and drive it by the function generator. Connect the positive terminal of the function generator to the first input of the comparator. Tie both resistors with the second input of the comparator. Connect the comparator output to the first resistor. Then ground the common terminal of the function generator and the second resistor. Connect the load. 2. Provide the comparator with the required supply. Set the sine waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency and amplitude. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to the function generator to view the input voltage and channel B to the comparator output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages versus time. Switch the axes of the oscilloscope to show one input channel against the other, B/A. 5. Consequentially reduce the second resistor by two, five, and ten times. At each value, activate the circuit simulation and measure the hysteresis width. Then, plot the diagram of the width versus positive voltage gain. 5. Filters Report contents: circuit diagrams, calculations and diagrams of input and output voltages, their time and phase shifts and attenuations at the reference point, frequency responses, comparative data tables, and conclusions. Exercise 5.1. RC Filters 1. Design a simple low-pass filter using a filter resistor and the load resistor, a capacitor, and a ground. Sketch expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Assemble a schematic.

14 14 2. Drive the circuit by a pair of the series connected ac voltage sources. In the former, assign the reference frequency and the reference rms voltage. In the latter, set the same voltage and the frequency about 10 3 of the reference frequency. 3. Add the oscilloscope and connect its A channel to the low-frequency voltage source to view the input signal and the B channel to the load to view the output voltage. Add a Bode plotter to inspect the frequency response. Connect its input to the supply source and its output to the load. Add also a multimeter to measure the output rms voltage. 4. Set the filter resistance of about 1 kω. Calculate and set the capacity to provide the cutoff frequency above the reference one. 5. Activate circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope, view, and measure the output rms voltage and frequency. Tune the Bode plotter: set the horizontal scale in the range of a hertz to a gigahertz, the vertical scale magnitude between 20 and 200 db, and phase between 100 and 100 degrees. Using the time and frequency responses, ensure that the output signal follows the signal of the low-frequency voltage source. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses and fill into the table measured and calculated circuit voltages, currents, phases, gains, and delays. 6. Turn the low-pass filter into the high-pass filter by changing the placement of the capacitor and the filter resistor. Calculate and assign the capacity to provide the cutoff frequency below the high-frequency ac voltage source. Using the time and frequency responses, ensure that the output signal follows the signal of the high-frequency voltage source. Write down the measured and calculated data and plot the signal traces and the frequency responses. Exercise 5.2. LC Filters 1. Design a simple low-pass filter using an inductor, a capacitor, a load resistor, and a ground. Sketch expected voltage and current traces and frequency responses. Assemble a schematic. 2. Assemble the same signal sources and add the measuring instruments as in the previous exercise. 3. Set an inductance of about 1 mh. Calculate and assign the capacity, which provides a cutoff frequency above the reference frequency. 4. Activate the circuit simulation, tune the oscilloscope and the Bode plotter, view, and measure the output voltage. Using the time and frequency responses, ensure that the output signal follows the signal of the low-frequency voltage source. Plot the signal traces and the frequency responses and fill into the table measured and calculated circuit voltages, currents, phases, gains, and delays. 5. Turn the low-pass filter into the high-pass filter by changing the placement of the capacitor and the inductor. Calculate and assign the capacity, which provides the cutoff frequency below the high-frequency ac voltage source. Repeat the experiment and compare the results. Write down the data and plot the signal traces and the frequency responses.

16 16 opamp. Next, provide the separate supply for both the input resistors: feed the first resistor by the function generator and the second resistor by the dc voltage source. Connect the load. 2. Let all the circuit resistances be equal in the range of kω. Set the sine waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency. Calculate and assign the voltages for both the function generator and the dc voltage source that ensure the reference MPP unclipped output of the adder. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its A channel to the function generator to view the input voltage and the B channel to the opamp output. To measure the voltage, add a pair of multimeters and connect them across the output. Provide measuring of the ac voltage particle by the first multimeter and the dc particle by the second one. 4. Activate the circuit simulation, view and measure the sum of the input voltages. Compare the output voltage with the calculated one. Exercise 6.2. Subtracter 1. Design and assemble a dual-input subtracter using an opamp, a function generator, a dc voltage source, 5 resistors, and a ground. First, build the adder. Next, move the dc supplied resistor from the negative to the positive input of the opamp. As well, place an additional resistor between the positive opamp input and the ground. 2. Let all the circuit resistances be equal in the range of kω. Set the sine waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency. Calculate and assign the voltages for both the function generator and the dc voltage source that ensure the reference MPP unclipped output of the subtracter. 3. Add an oscilloscope and a pair of multimeters similarly to the previous exercise. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view the difference of the function generator and the dc voltage source voltages. Compare the output voltage with the calculated one. Exercise 6.3. Integrator 1. Design and assemble an integrator using an opamp, a function generator, a capacitor, 3 resistors, and a ground. First, build the inverting voltage amplifier. Then, add a capacitor across the feedback resistor. 2. Set the square-wave waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency and the input resistance in the range of kω. Calculate and assign the capacitance, the feedback resistance, and the function generator amplitude that provide the reference unclipped triangle output signal. Take care that the opamp voltage swing is above the reference output voltage, as well as the opamp slew rate and the open loop gain have maximum possible values.. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to the function generator to view the input voltage and channel B to the opamp output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages. Compare the output voltage with the calculated one.

17 17 Exercise 6.4. Differentiator 1. Design and assemble a differentiator using an opamp, a function generator, a capacitor, 3 resistors, and a ground. First, build the inverting voltage amplifier. Then, place the capacitor across the input resistor. 2. Set the triangle-wave waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency and the feedback resistance in the range of 1 10 kω. Assign the same capacitance and the function generator amplitude as in the previous experiment. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to the function generator to inspect the input voltage. Connect the channel B to the opamp output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages. Then, find the input resistance that provides the reference rectangular output signal. Exercise 6.5. PID-regulator 1. Design and assemble a PID-regulator using an opamp, a function generator, 2 capacitors, 3 resistors, and a ground. First, build the inverting voltage amplifier. Next, add the first capacitor in series with the input resistor and the second capacitor across the feedback resistor. 2. Set the triangle waveform of the function generator with the reference frequency. Assign the resistances, capacitances, and the function generator amplitude from the previous circuits. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to the function generator to view the input voltage and channel B to the opamp output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages. Then, find the resistances that provide the reference sinusoidal output signal. 7. Oscillators Report contents: circuit diagrams, calculation of the circuit components, input/output voltage traces at the reference point, and conclusions. Exercise 7.1. Astable Multivibrator 1. Design and assemble an astable multivibrator using an opamp with unipolar supply, a dc voltage source, 4 resistors, a capacitor, and a ground. Connect the first resistor between the negative input of the opamp and its output. Connect the capacitor between the negative input of the opamp and the ground. Link the second and third resistors with the opamp positive input. Connect the opamp output to the second resistor. Then connect the + of the voltage source to the third resistor and ground the of the voltage source. Connect the load. 2. Set all the resistances in the range of kω. Calculate and assign the capacitance and dc voltage value that provide the reference frequency and output. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to view the opamp input voltage and channel B to the opamp output.

18 18 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view input and output voltages. Exercise 7.2. Astable Multivibrator With a Balanced Supply 1. Design and assemble an astable multivibrator with a balanced supply using a 5-terminal opamp with balanced supply, 4 resistors, a capacitor, and a ground. The circuit is similar to that of the astable multivibrator without the dc voltage source. 2. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to view the opamp input voltage and channel B to the opamp output. 3. Activate the circuit simulation and view input and output voltages. Compare them with the previous result. 4. Turn this multivibrator into the asymmetrical astable multivibrator. To this aim, add an extra resistor across the negative feedback. Then, add a Zener diode in series with each negative feedback resistor. These diodes must be aligned back-to-back to pass the feedback current in either direction. Activate the circuit simulation and view voltages smoothly alternating the value of the new feedback resistor. Exercise 7.3. Wien Bridge Oscillator 1. Design and assemble a Wien bridge oscillator using an opamp with unipolar supply, a dc voltage source, 5 resistors, 2 capacitors, a diode, and a ground. First, build the noninverting voltage amplifier using the opamp, first and second resistors, and a ground. Second, arrange a positive feedback using the series connected third resistor and the first capacitor. Next, add the parallel-connected fourth resistor and the second capacitor between the positive opamp input and the ground. Finally, add the series counterconnected diode and the dc voltage source between the opamp negative input and output. 2. Set the equal resistors in the feedback and in the positive input (about 1-10 kω) and the twice smaller resistor in the negative input. Calculate and assign the equal capacitances and dc voltage value that provide the reference frequency and output voltage. 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to view the opamp input voltage and channel B to the opamp output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and explore the input and output voltages. Exercise 7.4. Wien Bridge Oscillator with a Balanced Supply 1. Design and assemble a Wien bridge oscillator with a balanced supply using a 5-terminal opamp with a balanced supply, 6 resistors, 2 capacitors, 2 Zener diodes, and a ground. First, build the non-inverting voltage amplifier using the opamp, the first and second resistors, and the ground. Second, arrange a positive feedback using the series connected third resistor and the first capacitor. Then, add the parallel-connected fourth resistor and the second capacitor between the positive opamp input and the ground. At last, add the series counter-connected diode and the dc voltage source between the opamp negative input and output. 2. Set the new feedback resistance twice below the positive feedback resistance.

19 19 3. Add an oscilloscope and connect its channel A to view the opamp input voltage and channel B to the opamp output. 4. Activate the circuit simulation and view input and output voltages. Compare them with the previous oscillator.

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