BRAIN ANATOMY (Adapted from Johnson, Weipz and Savage Lab Book)

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1 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 1 BRAIN ANATOMY (Adapted from Johnson, Weipz and Savage Lab Book) Introduction The brain is the largest and most complex part of the nervous system. It consists primarily of nerve tissue, including billions of neurons and their associated neuroglia cells. Early in the development of a mammalian embryo, the nervous system originates as a tube. The anterior portion of that tube has a series of primary swellings: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. At a later stage in development five major subdivisions are recognized: telencephalon and diencephalon (subdivisions of the forebrain), mesencephalon (the midbrain), metencephalon and myelencephalon (subdivisions of the hindbrain). By birth the major regions of the adult brain are all clearly evident. They are as follows: A. Cerebrum (telencephalon) 1. cerebral cortex 2. white matter (inner tracts, nuclei, etc.) B. Diencephalon 1. epithalamus 2. thalamus 3. hypothalamus C. Brain Stem 1. midbrain 2. pons (metencephalon) 4. medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) D. Cerebellum 1. arbor vitae (inner white matter) 2. folia (outer gray matter) In adult humans (and other mammals) the linear relationship of forebrain to diencephalon to brain stem is no longer as obvious. This is due to the massive growth and development of the cerebrum which dominates the brain in terms of both anatomy and physiology.

2 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 2 Lab Exercises Human Brain Models. Use your textbook, lab book, (figures and written description), word lists, and brief descriptions given here and your own common sense, to identify the following parts of the human brain. The brain is covered by three membranes, the meninges. The innermost membrane is the pia mater which forms a thin covering that tightly adheres to the surface of the cerebrum and other brain regions. It would be difficult and tedious to remove pia mater from the brain. You may assume the pia meter is present on the models, although the models have not been designed to illustrate its presence. The other two of the meninges are not illustrated by the models and are absent on most of the preserved specimens available in lab. The outermost of these, the dura mater, forms a tough, relatively opaque protective sheet. The middle of the three meninges, the arachnoid, adheres closely to the dura. A space between the arachnoid and pia mater, the subarachnoid space, contains cerebrospinal fluid. Look for demonstration specimens that show evidence of dura mater. From the outside of the brain model, locate the cerebrum and note that it is divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres by a deep cleft, the medial longitudinal fissure. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital), roughly corresponding to the overlaying bones of the skull. The surface of each hemisphere consists of a cortex of gray matter which is folded into a series of ridges or gyri (singular = gyrus). The furrows between gyri are called sulci (singular = sulcus). Beneath the cortex are white matter regions of the cerebrum. Posterior to the cerebrum is the cerebellum. The cerebellum also has an outer cortex and is even more folded than the cerebrum. The cerebellum is concerned with the coordination of muscular activity. It is incompletely divided into two hemispheres separated by a dorsal, central ridge, the vermis. Ventrally, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These nerves directly enter the brain rather than the spinal cord. Locate the optic nerves and optic chiasma, and also the olfactory bulb and nerve. Later, make sure you locate the rest of the cranial nerves on the diagrams and models. Locate the pituitary gland (also known as the hypophysis) on the ventral surface of the hypothalamus. It is an important connecting link between the two great coordinating systems of the body: the nervous system and the endocrine system. Locate the medulla oblongata which contains centers that regulate heart beat, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Locate the pons which contains many important nerve tracts that connect the cerebellum with other parts of the brain and with the spinal cord.

3 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 3 Now, take apart the model and look at it as a sagittal section. Locate the four spaces or ventricles within the brain which communicate with the central canal of the spinal cord and with the subarachnoid space. These cavities arise from the space within the embryonic neural tube. The fourth ventricle connects to the central canal of the spinal cord and also to the third ventricle by way of a tube, the cerebral aqueduct. The lateral ventricles (first and second ventricles, one in each brain half) are actually located behind the septum that separates the cerebral hemispheres. On most models one cerebral hemisphere may be taken apart to view a lateral ventricle. W ithin the lateral ventricle locate evidence of choroid plexuses, blood capillary beds that are the major formation site of cerebrospinal fluid. There may be choroid plexuses indicated in other ventricles as well. Picture in your mind the circulation pattern of CSF from its formation site, through the ventricles, into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and ultimately to the superior saggital sinus where it is reabsorbed into the circulatory system. Examine the demonstration model of the ventricles of the human brain. Locate the corpus callosum which is a large band of nerve processes connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. This structure is best seen on a sagittal section. Locate the hypothalamus which controls many homeostatic processes including body temperature, water balance, and food and water intake. Locate the thalamus which is a sensory relay center. All sensory nerves (except the olfactory) enter the thalamus, and their impulses are sent by the thalamus to the cerebrum for interpretation. Note how the thalamus enlarges as you move laterally away from the midline. Locate the superior and inferior colliculi (collectively known as the corpora quadrigemina) which are parts of the midbrain. The anterior lobes, the superior colliculi, are concerned with reflex responses to visual stimuli (pupil constriction, etc.). The posterior lobes, the inferior colliculi, are concerned with responses to auditory stimuli. Now that you have oriented yourself, locate all the structures outlined in you lab book and wordlists. Start off by identifying the 4 adult regions. Then, identify any sub-regions within each region. Lastly, identify individual structures within each region and sub-region. Preserved Sheep Brains. Sheep brains are similar in gross anatomy to the human brain and provide a more realistic concept of brain tissue than a model. Use the following Shhpe Brain Guide (written description), plus the three figures provided, to identify the indicated structures on a sheep brain. Ask your instructor about any structures you are unsure of.

4 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 4 SHEEP BRAIN GUIDE This guide does not include all the structures on your wordlist that you are responsible for. Use the knowledge gained by studying the human models to figure out the rest. A. Meninges Obtain one of the preserved sheep brains that is still encased within the protective membranes known as the meninges. The meninges consist of three layers; an outer dura mater, a middle arachnoid, and an internal pia mater. Examine the dura mater, a protective outer membrane composed of a tough dense connective tissue. Describe the appearance and feel of this membrane. Examine the surface of the brain where the dura mater has been cut away and note the thin filmy membrane covering over the actual brain tissue. This is more delicate tissue of the arachnoid and pia mater. B. Brain Anatomy - Whole Brain Obtain 2 or 3 whole sheep brains in a dissecting pan (some brains may be missing some of the structures you will be studying). Examine the brain from a superior view (see Figure 1). Note the two large cerebral hemispheres that constitute the cerebrum and envelop most of the brain. The cerebral hemispheres are almost completely separated by a deep longitudinal or sagittal fissure. The surface of each hemisphere consists of upward folds of nervous tissue called gyri and grooves called sulci. These increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex to allow more complex interaction between neurons. If you gently spread the hemispheres apart, you can see a band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres medially. This is the corpus callosum. Next locate the cerebellum just caudal to the cerebrum. It is separated from the cerebral hemispheres by a deep transverse fissure. Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has a highly convoluted surface (gyri and sulci). The dorsal portion (or "roof") of the midbrain can be examined by carefully spreading apart the transverse fissure that separates the cerebrum and cerebellum (figure 2). This exposes four rounded bulges called the corpora quadrigemina. The two superior colliculi are larger than the two inferior colliculi. If you look on the midline between and just above the superior colliculi you will see a small fingerlike extension of tissue called the pineal body or gland.

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8 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 8 Caudal and inferior to the cerebellum note the medulla oblongata which tapers out to form the more slender spinal cord. Examine the brain from an inferior view (see Figure 3). At the cranial end of the brain note the two olfactory bulbs that lay against the undersurface of the cerebrum. The band of tissue extending caudally from these bulbs are the olfactory tracts. Caudal to the olfactory bulbs and tracts is the X-shaped optic chiasma. This is the point where the two optic nerves from the eyes meet and partially cross over before forming the optic tracts that extend back to the visual area of the cerebrum. Caudal and inferior to the optic chiasma is a small bean-shaped pituitary gland. This is a major endocrine gland and is attached to the brain by a slender stalk called the infundibulum. The pituitary gland may be missing from some of the preserved brains, leaving only the infundibulum as shown in Figure 3. The infundibulum is rooted in a bulge of nervous tissue called the mammillary body. This mammillary body and the nervous tissue superior to it comprise the brain region known as the hypothalamus. A portion of the pituitary gland is actually an extension of this hypothalamus. The ventral portion (or "floor") of the midbrain consists of the cerebral peduncles. These bands of nervous tissue connect the cerebrum with other regions of the brain and are located just caudal to the hypothalamus. Caudal to the midbrain is the hindbrain which consists of the pons varioli and the medulla oblongata. The nervous tissue then tapers to form the spinal cord. C. Brain Anatomy - Sagittal Section Obtain 2 or 3 half-brains formed by sagittal sectioning the preserved sheep brains. Using Figure 4 as a guide locate the corpus callosum, the band of tissue that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. Also locate the band of tissue below the corpus callosum known as the fornix. Depending on the exact position of the sectioning cut you should either see a membrane linking the fornix and corpus callosum or a cavity between them. The membrane is the septum pellucidum which separates two cavities, the lateral ventricles, where cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulated. Inferior to the fornix is a round structure called the intermediate mass. This is the medial portion of the two portions of the thalamus that lie within each cerebral hemisphere. If there appears to be a depressed area around the intermediate mass of the thalamus, this will be the third ventricle. Examine again the midbrain structures; the dorsal corpora quadrigemina and pineal body, and the ventral cerebral peduncles. Also re-examine the parts of the hindbrain; the pons, the medulla, and the cerebellum. Note that there is a slender canal that passes through the midbrain to the cavity between the cerebellum and the medulla. The cavity is the fourth ventricle of the brain and the canal is the cerebral aqueduct. The cerebral aqueduct carries cerebrospinal fluid from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. Blockage of this passage causes the condition known as hydrocephalus.

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10 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 10 D. Brain Anatomy - Frontal Section Obtain one of the preserved sheep brains that has been frontally sectioned. Examine the cerebral hemispheres and note that the outer layer, the cerebral cortex, is a darker color than the inner tissue of the cerebrum. The darker tissue is called gray matter and is indicative of synapses and cell bodies of neurons. The inner white matter is indicative of myelinated axons and dendrites. Note again the gyri and sulci of the cerebrum. The corpus callosum that links the two hemispheres, and the deep longitudinal fissure. Note the cavities in each cerebral hemispheres just below the corpus callosum. These are the lateral ventricles. The gray matter just below them on either side is the thalamus. The medial link between the two halves of the thalamus is the intermediate mass. Depending on where the frontal section was made, you may also see a portion of the pituitary gland or optic chiasma or tracts. You may also see the third ventricle on the midline below the lateral ventricles.

11 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 11 Other Lab Materials. A number of preserved and mounted human brain specimens will be available in lab. Observe and study these specimens, looking especially for anatomy identified earlier on the models and/or sheep brains. Questions. Complete your Data/Analysis Sheet.

12 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 12 DATA/ANALYSIS SHEET 1. Beginning with the outside layer, the names of the three meninges that enclose the CNS. 2. Name the three major regions of the Diencephalon. 3. Name the three major regions of the midbrain. 4. Name the two major regions of the cerebrum 5. The band of tissue at the base of the longitudinal or sagittal fissure that is the primary nerve pathway connecting right and left cerebral hemispheres. 6. Name of the brain region to which the pituitary gland is attached. Part of the pituitary (posterior lobe) is actually formed from tissue of this part of the brain. 7. Name of the small cavity around the intermediate mass of the thalamus which contains CSF. 8. Name of the point where the two optic nerves meet and partially cross over, before passing to the cerebrum. 9. Name of the outer layer of each cerebral hemisphere. 10. The region of the brain consisting of two major hemispheres. 11. Name of the deep fissure that separates the cerebellum from the cerebral hemispheres.

13 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide Name of the folds of nervous tissue characteristic of each cerebral hemisphere. 13. Name of the small cavity between the cerebellum and the medulla which contains CSF. 14. Name of the cavities on either side of the septum pellucidum which contain CSF. 15. Name of the grooves characteristic of each cerebral hemisphere. 16. Involuntary brain center that plays a critical role in coordination of skeletal muscle activity. 17. Primary auditory area of cerebrum. 18. Brain center that is primary location of such characteristics as reason, willpower, memory, emotions and motivation. 19. Name the ridges of tissue anterior and posterior to the central sulcus of the cerebrum. What are their functions? 20. Where are all motor areas of cerebrum found? 21. Name the gland that is found in the epithalamus. What does it secrete? 22. Brain region that includes "vital centers" for involuntary control of heart function, respiratory function and vasomotor activity.

14 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide Brain center that regulates body temperature via control of vasomotor activity, sweating and shivering. 24. Brain center that functions as the "master gland" of the endocrine system. 25. Primary visual area of cerebrum. 26. Brain center that acts as a primary organizational control center for all information entering the cerebrum. 27. Brain center that includes involuntary centers critical to maintenance of muscle tone, equilibrium and posture. 28. Speech is centered in this lobe of the cerebrum. 29. Where are all the sensory areas of cerebrum. 30. What is the white matter of the cerebellum ccalled? 31. Describe, in your own words, the appearance and feel of the dura mater of the preserved sheep brain.

15 CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide How do the relative sizes of the cerebral hemispheres compare in the sheep brain and the human brain? What conclusions can you draw from this? 33. How do the relative sizes of the olfactory bulbs compare in the sheep brain and the human brain? What conclusions can you draw from this? 34. W hat is the importance of the fact that the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is highly convoluted? 35. What is the importance of the corpus callosum? 36. What is the importance of the ventricles of the brain?

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