Making Appropriate Use of FDM Information. Eddie Rogan Sales and Marketing Director

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1 Making Appropriate Use of FDM Information Eddie Rogan Sales and Marketing Director

2 Any lessons to be learned from Fixed Wing FDM Use? Traditional FDM Limitations Extended use of FDM BA Examples UKCAA Research for EGPWS An Integrated SMS Approach for FDM 2

3 Typical FDM Analysis Flight Data Simulations (FDS) Flight Data Traces (FDT) Flight Data Events (FDE) 3

4 4 Event Summary Chart

5 5 Drill-Down on Deep Landing Events (Filter)

6 Drill-down Capability Flight Data Traces Flight Data Events Trends

7 7 FDS Instrument Animation

8 Traditional FDM Limitations Reactive you don t know what you don t know Analysis based on pre-configured Events Event trends identified manually Safety analysts need to manually sift through trend charts Historic Flight data often not kept Data associated with event often kept but data for historic flights are deleted Analysis of historic date often not possible 8

9 Flight Data Measurements NOT Event driven! Derived parameters (Measurements) recorded for all flights stored Statistical analysis on historic flights Analysis based on measurements during all flights Flight Data Events (FDE) keeps a record of those occasions when aircraft are flown outside of accepted limits, but it keeps no record of the majority of flights in which no infringement occurs. Example: For an event that is triggered when the aircraft is flying at greater than 200 knots within 90 seconds of touchdown. A more valued judgement on the significance of the number of events triggered could be made if a record of the speed at 90 seconds to touchdown for 10,000 flights on that fleet. Statistical analysis could support conclusions on what was happening on average as well as in the extreme. 9

10 Extended use of FDM Flight Data Measurements Used by British Airways Safety Investigations Management of change before/after metrics ATQP (data driven) Fuel Efficiency Emissions Trading Airport and ATC procedures Engine and Airframe Manufacturers CAA s What is the normal operation? 10

11 Flight Data Measurements (FDM) Fixed Wing Examples Shorthaul Airbus fleet. Height land Flap set: LHR v rest of the network The flow rate at Heathrow requires aircraft to maintain 160kts to 4 DME. The effect of this is a higher probability of late final configuration than at other destinations. FDM shows the height where final land flap is set for all A319/320/321 sectors, comparing LHR arrivals with non-lhr arrivals. 11

12 Flight Data Measurements (FDM) Boeing 777 fleet. Landing g and flare times A scatter graph was produced to depict normal acceleration (g at landing) for the B777 fleet with an additional measure of flare time (at BA this is seconds from 25 ft to touchdown ). This analysis suggests that a short flare time need not necessarily lead to a firm landing, but a firm landing is usually accompanied by a shorter than average flare. Alert Level 12

13 Flight Data Measurements (FDM) All fleets. Landing distance at HKG/25 A recent deep landing at HKG/25R was followed by with some analysis to determine how much of an outlier this particular event was, based on all landings at this destination over a given time period. FDM was used to produce a scatter graph overlaid on a google earth image which was subsequently used in an internal safety publication. Note the red dots are displaced from the runway centreline simply to visualise the runway markings. Alert Level 13

14 Flight Data MAXVALS (FDM) Boeing 777 fleet. Height land Flap set: LGW/08 Gatwick was highlighted as an area of concern with respect to achieving BA s stabilised approach policy, notably landing config on runway 08R. This FDM bar chart clearly illustrates that in the most recent 24 month period, crews are now achieving final land flap at an earlier height than in the previous period, and an improvement in our unstable approach figures at this destination has resulted. 14

15 Rotary Wing Example: 2012 UKCAA Research - TAWS for Offshore Helicopters UK offshore helicopters have a basic form of TAWS (Automatic Voice Alerting Device AVAD). Only adequately addresses one accident scenario slow inadvertent drift down (e.g. Scilly Isles 1983). Bristows Helicopter s Eurocopter EC225 FDM data or 800 flights used in study. Objective to identify improvements to helicopter TAWS to increase warning times offshore 15

16 Honeywell Helicopter EGPWS Modes

17 Honeywell Helicopter EGPWS Mode 2A

18 Warning Envelope Re-design (1) Bristow Helicopters EC225 Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) data used to characterise normal operations in terms of EGPWS warning parameters. 18

19 Warning Envelope Re-design (2) Statistical presentation of FDM data: Envelopes containing 90%, 99% and 99.9% of all flights drawn for 800 flights. Any incursion into warning envelope represents nuisance alert rates > 1 in 10, > 1 in 100 and > 1 in 1000 respectively. 19

20 Warning Envelope Re-design (3) FDM data used to identify additional or alternative parameters to define warning envelopes: Use ALTRATE parameter (mainly inertial) instead of RALT below 350ft to eliminate deck edge crossing problem. 20

21 Warning Envelope Re-design (4) Accident data added to establish existing warning time.

22 Warning Envelope Re-design (5) Warning envelope redefined to maximise warning time without encroaching into normal operations.

23 Summary of Warning Time Results EGPWS is one way to help address the issue of CFIT but another could be to add LOC and CFIT envelope protection into the autopilot so that it is countered at the precursor stage. Both approaches benefit from analysis of historical data such as Flight Data Measurements or other data mining techniques to define the envelope or to test the hypotheses. 23

24 An Integrated SMS 360 Approach Risk Management Safety Incidents ASR Audits Investigations Findings Actions GSR MSR CSR Incident Management F D E BAFDA OSR 24

25 Thanks to: UKCAA for permission to share the analysis in EGPWS FDP-CAA-Report British Airways for sharing their examples of Flight Data Measurements Thank You

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