Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes

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1 Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes I. Energy ability to do work; forms of energy: heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical, kinetic, potential A. Energy for living things comes from - food Originally the energy in food comes from - sun

2 B. Uses light energy from the sun to produce food autotrophs Examples: plants + some microorganisms (bacteria and protists)

3 C. Cannot use the sun s energy to make food heterotrophs; obtain energy from food they consume Examples: animals, fungi, most microorganisms

4 II. Cell Energy needed for active transport, making proteins and nucleic acids, chemical signals (fireflies light) A. Cells usable source of energy ATP 1. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate ATP 3 Phosphate groups adenine ribose

5 2. ADP stands for adenosine diphosphate ADP 2 phosphate groups adenine ribose

6 B. All energy is stored in the bonds of the compound Breaking the bond releases energy C. When cell has energy available it can store this energy by adding a phosphate group to ADP, producing ATP

7 D. Example: ATP ADP + Energy + P ADP + P + E from breaking bond ATP watch?v=bbtqf9q_pfw&nr =1

8 III. Photosynthesis energy of sunlight is converted to energy of glucose A. General Formula: H 2 O + CO 2 + light C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 water + carbon dioxide + light glucose + oxygen

9 B. 2 parts of photosynthesis: 1. light reaction forms ATP and NADPH contain chemical E, but are unstable 2. Calvin cycle (dark reaction) uses E from ATP and NADPH to produce glucose

10 C. Photosynthesis occurs in the organelle chloroplast

11 D. Light absorbing (and reflecting) compounds pigments Most common photosynthetic compound chlorophyll (a + b) Absorbs light energy needed for photosynthesis to work

12 Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

13 F. Sun s energy is stored in glucose light energy chemical energy

14 Light Dep. Reactions: Trap E of sun in chemical form Produces O 2, ATP, NADPH high E cmpds. CO 2 + H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Chloroplast H 2 O CO 2 Light NADP + ADP+P + Calvin Cycle: Uses E from Light Dep. Reactions and CO 2 to make glucose Light Dep. Reactions occur in thylakoid Light Dependent Reactions O 2 released ATP NADPH Calvin Cycle C 6 H 12 O 6 produced stroma Calvin Cycle occurs here

15 IV. Cellular Respiration process by which E of glucose is released in the cell to be used for life processes (movement, breathing, blood circulation, etc )

16 A. General Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP B. Cellular respiration occurs in all cells of all organisms plants, animals, bacteria C. Energy stored by photosynthesis in glucose is converted into the energy of ATP

17 E. Respiration requiring oxygen aerobic respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP 1. organelle occurring in mitochondria Human cells contain a specialized structure the mitochondrion that generates energy.

18 E. Respiration NOT requiring oxygen anaerobic respiration (an = without) Also called fermentation 1. Alcoholic Fermentation: glucose ethyl alcohol + CO ATP

19 a. organisms -- yeast, bacteria b. industries baking, brewing, wine-making

20 2. Lactic acid fermentation: glucose lactic acid + 2 ATP a. lactic acid is produced in the muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to tissues (burning painful sensation) 3. occurs in cytoplasm Sore Muscles and

21 AEROBIC C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + 36 ATP High E e - carried in NADH O 2 Glucose 1 6-C molec. Glycolysis Pyruvic Acid 2 3-C molec. Krebs cycle High E e - carried in NADH and FADH 2 E. T. C. Cytoplasm CO 2 released Mitochondria H 2 O released **E transferred from glucose to ATP 3 stages of aerobic respiration: 1. Glycolysis cytoplasm, 2 ATP 2. Krebs cycle mitochondria, 2 ATP 3. Electron Transport Chain mitochondria, 32 ATP 36 ATP total

22 ANAEROBIC Pyruvic Acid 2 3-C molec. Glucose 1 6-C molec. Glycolysis Cytoplasm 2 Mitochondria Yeast Bacteria Fermentation muscles Alcoholic Lactic Acid

23 ANAEROBIC alcoholic fermentation = 2 ATP glucose 2 pyruvic acid lactic acid fermentation = 2 ATP cytoplasm AEROBIC mitochondria Krebs cycle ETC = 36 ATP

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