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1 CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 Excel Basics 1 Getting Started 2 Calculating a Molar Mass 4 Entering Text and Data in the Worksheet 4 Entering an Equation 5 Documenting the Worksheet 7 Laboratory Notebook Example 8 Changing the Width of a Entering Numbers into the Spreadsheet Filling Cells Using the Handle Making Complex Calculations with Excel 13 An Example from Analysis 14 More Cell Entering the Data Calculating Molar Masses Calculating the Percentages 16 Documenting the Spreadsheet Importing and Using Molar Mass Data 19 Importing Data from Web Pages 19 Dealing with Character Strings Making the Calculation 29 Summary Problems CHAPTER 2 Basic Statistical Analysis with Excel 34 Calculating a Mean with Excel 34 Finding the Mean Using Functions 36 Finding the Deviations from the Mean 37 Editing Formulas Computing the Standard Deviation 39 Finding the Variance 39 A Shortcut for Performing a 40 Finding the Standard Deviation 42 The Built-in Statistical Functions Excel 43 The Coefficient of Variation, or Percent Relative Standard Deviation 44 Standard Error ofthe Mean Computing Descriptive Statistics with the Analysis ToolPak 47 The Analysis ToolPak 47 Calculating the Pooled Standard Deviation 49 Finding the Sum Squares ofthe Deviations 50 Finding the Total Sum of Squares 52 Confidence Intervals 54 Confidence Intervals when is Known 54 Confidence Intervals when s Must Be Used 57 Summary 59 Problems 60 iii 2014 Cengage AU Rights May not be copied or or to a publicly Website, in or in part. Crouch, Stanley R. Applications of Microsoft Excel in analytical chemistry 2014 digitalisiert durch: IDS Basel Bern

2 CHAPTER 3 Statistical Tests with Excel 64 t Tests 64 Comparing Means Assuming Variances 64 Manual Calculation 65 Using the Excel Built-in Functions 68 Paired Test 70 F Test for Comparison of Variances 74 ANOVA 77 Entering Manually 77 The Analysis ToolPak Tool Distribution-Free Methods 83 Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test for Single Samples 84 Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test for Paired Data 87 Summary 88 Problems 89 CHAPTER 4 Least-Squares and Calibration Methods 95 Linear Least-Squares Analysis 95 The and Intercept 96 Using LINEST 99 The Analysis ToolPak Regression Tool 100 Plotting a Graph Data and the Least-Squares Fit 102 Using Excel to Find Unknown Concentrations from a Calibration Curve 105 The Internal Standard Method 109 Method of Standard Additions Principles of Multiple Standard Additions Finding the Unknown Concentration Analyzing Errors Plotting the Curve 115 Multiple Linear Regression LINEST Analysis ToolPak Linear Regression with Polynomials Summary 122 Problems 123 CHAPTER 5 Equilibrium, Activity and Solving Equations 132 A Quadratic Equation Solver 132 Using Excel to Iterate 134 Using s Solver Solving a Cubic Equation 141 Solving a Quartic Equation Exploring the Strength Dilemma An Iterative Solution Using Solver to Obtain the Solution Directly Summary 151 Problems Cengage All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or or posted to a publicly accessible Website, in or in part.

3 CHAPTER 6 The Systematic Approach to Solving Many Equations 155 Using Solver for Complex Equilibrium Problems Finding the Concentrations Simultaneously with Solver 156 Finding A Single Concentration with Solver Goal Seek 160 What is Goal Seek and How Does it Work? Finding the Solubility of Seek 160 Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations Method of Determinants 164 Matrix Operations 167 Systems with Large Numbers of Equations 169 Some Additional Examples of Equilibrium Problems Solubility at a Fixed ph 170 Solubility When the ph is Unknown 173 Summary Problems CHAPTER 7 Titrations and Graphical Representations 179 Calculating and Plotting a Acid/Strong Base Titration Curve 179 Stoichiometric Method 179 Using the Charge-Balance Equation Weak Acid-Strong Base Titrations Stoichiometric Method Master Equation Approach Distribution of Species: a Derivative Plots 199 First Derivative 200 Second Derivative Plot 203 Producing a Combination Plot 206 Gran Plots 208 Summary 210 Problems CHAPTER 8 Polyfunctional Acids and Bases 214 Distribution Diagrams 214 A General Expression for a Values 214 Diprotic Acid System 215 What About Bases? 217 Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams Estimating Concentrations at a Given ph Value Finding ph Values 221 Titration Curves for Weak Acids 223 Stoichiometric Method 223 Alpha Values During a Titration 230 An Inverse Master Equation Approach 232 Titration Curves for Bases 237 Amphiprotic Species, Acids, and the Isoelectric Point 239 Summary 242 Problems 243 v 2014 Cengage All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Website, in or in part.

4 CHAPTER 9 Complexometric and Precipitation Titrations 247 Complexation Equilibria 247 for Complexes 248 Inverse Master Equations for Complexometric Titrations 252 Ligands that Protonate 254 Complexation Reactions with Protonating Ligands 255 Conditional Formation Constants 255 EDTA: A Ubiquitous Ligand 256 EDTA as a Tetraprotic Acid 256 Titrating EDTA with Base 259 Titrating Metals with EDTA 260 Stoichiometric Approach 261 Inverse Master Equation Approach 264 Precipitation Titrations 267 Stoichiometric Method 267 Direct Master Equation Approach 272 Calculation of Volumes Needed to Produce a Given pag 274 Summary 277 Problems 278 CHAPTER 10 and Redox Titrations 282 Calculating Electrode Potentials 282 Cell Potentials and Equilibrium Constants 284 for Redox Species 285 Redox Titrations 289 Stoichiometric Method 289 Inverse Master Equation Approach Calculating System Potentials from the Master Equation 293 A More Complex Titration Example 294 Summary 296 Problems 297 CHAPTER 11 Dynamic 300 Controlled-Potential Coulometry 300 Basic Principles 300 Numerical Integration 301 Coulometric Titrations 306 Voltammetry 310 Voltammetric Determination 310 Determination of Potentials Determination of Formation Constant and Formula of a Complex Amperometric Titrations Summary 318 Problems Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or or posted to a publicly in or in part.

5 CHAPTER 12 Methods 325 Law 325 Absorptivity 326 Deviations from Beer's Law 327 Precision of Absorption Measurements 333 Calibration Methods 336 Standard Methods 336 Adding Error Bars to a Chart Standard Additions Methods 340 Weighted Linear Regression Multicomponent Methods 347 Iteration 348 Method of Determinants Matrix Methods Spectrophotometric Titrations 352 Spectrophotometric Study of Complex Ions 356 Method of Continuous Variations 357 Producing Charts with Insets Summary 359 Problems 360 CHAPTER 13 Kinetic Methods 368 Rate Laws for Simple Reactions 368 Comparing First- and Second-Order Reactions 368 Determining Reaction Orders 371 Pseudo First-Order Systems 374 Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction 379 Linear Transformation 379 Nonlinear Regression Approach 382 Kinetic Methods of Analysis 385 Summary 389 Problems 390 CHAPTER Terminology and Basic Equations 394 a Chromatogram 397 Finding the Number of Plates to Achieve a Given Resolution 400 Nonideal Peak Shapes Optimizing Methods: van Deemter Equation 404 Van Deemter Plots 404 Using Solver to Find van Deemter Coefficients 406 Quantitative Chromatography 409 Method of External Standards Internal Standard Summary 413 Problems Cengage All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible in whole or in part.

6 CHAPTER Separation Methods Ions 424 the Values of Weak Acids 427 Chromatography CHAPTER Processing with Excel 436 Smoothing of Data 436 Generating 437 Moving Average Smoothing 439 Hxponential Moving Averages 442 Smoothing 444 Feature and Enhancement 446 Feature Removal 447 Feature Enhancement 449 Recursivc Estimation Methods 453 Summary 458 Problems 459 viii Cengage All May not be copied or

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