Key Terms. Chapter 5: Disease and Disease-Producing Organisms. Studies of Disease. Studies of Disease. Studies of Disease. Studies of Disease

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1 Key Terms Chapter 5: Disease and Disease-Producing Organisms acute fungus protozoa antibiotic helminth sign antisepsis host sterilization asepsis infection symptom bacteria microorganism syndrome chronic nosocomial infection systemic diagnosis opportunistic infection therapy disease pandemic toxin disinfection parasite vector endemic pathogen virus endospore pathophysiology epidemic prion etiology prognosis Disease Abnormality of structure or function of part, organ, or system May be felt or observed by others May have a known or unknown cause Severity of effects may be variable Disease Categories Infection caused by micro-organisms; cause 50% of diseases such as strep throat and ear infections Degenerative diseases involve tissue breakdown; eg osteoporosis and muscular dystrophy Nutritional diseases caused by a lack of/ or excess intake of substances in the diet; scurvy, rickets, obesity Metabolic disorders disruption of cell metabolism; diabetes,gout, digestive disorders Immune disorders- deficient immune system, usually inherited or from other infection Neoplasms new growths such as tumors Psychiatric disorders mental disorders; chemical imbalance Disease Causes Age young or old Gender- male or female Heredity diabetes, allergies, etc Living conditions and habits drug abuse, poor sleep or eating patterns Emotional disturbance stress, anxiety Physical and chemical damage tissue damage, toxin exposure Preexisting illness high blood pressure, diabetes Epidemiology The study of the cause of disease in populations Disease statistics Incidence how many people get the disease Prevalence how wide spread, and how often? Mortality rate how many people die of the disease? Disease categories Epidemic when the disease is widespread in an area Endemic a disease is found within a certain area Pandemic - when an epidemic becomes world wide 1

2 Disease Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Diagnosis determining the cause of a disease Symptoms conditions experienced by the patient Signs objective manifestations as seen by the doctor Disease classification Syndrome a complex disorder characterized by a cluster of symptoms & signs Acute disease that is short-lived but severe Chronic less severe but occurs over long periods of time Subacute not acute, and not chronic, but inbetween Prognosis the doctor s prediction of the outcome of the disease Disease Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Treatment therapy is a course of treatment that can include: Medications drugs, analgesics Surgery Other therapies Physical therapy restores movement Occupational therapy ability to performs tasks Respiratory therapy improves breathing ability Nutritional therapy promotes healthy eating Counseling and support groups for mainly psychiatric illness Disease Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Prevention Seeks to stop disease before it actually happens Stop smoking. Limit alcohol use. Eat a healthy diet. Maintain a healthy weight. Get regular exercise. Health promotion organizations WHO World Health Organization CDC Center for Disease Control Infectious Disease Pathogens any disease-causing organism Microorganisms microscopic organisms Parasites organisms that feed off of a host Infection any communicable (catching) disease Local contained to a particular area Systemic infection spreads throughout the body Modes of transmission (communicable) Direct by direct contact with infected person Indirect through the air or on surfaces Infectious Disease Portals of Entry how microbes get in Skin Respiratory tract Digestive system Urinary and reproductive systems Microbiology the study of microscopic organisms Normal Flora Population of beneficial microorganisms that normally grows on and within the human body 2

3 Microbiology Bacteria features: Single-celled organisms Lack a true nucleus Found everywhere Types Anaerobic can grow without oxygen Aerobic - need oxygen to grow Facultative anaerobes- grow with or without oxygen Microbiology Shape and Arrangement of Bacteria Cocci round; cause infections and pneumonia Bacilli rod-shaped; cause tetanus & tuberculosis Curved rods -spiral shaped; syphilis, lyme disease Figure 5-6 Cocci (Gram stained). Figure 5-7 Bacilli. Figure 5-8 Curved rods. Viruses Viruses Extremely small microorganisms Composed of a core of nucleic acid surrounded by a coat of proteins Obligate intracellular parasites - Grow only within living cells; cause common cold What feature indicates that the cells in A are capable of movement? 3

4 Figure 5-9 Virus size comparison. Figure 5-10 Virus structure. Infectious Agents Smaller than Viruses Infectious Proteins Prions Composed solely of protein Smaller and simpler than viruses Caused mad cow disease Fungi Fungi Large group of simple plantlike organisms; few are pathogenic Types Yeasts Athletes foot, ringworm Molds Some types of pneumonia Protozoa Protozoa Animal-like, single-celled microbes found all over the world; cause dysentery (diarrhea) and can be parasitic; Cause malaria, sleeping sickness Figure 5-12 Some parasitic protozoa. Why are the parasites in E described as intracellular? What is the role of the vectors shown in C and E? 4

5 Parasitic Worms Figure 5-13 Common parasitic roundworms. Parasites with human hosts, also called helminths; live in dirt Helminthology The study of parasitic worms Types Roundworms infests lungs or intestines Flatworms ribbon-like; spread by infected beef, pork or fish improperly cooked; block lymphatic vessels and cause swelling What kind of muscle tissue is shown in B? Figure 5-14 Filariasis. Figure 5-15 Flatworms. Public Health Sewage and garbage disposal Water purification Prevention of food contamination botulism is food poisoning caused by salmonella or e-coli bacteria Milk pasteurization kills bacteria by heating for 30 minutes Aseptic Techniques Sterilization to kill every living microorganism by heat/steam Disinfection kills pathogens by chemicals such as chlorine generally harmful to tissues Antisepsis bacteria not killed but prevented from multiplying by using chemicals not harmful to tissues 5

6 Infection Control Techniques Body substance precautions gloves, masks, safe handling of sharp instruments Hand washing best prevention of spread of disease Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) establishes the minimum safety standards Antimicrobial Agents drugs that kill or inhibit germs Antibiotics (antibacterial agents) produced by living cells (mostly molds and soil bacteria) Antiviral agents limited range of action; because viruses mutate rapidly, most drugs become ineffective Limited number of effective antiviral drugs Block removal of protein coat of virus Block production of viral nucleic acid Block enzyme production needed to create new virus particles Laboratory Identification of Pathogens Obtain and label specimens from patients. Grow out bacterial cells. Isolate individual organisms. Multiply to form colonies. Stain cells so they can be seen. Perform tests to identify organisms. Case Study Virus Mechanism of Infection Enter host cell Trick host into transcribing viral mrna Trick host into translating the mrna into viral protein Make new virus Host s Response Increase body temperature to slow viral replication Activate immune system to seek out and destroy virus Word Anatomy Word Part Meaning Example idio self, separate, distinct An idiopathic disease has no known cause. syn- together A syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs that together characterize a disease. myc/o fungus Mycology is the study of fungus. diplo- double Diplococci are arranged in pairs. strepto- chain Streptococci are arranged in chains. staphylo- grapelike cluster Staphylococci are bacteria in clusters. septic poison, rot, decay Aseptic methods are used to kill microorganisms. -cide kill or destroy A bactericide is an agent that kills bacteria. 6

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