2 Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the year As more were discovered, chemists realized they needed a way to organize the elements.
3 Organizing the Elements Chemists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups. In 1829 J. W. Dobereiner arranged elements into triads groups of three elements with similar properties One element in each triad had properties intermediate of the other two elements
4 Mendeleev s Periodic Table By the mid-1800s, about 70 elements were known to exist Dmitri Mendeleev a Russian chemist & teacher, arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass Thus, the first Periodic Table
5 Mendeleev He left blanks for yet undiscovered elements When they were discovered, he had made good predictions But, there were problems: Such as Co and Ni; Ar and K; Te and I
6 A better arrangement In 1913, Henry Moseley British physicist, arranged elements according to increasing atomic number The arrangement used today
8 Another possibility: Spiral Periodic Table
9 The Periodic Law: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties. Horizontal rows = periods There are 7 periods Vertical column = group (or family) Similar physical & chemical prop. Identified by number & letter (IA, IIA)
10 Areas of the periodic table Three classes of elements are: 1) metals, 2) nonmetals, and 3) metalloids 1) Metals: electrical conductors, have luster, ductile, malleable 2) Nonmetals: generally brittle and non-lustrous, poor conductors of heat and electricity
11 Areas of the periodic table Some nonmetals are gases (O, N, Cl); some are brittle solids (S); one is a fuming dark red liquid (Br) Notice the heavy, stair-step line? 3) Metalloids: border the line-2 sides Properties are intermediate between metals and nonmetals
13 Groups of elements - family names Group IA alkali metals Forms a base (or alkali) when reacting with water (not just dissolved!) Group 2A alkaline earth metals Also form bases with water; do not dissolve well, hence earth metals Group 7A halogens Means salt-forming
14 Electron Configurations in Groups Elements can be sorted into 4 different groupings based on their electron configurations: 1) Noble gases 2) Representative elements 3) Transition metals 4) Inner transition metals Let s now take a closer look at these.
15 Electron Configurations in Groups 1) Noble gases are the elements in Group 8A (also called Group18 or 0) Previously called inert gases because they rarely take part in a reaction; very stable = don t react Noble gases have an electron configuration that has the outer s and p sublevels completely full
16 Electron Configurations in Groups 2) Representative Elements are in Groups 1A through 7A Display wide range of properties, thus a good representative Some are metals, or nonmetals, or metalloids; some are solid, others are gases or liquids Their outer s and p electron configurations are NOT filled
17 Electron Configurations in Groups 3) Transition metals are in the B columns of the periodic table Electron configuration has the outer s sublevel full, and is now filling the d sublevel A transition between the metal area and the nonmetal area Examples are gold, copper, silver
18 Electron Configurations in Groups 4) Inner Transition Metals are located below the main body of the table, in two horizontal rows Electron configuration has the outer s sublevel full, and is now filling the f sublevel Formerly called rare-earth elements, but this is not true because some are very abundant
19 1A 2A Elements in the 1A-7A groups are called the representative elements outer s or p filling 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
20 The group B are called the transition elements These are called the inner transition elements, and they belong here
21 Group 1A are the alkali metals (but NOT H) H Group 2A are the alkaline earth metals
22 Group 8A are the noble gases Group 7A is called the halogens
23 H 1 Li 3 1s 1 1s 2 2s 1 Do you notice any similarity in these configurations of the alkali metals? Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Cs 55 Fr 87 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6 s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 7s 1
24 Do you notice any similarity in the configurations of the noble gases? 1s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 He 2 Ne 10 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 Ar 18 Kr 36 Xe 54 Rn 86
25 s 1 Elements in the s - blocks s 2 He Alkali metals all end in s 1 Alkaline earth metals all end in s 2 really should include He, but it fits better in a different spot, since He has the properties of the noble gases, and has a full outer level of electrons.
26 Transition Metals - d block Note the change in configuration. d 1 d 2 d 3 s 1 d 5 d 5 d 6 d 7 d 8 s 1 d 10 d 10
27 The P-block p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 p 5 p 6
28 F - block Called the inner transition elements f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 5 f 6 f 7 f 8 f 9 f 10 f 11 f 12 f 13 f 14
29 1 2 3 Period Number Each row (or period) is the energy level for s and p orbitals.
30 The d orbitals fill up in levels 1 less than the period number, so the first d is 3d even though it s in row d 5d d
31 f 5f f orbitals start filling at 4f, and are 2 less than the period number
32 Trends in Atomic Size First problem: Where do you start measuring from? The electron cloud doesn t have a definite edge. They get around this by measuring more than 1 atom at a time.
33 Atomic Size } Radius Measure the Atomic Radius - this is half the distance between the two nuclei of a diatomic molecule.
34 ALL Periodic Table Trends Influenced by three factors: 1. Energy Level Higher energy levels are further away from the nucleus. 2. Charge on nucleus (# protons) More charge pulls electrons in closer. (+ and attract each other) 3. Shielding effect (blocking effect?)
35 What do they influence? Energy levels and Shielding have an effect on the GROUP ( ) Nuclear charge has an effect on a PERIOD ( )
36 #1. Atomic Size - Group trends As we increase the atomic number (or go down a group)... each atom has another energy level, so the atoms get bigger. H Li Na K Rb
37 #1. Atomic Size - Period Trends Going from left to right across a period, the size gets smaller. Electrons are in the same energy level. But, there is more nuclear charge. Outermost electrons are pulled closer. Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
38 Atomic Radius (pm) Rb Period 2 K Na Li Ar Kr H Ne 3 10 Atomic Number
39 Ions Some compounds are composed of particles called ions An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has a positive or negative charge Atoms are neutral because the number of protons equals electrons Positive and negative ions are formed when electrons are transferred (lost or gained) between atoms
40 Ions Metals tend to LOSE electrons, from their outer energy level Sodium loses one: there are now more protons (11) than electrons (10), and thus a positively charged particle is formed = cation The charge is written as a number followed by a plus sign: Na 1+ Now named a sodium ion
41 Ions Nonmetals tend to GAIN one or more electrons Chlorine will gain one electron Protons (17) no longer equals the electrons (18), so a charge of -1 Cl 1- is re-named a chloride ion Negative ions are called anions
42 #2. Trends in Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to completely remove an electron (from a gaseous atom). Removing one electron makes a 1+ ion. The energy required to remove only the first electron is called the first ionization energy.
43 Ionization Energy The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove the second electron. Always greater than first IE. The third IE is the energy required to remove a third electron. Greater than 1st or 2nd IE.
44 Symbol First Second Third H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Table 6.1, p
45 Symbol First Second Third H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Why did these values increase so much?
46 What factors determine IE The greater the nuclear charge, the greater IE. Greater distance from nucleus decreases IE Filled and half-filled orbitals have lower energy, so achieving them is easier, lower IE. Shielding effect
47 Shielding The electron on the outermost energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the nucleus. Second electron has same shielding, if it is in the same period
48 Ionization Energy - Group trends As you go down a group, the first IE decreases because... The electron is further away from the attraction of the nucleus, and There is more shielding.
49 Ionization Energy - Period trends All the atoms in the same period have the same energy level. Same shielding. But, increasing nuclear charge So IE generally increases from left to right. Exceptions at full and 1/2 full orbitals.
50 First Ionization energy He He has a greater IE than H. H Both elements have the same shielding since electrons are only in the first level But He has a greater nuclear charge Atomic number
51 First Ionization energy He Li has lower IE than H H more shielding further away Li These outweigh the greater nuclear charge Atomic number
52 First Ionization energy He Be has higher IE than Li H Li Be same shielding greater nuclear charge Atomic number
53 First Ionization energy He B has lower IE than Be H Be same shielding greater nuclear charge Li B By removing an electron we make s orbital half-filled Atomic number
54 First Ionization energy He H Be C Li B Atomic number
55 First Ionization energy He N H Be C Li B Atomic number
56 First Ionization energy He N Oxygen breaks the pattern, because H Be C O removing an electron leaves Li B it with a 1/2 filled p orbital Atomic number
57 First Ionization energy He N F H Be C O Li B Atomic number
58 First Ionization energy He N F Ne Ne has a lower IE than He Both are full, H Be C O Ne has more shielding Li B Greater distance Atomic number
59 First Ionization energy He Ne N F Na has a lower IE than Li Both are s 1 H Be C O Na has more shielding Li B Na Greater distance Atomic number
60 First Ionization energy Atomic number
61 Driving Forces Full Energy Levels require lots of energy to remove their electrons. Noble Gases have full orbitals. Atoms behave in ways to try and achieve a noble gas configuration.
62 2nd Ionization Energy For elements that reach a filled or half-filled orbital by removing 2 electrons, 2nd IE is lower than expected. True for s 2 Alkaline earth metals form 2+ ions.
63 3rd IE Using the same logic s 2 p 1 atoms have an low 3rd IE. Atoms in the aluminum family form 3+ ions. 2nd IE and 3rd IE are always higher than 1st IE!!!
64 Trends in Ionic Size: Cations Cations form by losing electrons. Cations are smaller than the atom they came from not only do they lose electrons, they lose an entire energy level. Metals form cations. Cations of representative elements have the noble gas configuration before them.
65 Ionic size: Anions Anions form by gaining electrons. Anions are bigger than the atom they came from have the same energy level, but a greater area the nuclear charge needs to cover Nonmetals form anions. Anions of representative elements have the noble gas configuration after them.
66 Configuration of Ions Ions always have noble gas configurations ( = a full outer level) Na atom is: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Forms a 1+ sodium ion: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Same configuration as neon. Metals form ions with the configuration of the noble gas before them - they lose electrons.
67 Configuration of Ions Non-metals form ions by gaining electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. They end up with the configuration of the noble gas after them.
68 Ion Group trends Each step down a group is adding an energy level Ions therefore get bigger as you go down, because of the additional energy level. Li 1+ Na 1+ K 1+ Rb 1+ Cs 1+
69 Ion Period Trends Across the period from left to right, the nuclear charge increases - so they get smaller. Notice the energy level changes between anions and cations. Li 1+ B 3+ N 3- O 2- F 1- Be 2+ C 4+
70 Size of Isoelectronic ions Iso- means the same Isoelectronic ions have the same # of electrons Al 3+ Mg 2+ Na 1+ Ne F 1- O 2- and N 3- all have 10 electrons all have the same configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (which is the noble gas: neon)
71 Size of Isoelectronic ions? Positive ions that have more protons would be smaller (more protons would pull the same # of electrons in closer) Al 3+ Mg 2+ Na 1+ Ne F 1- O2- N
72 #3. Trends in Electronegativity Electronegativity is the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element. They share the electron, but how equally do they share it? An element with a big electronegativity means it pulls the electron towards itself strongly!
73 Electronegativity Group Trend The further down a group, the farther the electron is away from the nucleus, plus the more electrons an atom has. Thus, more willing to share. Low electronegativity.
74 Electronegativity Period Trend Metals are at the left of the table. They let their electrons go easily Thus, low electronegativity At the right end are the nonmetals. They want more electrons. Try to take them away from others High electronegativity.
75 The arrows indicate the trend: Ionization energy and Electronegativity INCREASE in these directions
76 Atomic size and Ionic size increase in these directions:
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