Bioenergetics. Chapter 3, Part 2. Anaerobic ATP Production. Anaerobic ATP Production. Anaerobic ATP Production. The Two Phases of Glycolysis

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1 Anaerobic ATP Production Chapter 3, Part 2 1. ATP-PC system Immediate source of ATP PC + ADP Creatine kinase ATP + C Bioenergetics 100% % Capacity of Energy System Energy Transfer Systems and Exercise Anaerobic ATP - CP Energy System Anaerobic ATP Production 2. Anaerobic Produces ATP through a biochemical process Food source is glycogen or glucose Glycogenolysis-breakdown of glycogen stored in muscle (glycogen is also stored in liver) -breakdown of glucose 10 sec 30 sec 2 min 5 min + Anaerobic ATP Production Energy investment phase Requires 2 ATP Energy generation phase Produces ATP, NADH (carrier molecule), and pyruvate or lactate The Two Phases of Fig

2 Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 Pyruvic Acid - C 3 H 4 O 3 C 6 H 12 O 6 2 C 3 H 4 O H + + energy (2 ATP) W/ O 2 NAD + 2 H + NADH + H + (Krebs cycle) Production of Lactic Acid Normally, O 2 is available in the mitochondria to accept H + (and electrons) from NADH produced in glycolysis In anaerobic pathways, O 2 is not available H + and electrons from NADH are accepted by pyruvic acid to form lactic acid Anaerobic Conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Lactic Acid Lactic Acid C 3 H 6 O 3 C 6 H 12 O 6 2 C 3 H 6 O 3 + energy (2 ATP) W/O O 2 Fig 3.12 Anaerobic Characteristics Begins about 20 sec into high intensity exercise and continues for about 3 minutes Uses only glucose or glycogen Enzymes located in the cytoplasm 12 biochemical steps producing 2 to 3 ATP Intensity less than 100% (70-90% max) Anaerobic Characteristics (cont) Does not require oxygen Limited at about 3 min by the buildup of lactic acid which decreases the ph Acidic environment halts enzyme activity Phosphofructokinase (PFK) Glucose 2 ATP Glycogen 3 ATP 2

3 The Two Phases of Energy Investment Phase Fig 3.10 Fig 3.11 Energy Generation Phase Energy Transfer Systems and Exercise 100% % Capacity of Energy System Anaerobic ATP - CP Energy System 10 sec 30 sec 2 min 5 min + Fig 3.11 ATP Production 3. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle, TCA cycle) Completes oxidation of H + Removed from CHO, fats, Proteins NAD, FAD H + carriers H + contains potential energy from food molecules ATP Production H + transported to electron transport chain Combines ADP + P ATP Oxygen availability Final hydrogen acceptor Forms H 2 O 3 steps Breakdown of foodstuffs Oxidative phosphorylation Electron transport chain 3

4 The Three Stages of Oxidative Phosphorylation The Krebs Cycle Fig 3.13 Fig 3.14 Relationship Between the Metabolism of Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates Electron Transport Chain Fig 3.15 Fig 3.17 Electron Transport System (chain) H + + e - + O 2 H 2 O ADP + Pi ATP Beta Oxidation Breakdown of lipids 1 ATP required for fats to be activated for ß oxidation process Fats enter at Krebs cycle and pass to ETC Fats produce much higher amounts of ATP per mol. than glycogen 4

5 Beta Oxidation 2 C fat compound Stearic acid is an 18 C fat yields 147 ATP Palmitic acid is a 16 C fat 130 ATP Fats require 15% more oxygen per ATP produced than CHO require Fats cannot be metabolized anaerobically Characteristics Requires presence of oxygen (aerobic) Can use glucose, glycogen, fatty acids, and/or amino acids for fuel Provides 85% of the energy required by body 15% glycolysis Produces ATP during rest and low level exercise Characteristics (cont) Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondria Makes relatively large amounts of ATP Glycogen = 33 ATP Glucose = 32 ATP Glycogenolysis Glycogen 3 ATP + 2 Pyruvic Acid (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n 3 ATP + 2 C 3 H 4 O 3 Glucose 2 ATP + 2 Pyruvic Acid C 6 H 12 O 6 2 ATP + 2 C 3 H 4 O 3 Mitochondria 2 Pyruvates 2 Acetyl CoA (CO 2 ) Krebs cycle (TCA cycle) 2 Acetyl CoA 6 CO H 2 O + 33 (or 32) ATP 5

6 Mitochondria Outer membrane permeable to most ions Inner membrane impermeable to most ions unless they have a specific carrier Bulges of the inner membrane cristae Density of cristae higher in tissues with high rate of oxidation heart Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation metabolism of one molecule of glucose Yields 32 ATP metabolism of one molecule of glycogen Yields 33 ATP Overall efficiency of aerobic respiration is 34% 66% of energy released as heat system Summary Equation C 6 H 12 O O ADP + 32 Pi 6 CO H 2 O + 32 ATP (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n + 6 O ADP + 33 Pi 6 CO H 2 O + 33 ATP Control of Bioenergetics Rate-limiting enzymes An enzyme that regulates the rate of a metabolic pathway Levels of ATP and ADP+P i High levels of ATP inhibit ATP production Low levels of ATP and high levels of ADP+P i stimulate ATP production Control of Metabolic Pathways Pathway Rate-limiting Stim Inh ATP/PC creatine kin ADP ATP PFK AMP ATP ADP CP ph Pi Krebs Isocitr dehy ADP ATP ETC cyto oxidase ADP ATP Interaction Between and Anaerobic ATP Production Energy to perform exercise comes from an interaction between aerobic and anaerobic pathways Effect of duration and intensity Short-term, high-intensity activities Greater contribution of anaerobic energy systems Long-term, low to moderate-intensity exercise Majority of ATP produced from aerobic sources Table 3.2 6

7 Exercise Time and Lactate Production Energy Transfer Systems and Exercise 100% % Capacity of Energy System Anaerobic ATP - CP Energy System 10 sec 30 sec 2 min 5 min + Regulation of Metabolism Low Intensity < 40-50% VO 2max Medium Intensity 50-70% VO 2max High Intensity % VO 2max Energy Systems during Exercise Submaximal 2/3 fat 1/3 CHO (glucose/glycogen) Steady state-oxygen consumption meets oxygen demand to provide ATP Adjustment time needed to reach steady state 30 min or more Energy Systems during Exercise Submaximal (cont) Major fuel is fat ATP-PC and LA contribute during the first 2-3 min of exercise BLa is not high so anaerobic glycolysis and LA are not primary contributor BLa of marathoners is only about mg% 7

8 Energy Systems during Exercise Submaximal (cont) forever? Fatigue factors low blood glucose (liver glycogen depletion) low muscle glycogen-muscular fatigue dehydration and electrolyte loss (core temp) boredom, physical beating Energy Systems during Exercise Maximal exercise 1/4 fat 3/4 CHO (glucose/glycogen) Anaerobic sources Summary The key determining factor in which energy system predominates: Exercise intensity 8

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