8/29/2011. The Greek Philosophers. Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table. Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) J. J. Thomson. Thomson s Experiment

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "8/29/2011. The Greek Philosophers. Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table. Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) J. J. Thomson. Thomson s Experiment"

Transcription

1 Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table The Greek Philosophers Democritus believed that all matter is made up of tiny particles that could not be divided Aristotle -- thought that matter was made of only four elements Fire Earth Air Water Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) All elements are composed of atoms All atoms of the same element have the same mass, and atoms of different elements have different masses* Compounds contain atoms of more than one element In a particular compound, atoms of different elements always combine in the same way J. J. Thomson Provided the first evidence that atoms are made up of even smaller particles. Plum Pudding model electrons were evenly spread out among a positively charged mass (chocolate chip ice cream) Thomson s Experiment Hypothesis The beam was a stream of charged particles that caused the air to glow. Experiment Positive and negative plates were put on either side of the tube. Results The beam was bent towards the positive plate. Conclusion There are negative particles being given off of the atoms that are attracted to the positive plate. (Atoms are made of smaller pieces!) 1

2 Ernest Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment Hypothesis: that alpha particles would pass straight through a thin sheet of gold Results The alpha particles did not pass straight through, but instead were deflected in various directions. Conclusion The positive charge of an atom IS NOT evenly spread out, but concentrated in a very small area (nucleus). Subatomic Particles Proton (p + ) Positive charge Found in nucleus Neutron (n) Neutral (no charge) Found in nucleus Approximately the same mass as a p + Electron (e - ) Negative charge Found orbiting around the nucleus MUCH smaller than p+ or n (1/1836) Atomic Number (Z) The number of protons found as a part of the nucleus in an atom Unique for each element Cannot change without changing the type of element Mass Number The total number of particles that make up the nucleus Mass number = p + + n n = mass number p + Atoms of the same element may have varying mass numbers because the number of neutrons can vary 2

3 Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers (numbers of neutrons) Ways to write isotopes Element mass number (Carbon 12) Symbol mass number (C 12) Mass number Symbol ( 12 C) Ways to write isotopes, cont. Wave Nature of Energy MassNumber Atomic Number Symbol ( 12 6 C) Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation any form of energy that radiates in all directions from a single source consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that carry energy EM Spectrum wave formula c = discovered by James Maxwell c = speed of light (true for ALL EM radiation) c = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s = frequency the number of waves passing a given point during a unit of time units are per seconds = s -1 = Hertz (Hz) = wavelength (m) 3

4 What is the wavelength of a radio wave broadcasted at MHz? (2.901 m) blackbody radiation heated solid objects emit visible light where intensity and color depend on temperature black because there is no light emitted before heating Wien-Planck law as the temperature of a black body increases decreases increases E increases cannot be explained by classical physics quantum (Max Planck ) a fixed amount of energy the smallest amount of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as EM radiation E = h h = Planck s constant = x Js E = energy (Joules, J) one quanta = h, two quanta = 2 h photon energy packet that behaves like a particle photoelectric effect clean metal surfaces exposed to light will emit electrons emitted electron = photoelectron 4

5 What is the energy of one photon of yellow light ( = 589 nm)? 3.37 x J/photon Einstein extended Planck s quantum theory to say that energy has mass! E = mc 2 E = energy of a photon (J) m = mass of photon (kg) c = speed of light Compton s Theory ties together Planck s and Einstein s work E = mc 2 = h What is the mass of a photon of violet light ( = 415 nm)? 4.79 x kg m = hv/c 2 (c = ) m = h/ c De Broglie (Louis) equation m = h/ v m = mass (kg) h = Planck s constant = wavelength (m) v = velocity (m/s) Calculate the wavelength of a 2.53 g bullet traveling 320. m/s x m If mass is large, wavelength is small Newtonian mechanics applies If mass is small, wavelength is large Quantum mechanics applies 5

6 Wave-Particle duality Planck and Maxwell work toward wave theory Einstein work toward particle theory EM has characteristics of both a wave and a particle at all times Niels Bohr 1 st postulate atom has only certain allowable (quantized) energy states depend upon energy level occupied by e - Energy levels identified with integers (n=1, 2 ) energy of an electron in energy level n E = -kz 2 /n 2 k = x J (Rydberg constant) Z = atomic number n = principal quantum number (energy level) 2 nd postulate atom doesn t radiate energy in one of it s energy states 3 rd postulate atom changes energy states by absorbing or emitting photons of specific frequencies if a photon is absorbed, an electron is promoted to a higher energy level (called an excited state) E > 0 Calculate the energy absorbed by an electron jumping from the 1 st energy level to the 5 th x J When an electron relaxes back to its ground state, a photon is emitted E < 0 E 2.179x n 2 i 1 n 2 f 6

7 Calculate the energy of an electron moving around a H atom in the 2 nd energy level x J Energy Levels The possible energy an electron can have Similar to steps Higher steps have more energy Going down a step means energy was released Energy Levels, cont. Seven possible energy levels that correspond to the rows on the periodic table Also called shells Bohr s Model of the Atom Each circle represents an energy level 1 st level: 2 electrons 2 nd level: 8 electrons 3 rd level: 18 electrons 4 th level: 32 electrons Erwin Schrödinger Developed mathematical model to describe the motion of electrons Work leads to electron cloud model Orbital Region of space where an electron is likely to be found Shapes are created by taking many pictures of the electron s location over a period of time 7

8 Pauli Exclusion Principle Only two electrons will occupy the same orbital A series of the same type of orbital is also called a sub-level or subshell. s-orbital Shaped like a sphere Only one type (b/c it can only point one direction!) Electron Probablity Map p orbital p - orbital Has one shape that can point three ways Total of 3 types of p-orbitals (p x, p y, p z ) Electron Probability Maps d orbitals d - orbital Five total types 8

9 f - orbitals Seven possible types How Orbitals Interact Electron Configurations (More sophisticated than Bohr s!) Know the total number of electrons in the atom! Use the diagonal rule Aufbau Principle Electrons fill orbitals that have the lowest energy first Follow the DIAGONAL RULE! The Diagonal Rule 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s 7p Exceptions to the Diagonal Rule Expected Found Cr [Ar]4s 2 3d 4 [Ar]4s 1 3d 5 Mo [Kr]5s 2 4d 4 [Ar]5s 1 4d 5 Cu [Ar]4s 2 3d 9 [Ar]4s 1 3d 10 Ag [Ar]5s 2 4d 9 [Ar]5s 1 4d 10 Au [Ar]6s 2 5d 9 [Ar]6s 1 5d 10 9

10 Orbital Diagrams Shows the placement of electrons in the orbitals Ex. Sodium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Hund s Rule Electrons will fill each orbital on a sublevel before pairing with each other. Ex. Carbon 1s 2s 2p 3s Diamagnetic all electrons are paired s 2, p 6, d 10, f 14 Paramagnetic One or more electrons is unpaired Quantum Numbers Principal Quantum Number (n) n = energy level (1, 2, 3, ) Azimuthal Quantum Number (l) l = type of orbital (s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3) Magnetic Quantum Number(which orbital) m = from - l to + l Electron Spin (first or second electron) s = ½ What are the quantum numbers for the 3 rd and 6 th electrons in neon? N 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Electron Configurations on the Periodic Table 1s 2s 2p 3rd electron n=2, l=0, m=0, s=+½ 6 th electron n=2, l=1, m=-1, s=-½ 10

11 Shorthand electron configurations Use Noble Gas shortcuts ONLY! Kr (36 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 Isoelectronic series Species that have the same electron configuration E.g. O 2-, F -, Ne, Na +, Mg 2+ Mo (42 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 [Kr] 5s 2 4d 4 John Newlands Arranged the 16 known elements in order of increasing atomic mass Dmitri Mendeleev Arranged the periodic table by increasing atomic mass and stacking elements with similar properties in the same column Was able to predict the properties of elements not yet discovered by looking at the blank spaces in his table Henry Moseley Fine-tuned the periodic table by placing the elements in increasing atomic number (protons were not known during Mendeleev s time) 11

12 Organizing the Periodic Table Metals are left of the stair-step line Non-metals are to the right of the stair-step line Metalloids (have properties of both) are found adjacent to stair-step line Other Periodic Arrangements 1 Atomic Information from the Periodic Table Atomic Number H Atomic Mass Element Symbol Atomic Mass The weighted average of all possible isotopes for an element Atomic Mass = (%A)(Mass of A) + (%B)(Mass of B) Period A row in the periodic table corresponding to the energy level on which the electrons exist 12

13 Group A column on the periodic table in which the elements have similar properties Similar properties are created by similar electron configurations 1A A Groups = Representative Elements 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A B groups = transition elements Group 1A are the alkali metals (but NOT H) Group 2A are the alkaline earth metals H These are called the inner transition elements, and they belong here Group 8A are the noble gases Group 7A is called the halogens Valence Electrons Electrons that are in the outermost shell Involved in bonding with other atoms Same amount as A group # Examples: H has 1, N has 5, P has 5 13

14 Octet Rule Atoms are most stable when they have full outer shells 8 electrons (s 2, p 6 ) for most representative elements (s2 for H, He) Ion an atom (or group of atoms) that has gained or lost electrons anion negative charge gained electron(s) tend to be larger than parent atom cation positive charge lost electron(s) tend to be smaller than parent atom Monoatomic Ions Ions from single atoms Charge can be predicted by location on the periodic table Cation positively charged ion lost e Anion - negatively charged ion gained e - Atomic Size Atomic Size - Group trends As the atomic number increases H Li } Radius Measure the Atomic Radius - this is half the distance between the two nuclei of a diatomic molecule. each atom has another energy level, so the atoms get bigger. Na K Rb 14

15 Atomic Size - Period Trends Going from left to right across a period, the size gets smaller. Electrons are in the same energy level. But, there is more nuclear charge. Outermost electrons are pulled closer. Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to completely remove an electron (from a gaseous atom). Removing one electron makes a 1+ ion. 2 nd IE > 1 st IE Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar IE for non-valence electrons >>> 1 st IE IE - Group trends As you go down a group, the first IE decreases (less energy required, easier to remove electron) because the electron is further away from the attraction of the nucleus Increased sheilding Shielding The electron on the outermost energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the nucleus. Second electron has same shielding, if it is in the same period IE - Period trends All the atoms in the same period have the same energy level. But, increasing nuclear charge So IE generally increases from left to right (higher energy, more difficulty to remove electron) Trends in Electronegativity Electronegativity is the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element. They share the electron, but how equally do they share it? The higher the EN the stronger an atom is at attracting electrons. 15

16 Electronegativity Group Trend The further down a group, the farther the electron is away from the nucleus, plus the more electrons an atom has. Thus, more willing to share. Low electronegativity. Electronegativity Period Trend Metals let their electrons go easily Thus, low electronegativity Nonmetals want more electrons. Try to take them away from others High electronegativity. Electron Affinity The amount of energy RELEASED when an electron is added to an atom the more negative, the more energy that is released, the more likely an atom will add an electron Trends in three atomic properties Trends in metallic behavior 16

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

More information

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1. Which statement regarding the gold foil experiment is false? (a) It was performed by Rutherford and his research group early in the 20 th century. (b) Most of

More information

Chapter 7. Electron Structure of the Atom. Chapter 7 Topics

Chapter 7. Electron Structure of the Atom. Chapter 7 Topics Chapter 7 Electron Structure of the Atom Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chapter 7 Topics 1. Electromagnetic radiation 2. The Bohr model of

More information

Copyrighted by Gabriel Tang B.Ed., B.Sc.

Copyrighted by Gabriel Tang B.Ed., B.Sc. Chapter 8: The Periodic Table 8.1: Development of the Periodic Table Johann Dobereiner: - first to discover a pattern of a group of elements like Cl, Br, and I (called triads). John Newland: - suggested

More information

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

More information

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics 13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Grade Level/Subject Chemistry Stage 1: Desired Results Enduring Understanding Topic 1: Elements and the Periodic Table: The placement of elements on the periodic table

More information

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

More information

The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of

The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table. Describe the modern periodic table.

More information

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur? PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

More information

Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals Objectives

Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals Objectives Objectives 1. To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals 2. To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical model of the atom 3. To learn about electron spin A. Electron Location

More information

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model. John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

More information

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

More information

Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table. Ron Robertson

Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table. Ron Robertson Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table Ron Robertson History of Chemistry Before 16 th Century Alchemy Attempts (scientific or otherwise) to change cheap metals into gold no real

More information

The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry. Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010

The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry. Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010 The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010 Atomic Theory and Periodicity Part I 1984 1. Which of

More information

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

More information

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

More information

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

More information

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Wavelength is defined as the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave. It is generally symbolized by the Greek

More information

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: per: Date:. 1. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements? 2. By what property did Moseley suggest that the periodic table be arranged? 3. What

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

More information

Electrons In Atoms Mr. O Brien (SFHS) Chapter 5 Standard 1D

Electrons In Atoms Mr. O Brien (SFHS) Chapter 5 Standard 1D Electrons In Atoms Mr. O Brien (SFHS) Chapter 5 Standard 1D Electrons in Atoms (std.1d) What are Bohr Models? planetary model in which the negatively-charged electrons orbit a small, positively-charged

More information

Chapter Test. Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a.

Chapter Test. Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a. Assessment Chapter Test A Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a 13. c 14. d 15. c 16. b 17. d 18. a 19. d 20. c 21. d 22. a

More information

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties 324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

More information

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

More information

13- What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the subshell 3d? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 2

13- What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the subshell 3d? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 2 Assignment 06 A 1- What is the energy in joules of an electron undergoing a transition from n = 3 to n = 5 in a Bohr hydrogen atom? a) -3.48 x 10-17 J b) 2.18 x 10-19 J c) 1.55 x 10-19 J d) -2.56 x 10-19

More information

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes The Organization of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to organize the elements by their periodic properties. In 1871 he arranged the

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

Unit 2: Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry

Unit 2: Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Chemistry AP Unit : Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Unit : Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Chapter 7: Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1: Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic (EM)

More information

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

More information

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num . ATOMIC STRUCTURE FUNDAMENTALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES To review the basics concepts of atomic structure that have direct relevance to the fundamental concepts of organic chemistry. This material is essential

More information

Periodic Table Trends in Element Properties Ron Robertson

Periodic Table Trends in Element Properties Ron Robertson Periodic Table Trends in Element Properties Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\ch9trans2.doc The Periodic Table Quick Historical Review Mendeleev in 1850 put together

More information

Chapter 9: ELECTRONS IN ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

Chapter 9: ELECTRONS IN ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Chapter 9: ELECTRONS IN ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Problems: 1-3, 13-15, 19, 23-25, 31-32, 43, 45-46, 49c, 50a, 50b, 57c, 58 (b,c,d), 61-62, 69, 71-74, 77-88, 91-94 9.5 LIGHT: Electromagnetic Radiation

More information

Chapter 3, Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 3, Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 1. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic masses to form a precursor of the modern periodic table of elements? Ans. Mendeleev and Meyer 2. Who stated that the

More information

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations

More information

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table Name: Teacher s Name: Class: Block: Date: Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table 1. For each of the following elements, state whether the element is radioactive, synthetic or both.

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms CHAPTER 4 PRE-TEST Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms In the space provided, write the letter of the term that best completes each sentence or best answers each question. 1. Which of the following orbital

More information

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table.

Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. Chapter 5 Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. How did he organize the elements? According to similarities in their chemical and physical

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

More information

CHAPTER 11: MODERN ATOMIC THEORY

CHAPTER 11: MODERN ATOMIC THEORY CHAPTER 11: MODERN ATOMIC THEORY Active Learning Questions: 1-2, 8-10, 14-18; End-of-Chapter Problems: 3-9, 11-13, 16, 18, 20-36, 45-54, 56-64, 66b, 67, 69-91, 98, 101-102, 108, 110, 113, 116, 11.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC

More information

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE Chapter 3 Vocabulary Words (27 words) Nucleus Atomic number Proton Mass number Neutron Isotopes Electron Atomic mass unit (amu) Energy level Average

More information

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

More information

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented in the margin. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the

More information

Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total

Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total 1. Calculate the energy in joules of a photon of red light that has a frequency

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

Atomic Theory: History of the Atom

Atomic Theory: History of the Atom Atomic Theory: History of the Atom Atomic Theory: experimental observations that led scientists to postulate the existence of the atom (smallest bit of an element). 1. Law of Conservation of Mass -During

More information

3) Of the following, radiation has the shortest wavelength. A) X-ray B) radio C) microwave D) ultraviolet E) infrared Answer: A

3) Of the following, radiation has the shortest wavelength. A) X-ray B) radio C) microwave D) ultraviolet E) infrared Answer: A 1) Which one of the following is correct? A) ν + λ = c B) ν λ = c C) ν = cλ D) λ = c ν E) νλ = c Answer: E 2) The wavelength of light emitted from a traffic light having a frequency of 5.75 1014 Hz is.

More information

AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity Free Response Questions KEY page 1

AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity Free Response Questions KEY page 1 AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity ree Response Questions KEY page 1 1980 a) points 1s s p 6 3s 3p 6 4s 3d 10 4p 3 b) points for the two electrons in the 4s: 4, 0, 0, +1/ and 4, 0, 0, - 1/ for the three

More information

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing. (a). oxidation number (b). atomic mass (c). average atomic mass

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations.

Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations. The Periodic Table Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations. Vertical Rows are called Families or Groups.

More information

Unit 1, Lesson 03: Answers to Homework 1, 0, +1 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 1, 0, +1 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3. n = 3 l = 2 m l = -2 m s = -½

Unit 1, Lesson 03: Answers to Homework 1, 0, +1 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 1, 0, +1 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3. n = 3 l = 2 m l = -2 m s = -½ Unit, Lesson : Answers to Homework Summary: The allowed values for quantum numbers for each principal quantum level n : n l m l m s corresponding sub-level number of orbitals in this sub-level n = s n

More information

THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27)

THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE In 1872, Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table arranged

More information

Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures

Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Objectives: 1. Draw Lewis structures for atoms, ions and simple molecules. 2. Use Lewis structures as a guide to construct three-dimensional models of small molecules.

More information

Multi-electron atoms

Multi-electron atoms Multi-electron atoms Today: Using hydrogen as a model. The Periodic Table HWK 13 available online. Please fill out the online participation survey. Worth 10points on HWK 13. Final Exam is Monday, Dec.

More information

Periodic Table. 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing. A. atomic number B. mass number

Periodic Table. 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing. A. atomic number B. mass number Name: ate: 1. In the modern, the elements are arranged in order of increasing. atomic number. mass number. oxidation number. valence number 5. s the elements in Group I are considered in order of increasing

More information

Chapter 3. Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 3. Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 3. Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table In the early 1800's many elements had been discovered and found to have different properties. In 1817 Döbreiner's

More information

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels As you already know, all atoms are made of subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Positive protons and neutral neutrons are found

More information

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13. Electrons in Atoms

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13. Electrons in Atoms CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13 Electrons in Atoms Goals : To gain an understanding of : 1. Atoms and their structure. 2. The development of the atomic theory. 3. The quantum mechanical model of the atom. 4.

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment.

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment. Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The

More information

Models of the Atom and periodic Trends Exam Study Guide

Models of the Atom and periodic Trends Exam Study Guide Name 1. What is the term for the weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element? ans: atomic mass 2. Which is exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon -12 atom? ans: atomic

More information

Electron Arrangements

Electron Arrangements Section 3.4 Electron Arrangements Objectives Express the arrangement of electrons in atoms using electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures New Vocabulary Heisenberg uncertainty

More information

PROTONS AND ELECTRONS

PROTONS AND ELECTRONS reflect Imagine that you have a bowl of oranges, bananas, pineapples, berries, pears, and watermelon. How do you identify each piece of fruit? Most likely, you are familiar with the characteristics of

More information

The Models of the Atom

The Models of the Atom The Models of the Atom All life, whether in the form of trees, whales, mushrooms, bacteria or amoebas, consists of cells. Similarly, all matter, whether in the form of aspirin, gold, vitamins, air or minerals,

More information

IONISATION ENERGY CONTENTS

IONISATION ENERGY CONTENTS IONISATION ENERGY IONISATION ENERGY CONTENTS What is Ionisation Energy? Definition of t Ionisation Energy What affects Ionisation Energy? General variation across periods Variation down groups Variation

More information

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS 3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS All matter is built up from chemical combinations of elements. As of 2003, there are 114 known elements, of which 88 are naturally occurring; the remaining

More information

Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory

Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics Basic Atomic Theory Objectives Introduce and Molecules The periodic Table Electronic Energy Levels Atomic excitation & de-excitation Ionisation Molecules Constituents

More information

CHAPTER 8 PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS (END OF CHAPTER 7 TOO)

CHAPTER 8 PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS (END OF CHAPTER 7 TOO) CHAPTER 8 PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS (END OF CHAPTER 7 TOO) Information that most likely will be on the front cover of your exam: h i Z 2 ΔE = @ 2.18 x 10 @ 18 f Z 2 f J j @ k n f 2 n i 2 1. Which of the

More information

TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points

TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points 1. Check your examination for completeness prior to starting.

More information

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7]

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Ch. 9 - Electron Organization The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Predicting ion charges from electron configurations. CHEM 100 F07 1 Organization of Electrons

More information

Atoms and Molecules. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4

Atoms and Molecules. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Atoms and Molecules Preparation Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Describe how atoms are the building blocks of matter

More information

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Chemistry 101 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Use only a periodic table to answer the following questions. 1. Write complete electron configuration for each of the following elements: a) Aluminum

More information

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Selected Honour Chemistry Assignment Answers pg. 9 Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 7: The Electronic Structure of Atoms (pg. 240 to 241) 48. The shape of an s-orbital is

More information

6.7: Explaining the Periodic Table pg. 234

6.7: Explaining the Periodic Table pg. 234 Unit C: Atoms, elements, and Compounds 6.7: Explaining the Periodic Table pg. 234 Key Concepts: 3. Elements are organized according to their atomic number and electron arrangement on the periodic table.

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Chapter 7. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten

Chapter 7. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 7 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Development of Table

More information

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Lesson Topics Covered SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 Note: History of Atomic Theory progression of understanding of composition of matter; ancient Greeks and

More information

CHAPTER 9 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND SOME ATOMIC PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 9 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND SOME ATOMIC PROPERTIES CHAPTER 9 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND SOME ATOMIC PROPERTIES PRACTICE EXAMPLES 1A 1B A B A Atomic size decreases from left to right across a period, and from bottom to top in a family. We expect the smallest

More information

Electron Configurations, Isoelectronic Elements, & Ionization Reactions. Chemistry 11

Electron Configurations, Isoelectronic Elements, & Ionization Reactions. Chemistry 11 Electron Configurations, Isoelectronic Elements, & Ionization Reactions Chemistry 11 Note: Of the 3 subatomic particles, the electron plays the greatest role in determining the physical and chemical properties

More information

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Basics

Trends of the Periodic Table Basics Trends of the Periodic Table Basics Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

******* KEY ******* Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide

******* KEY ******* Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide VOCABULARY: Write a brief definition of each term in the space provided. 1. Atoms: smallest unit of an element that has all of the properties of that

More information

Level 3 Achievement Scale

Level 3 Achievement Scale Unit 1: Atoms Level 3 Achievement Scale Can state the key results of the experiments associated with Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Chadwick, and Bohr and what this lead each to conclude. Can explain that

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Practice Questions - Chapter 7 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following represents an impossible set of

More information

5.4 Trends in the Periodic Table

5.4 Trends in the Periodic Table 5.4 Trends in the Periodic Table Think about all the things that change over time or in a predictable way. For example, the size of the computer has continually decreased over time. You may become more

More information

19.1 Bonding and Molecules

19.1 Bonding and Molecules Most of the matter around you and inside of you is in the form of compounds. For example, your body is about 80 percent water. You learned in the last unit that water, H 2 O, is made up of hydrogen and

More information

CHAPTER 4: ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

CHAPTER 4: ATOMS AND ELEMENTS CHAPTER 4: ATOMS AND ELEMENTS Problems: 1-70 then after Chapter 9, complete 71-94, 103-104, 107-108, 113-114 4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon atom: smallest identifiable unit of an element All matter

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

Ernest Rutherford Atomic Model 1911. Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson 1897

Ernest Rutherford Atomic Model 1911. Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson 1897 1 The arrangement of electrons in an atom determine most of the chemical properties of that atom. Electrons are what actually do the reacting. Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson 1897 Ernest Rutherford Atomic

More information