Cellular respiration

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cellular respiration"

Transcription

1 Section 3 Cellular Respiration Objectives Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration. Describe how is made in the second stage of cellular respiration. 4B Identify the role of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration. 4B Evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration. 4B Key Terms aerobic anaerobic glycolysis NADH Krebs cycle FADH 2 fermentation Figure 10 Cellular respiration Cellular respiration occurs in two stages. 1. First, glucose is broken down to pyruvate. Anaerobic (without O 2 ) 2. Then, either aerobic respiration or anaerobic processes occur. NADH Ethanol and CO 2, or lactate Cellular Energy Most of the foods we eat contain usable energy. Much of the energy in a hamburger, for example, is stored in proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. But before you can use that energy, it is transferred to. Like in most organisms, your cells transfer the energy in organic s, especially glucose, to through a process called cellular respiration. Oxygen in the air you breathe makes the production of more efficient, although some is made without oxygen. Metabolic processes that require oxygen are called aerobic (ehr OH bihk). Metabolic processes that do not require oxygen are called anaerobic (AN ehr oh bihk), meaning without air. The Stages of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process cells use to harvest the energy in organic s, particularly glucose. The breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration can be summarized by the following equation: enzymes C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O energy glucose oxygen gas carbon dioxide water As Figure 10 shows, cellular respiration occurs in two stages: Stage 1 is converted to pyruvate (PIE roo vayt), producing a small amount of and NADH. Stage 1 Pyruvate Stage 2 ADP Aerobic (with O 2 ) Mitochondrion Stage 2 When oxygen is present, pyruvate and NADH are used to make a large amount of. This process is called aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and in the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells. When oxygen is not present, pyruvate is converted to either lactate (LAK tayt) or ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and carbon dioxide. The equation above does not show how cellular respiration occurs. It simply shows that the complete enzyme-assisted breakdown of a glucose molecule uses six oxygen molecules and forms six carbon dioxide molecules, six water molecules, and. Aerobic respiration produces most of the made by cells. Intermediate products of aerobic respiration form the organic s that help build and maintain cells. 104 CHAPTER 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

2 Stage One: Breakdown of The primary fuel for cellular respiration is glucose, which is formed when carbohydrates such as starch and sucrose are broken down. If too few carbohydrates are available to meet an organism s glucose needs, other molecules, such as fats, can be broken down to make. In fact, one gram of fat contains more energy than two grams of carbohydrates. Proteins and nucleic acids can also be used to make, but they are usually used for building important cell parts. In the first stage of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm during a process called glycolysis (glie KAHL uh sihs). is an enzyme-assisted anaerobic process that breaks down one six-carbon molecule of glucose to two threecarbon pyruvate ions. Recall that a molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons is called an ion. Pyruvate is the ion of a three-carbon organic acid called pyruvic acid. The pyruvate produced during glycolysis still contains some of the energy that was stored in the glucose molecule. As glucose is broken down, some of its hydrogen atoms are transferred to an electron acceptor called NAD. This forms an electron carrier called NADH. For cellular respiration to continue, the electrons carried by NADH are eventually donated to other organic s. This recycles NAD, making it available to accept more electrons. is summarized in Figure 11. In a series of three reactions, phosphate groups from two molecules are transferred to a glucose molecule. In two reactions, the resulting six-carbon is broken down to two three-carbon s, each with a phosphate group. Two NADH molecules are produced, and one more phosphate group is transferred to each three-carbon. In a series of four reactions, each three-carbon is converted to a three-carbon pyruvate, producing four molecules in the process. uses two molecules but produces four molecules, yielding a net gain of two molecules. is followed by another set of reactions that use the energy temporarily stored in NADH to make more. BIO graphic Figure 11 6-carbon Two 3-carbon s Two 3-carbon s Two 3-carbon pyruvates 2 ADP NADH + 2H 2 4 ADP SECTION 3 Cellular Respiration 105

3 Stage Two: Production of When oxygen is present, pyruvate produced during glycolysis enters a mitochondrion and is converted to a two-carbon. This reaction produces one carbon dioxide molecule, one NADH molecule, and one two-carbon acetyl (uh SEET uhl) group. The acetyl group is attached to a molecule called coenzyme A (CoA), forming a called acetyl-coa (uh SEET uhl-koh ay). Krebs Cycle Acetyl-CoA enters a series of enzyme-assisted reactions called the Krebs cycle, summarized in Figure 12. The cycle is named for the biochemist Hans Krebs, who first described the cycle in Acetyl-CoA combines with a four-carbon, forming a six-carbon and releasing coenzyme A. Carbon dioxide, CO 2, is released from the six-carbon, forming a five-carbon. Electrons are transferred to, making a molecule of NADH. BIO graphic Figure 12 Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle produces electron carriers that temporarily store chemical energy Acetyl-CoA combines with a four-carbon, forming a six-carbon. Acetyl-CoA 4-carbon C CoA 6-carbon 2. CO 2 is released from the six-carbon, leaving a O five-carbon. 2 5-carbon NAD 3 3. CO 2 is released from the five-carbon, leaving a four-carbon. O 2 NAD 5 5. The new four-carbon is converted to the four-carbon that began the cycle. NAD 4-carbon C FADH 2 FAD 4-carbon C 4 ADP + P 4. The four-carbon is converted to a new four-carbon. 106 CHAPTER 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

4 Carbon dioxide is released from the five-carbon, resulting in a four-carbon. A molecule of is made, and a molecule of NADH is also produced. The existing four-carbon is converted to a new four-carbon. Electrons are transferred to an electron acceptor called FAD, making a molecule of FADH 2. FADH 2 is another type of electron carrier. The new four-carbon is then converted to the four-carbon that began the cycle. Another molecule of NADH is produced. After the Krebs cycle, NADH and FADH 2 now contain much of the energy that was previously stored in glucose and pyruvate. When the Krebs cycle is completed, the four-carbon that began the cycle has been recycled, and acetyl-coa can enter the cycle again. Topic: Aerobic Respiration Keyword: HX4004 Electron Transport Chain In aerobic respiration, electrons donated by NADH and FADH 2 pass through an electron transport chain, as shown in Figure 13. In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain is located in the inner membranes of mitochondria. The energy of these electrons is used to pump hydrogen ions out of the inner mitochondrial compartment. Hydrogen ions accumulate in the outer compartment, producing a concentration gradient across the inner membrane. Hydrogen ions diffuse back into the inner compartment through a carrier protein that adds a phosphate group to ADP, making. At the end of the electron transport chain, hydrogen ions and spent electrons combine with oxygen molecules, O 2, forming water molecules, H 2 O. Figure 13 Electron transport chain of aerobic respiration In the inner membranes of mitochondria, electron transport chains (represented by the red lines) make. Outer compartment e - e - 3. is produced as hydrogen ions diffuse into the inner compartment through a channel protein. -producing carrier protein NADH + Inner compartment 4 + O 2 2H 2 O Inner mitochondrial membrane 1. The electron transport chain pumps hydrogen ions, H+, out of the inner compartment. 2. At the end of the chain, electrons and hydrogen ions combine with oxygen, forming water. ADP + P SECTION 3 Cellular Respiration 107

5 Figure 14 Fermentation. In cheese making, fungi or prokaryotes added to milk carry out lactic acid fermentation on some of the sugar in the milk. Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen What happens when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration to occur? The electron transport chain does not function because oxygen is not available to serve as the final electron acceptor. Electrons are not transferred from NADH, and NAD therefore cannot be recycled. When oxygen is not present, NAD is recycled in another way. Under anaerobic conditions, electrons carried by NADH are transferred to pyruvate produced during glycolysis. This process recycles NAD needed to continue making through glycolysis. The recycling of NAD using an organic hydrogen acceptor is called fermentation. Prokaryotes carry out more than a dozen kinds of fermentation, all using some form of organic hydrogen acceptor to recycle NAD. Two important types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation by some prokaryotes and fungi is used in the production of foods such as yogurt and some cheeses, as shown in Figure 14. Lactic Acid Fermentation In some organisms, a three-carbon pyruvate is converted to a threecarbon lactate through lactic acid fermentation, as shown in Figure 15. Lactate is the ion of an organic acid called lactic acid. For example, during vigorous exercise pyruvate in muscles is converted to lactate when muscle cells must operate without enough oxygen. Fermentation enables glycolysis to continue producing in muscles as long as the glucose supply lasts. Blood removes excess lactate from muscles. Lactate can build up in muscle cells if it is not removed quickly enough, sometimes causing muscle soreness. Figure 15 Two types of fermentation When oxygen is not present, cells recycle NAD+ through fermentation. In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate. In alcoholic fermentation, pyruvate is broken down to ethanol, releasing carbon dioxide, CO 2. Pyruvate Pyruvate C NAD NAD C CO 2 Lactate Ethanol 2-carbon Lactic acid fermentation Alcoholic fermentation 108 CHAPTER 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

6 Alcoholic Fermentation In other organisms, the three-carbon pyruvate is broken down to ethanol (ethyl alcohol), a two-carbon, through alcoholic fermentation. Carbon dioxide is released during the process. As shown in Figure 15, alcoholic fermentation is a two-step process. First, pyruvate is converted to a two-carbon, releasing carbon dioxide. Second, electrons are transferred from a molecule of NADH to the twocarbon, producing ethanol. As in lactic acid fermentation, NAD is recycled, and glycolysis can continue to produce. Alcoholic fermentation by yeast, a fungus, has been used in the preparation of many foods and beverages. Wine and beer contain ethanol made during alcoholic fermentation by yeast. Carbon dioxide released by the yeast causes the rising of bread dough and the carbonation of some alcoholic beverages, such as beer. Ethanol is actually toxic to yeast. At a concentration of about 12 percent ethanol kills yeast. Thus, naturally fermented wine contains about 12 percent ethanol. Topic: Fermentation Keyword: HX4080 Muscle Fatigue and Endurance Training A nyone who runs or exercises for a long period of time soon learns about muscle fatigue. As you continue vigorous exercise, the muscles you are using become fatigued that is, tired and less able to generate force. The reasons for muscle fatigue are not fully understood, but in most cases the fatigue increases when the production of lactic acid by the exercising muscle increases. Anaerobic Threshold Why does an exercising muscle produce lactic acid? A resting muscle obtains most of its energy from aerobic respiration. A continuously exercising muscle, however, soon depletes its available oxygen. At this point, called the anaerobic threshold, the exercising muscle begins to obtain the needed anaerobically. In the absence of oxygen, glycolysis extracts the required from glycogen in the muscle. Glycogen is a storable form of glucose that acts as an energy reserve. converts the muscle glycogen to pyruvate, which is then fermented to lactic acid. The ability to perform continuous exercise is limited by the body s stored glycogen. So, physical endurance can increase if glycogen stored in muscles is spared during exercise. Trained athletes such as cyclist Lance Armstrong, shown at right, get a relatively large portion of their energy from aerobic respiration. Thus, their muscle glycogen reserve is depleted more slowly than that in untrained individuals. In fact, the greater the level of physical training, the higher the proportion of energy the body derives from aerobic respiration. Athletic Endurance Endurance-trained athletes generally have more muscle mass than untrained people. But it is Lance Armstrong endurance-trained athletes high aerobic capacity rather than their greater muscle mass that allows these athletes to exercise more before lactic acid production and glycogen depletion cause muscle fatigue. Topic: Anaerobic Threshold Keyword: HX4192 SECTION 3 Cellular Respiration 109

7 Figure 16 Effect of oxygen on production Most is produced during aerobic respiration. (Net) 2 Fermentation Without O 2 Pyruvate With O 2 Krebs cycle 2 Lactate Ethanol and CO 2 Electron transport chain (Up to) 34 Anaerobic processes Aerobic respiration Section 3 Review Production of The total amount of that a cell is able to harvest from each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis depends on the presence or absence of oxygen. As shown in Figure 16, cells use energy most efficiently when oxygen is present. In the first stage of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis. is an anaerobic process, and it results in a net gain of two molecules. In the second stage of cellular respiration, the pyruvate passes through either aerobic respiration or (anaerobic) fermentation. When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs. When oxygen is not present, fermentation occurs instead. The NAD that gets recycled during fermentation allows glycolysis to continue producing. Thus, a small amount of is produced even during fermentation. Most of a cell s is made, however, during aerobic respiration. For each molecule of glucose that is broken down, as many as two molecules are made directly during the Krebs cycle, and up to 34 molecules are produced later by the electron transport chain. List the products of glycolysis. What is the role of each of these products in cellular respiration? 4B Summarize the roles of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain during aerobic respiration. 4B Describe the role of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration. 4B Critical Thinking Comparing Functions Explain why cellular respiration is more efficient when oxygen is present in cells. 4B Critical Thinking Inferring Conclusions Excess glucose in your blood is stored in your liver as glycogen. How might your body senses when to convert glucose to glycogen and glycogen back to glucose? 4B TAKS Test Prep When oxygen is present, most of the made in cellular respiration is produced by 9B A aerobic respiration. C alcoholic fermentation. B glycolysis. D lactic acid fermentation. 110 CHAPTER 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy Chapter 7 How Cells Release Chemical energy Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathway Plants and all other photoautotrophs get energy from the sun, heterotrophs get by eating plants and one another ATP

More information

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Teresa Audesirk Gerald Audesirk Bruce E. Byers Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

More information

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY!

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Biology I Cellular Respiration Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Now, we need a place to disassemble the molecule

More information

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Standard 1.g. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Is an aerobic process Yields The Relationship

More information

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds 5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds In this section, you will distinguish among aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation explain how carbohydrates are oxidized

More information

Cellular Respiration Review

Cellular Respiration Review MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose. A. Alcoholic fermentation

More information

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Cell Biology 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

Using the Energy from Photosynthesis. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Energy Produced through the Breakdown of Glucose

Using the Energy from Photosynthesis. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Energy Produced through the Breakdown of Glucose Harvesting Energy: and Cellular Chapter 8 Using the Energy from Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + heat Some ATP is produced in photosynthesis, but most energy is stored in sugars.

More information

9-1 Notes. Chemical Pathways

9-1 Notes. Chemical Pathways 9-1 Notes Chemical Pathways Chemical Energy & Food Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks to grow and reproduce. One gram of the sugar glucose releases 3811 calories of heat energy.

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37 1 of 37 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 2 of 37 The Krebs Cycle The

More information

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy I. Introduction A. In eukaryotes, cellular respiration 1. harvests energy from food 2. yields large amounts of ATP 3. B. A similar process takes place in many prokaryotic

More information

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration.

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration. Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Major concepts: Notes: Capturing Cell Energy

Major concepts: Notes: Capturing Cell Energy 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant?

2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant? Section: 3.4 Name: Opening Activity: What is the equation for photosynthesis? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Review of Old Information: 1. All energy begins as what type of energy and from

More information

Cellular Respiration. Chemical Energy and Food (page 221) Overview of Cellular Respiration (page 222) Chapter 9. Mitochondrion.

Cellular Respiration. Chemical Energy and Food (page 221) Overview of Cellular Respiration (page 222) Chapter 9. Mitochondrion. Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Section 9 1 Chemical Pathways (pages 221 225) This section explains what cellular respiration is. It also describes what happens during a process called glycolysis and describes

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

Cellular Respiration 1. Occurs in the Mitochondria 2. How are cells produce ATP (energy)

Cellular Respiration 1. Occurs in the Mitochondria 2. How are cells produce ATP (energy) Cellular Respiration 1. Occurs in the Mitochondria 2. How are cells produce ATP (energy) Consider the energy released by a burning peanut How is this like cellular respiration? Hyperlink What happened

More information

Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration. Respiration and fermentation. Respiration as a redox rxn. Redox reactions.

Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration. Respiration and fermentation. Respiration as a redox rxn. Redox reactions. Cellular respiration So why do we breathe? The big picture Heterotrophs cannot make their own food to supply their energy needs Instead they break down food to use the chemical energy stored in organic

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates

More information

Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food

Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food Chapter 6 Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Essential Biology, Fifth Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Fourth Edition Eric J. Simon,

More information

Lecture Notes Respiration

Lecture Notes Respiration Lecture Notes Respiration We will consider two processes by which organisms harvest energy from food molecules: Aerobic Respiration more efficient, occurs in presence of O 2 Anaerobic Respiration less

More information

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration Energetics... Page 18 Respiration Syllabus : The importance of respiration in converting chemical energy in food to chemical energy in ATP. The sites of respiration the sites of the various biochemical

More information

How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles

How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles Slow fibers break down glucose aerobically (using oxygen) for ATP production These muscle cells

More information

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Name: Period: Date: I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion o By the time food reaches your, it

More information

Lecture Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration

Lecture Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration Lecture 12-13 Chapter 6 Cellular Respiration How do marathon runners and sprinters differ? Long-distance runners have many SLOW FIBERS in their muscles Slow fibers break down glucose for ATP production

More information

Glycolysis 9/21/2009 1

Glycolysis 9/21/2009 1 Glycolysis 9/21/2009 1 Glycolysis glycolysis is another word for the breakdown of glucose if glucose is broken done in the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water you have the formula: C6H12O6 +

More information

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cells and Energy

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cells and Energy Cells and Energy Answer Key SECTION 1. CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP 1. molecule; food molecules 2. high-energy; lower-energy 3. phosphate group 4. a; d; b; c 5. b; e 6. c; d 7. a; f 8. chemical energy; light

More information

008 Chapter 8. Student:

008 Chapter 8. Student: 008 Chapter 8 Student: 1. Some bacteria are strict aerobes and others are strict anaerobes. Some bacteria, however, are facultative anaerobes and can live with or without oxygen. If given the choice of

More information

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions)

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Relocation of electrons in food molecules releases energy which can be used to synthesize ATP ATP is used to do ALL types

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION Nearly all the cells in our body break down sugars for ATP production Most cells of most organisms harvest energy aerobically The aerobic harvesting

More information

Introduction Chapter 6. 6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life. 6.3 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules

Introduction Chapter 6. 6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life. 6.3 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules Introduction Chapter 6 In eukaryotes, cellular respiration harvests energy from food, yields large amounts of, and Uses to drive cellular work. A similar process takes place in many prokaryotic organisms.

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration How is energy transferred and transformed in living systems? Why? Living organisms display the property of metabolism, which is a general term to describe the processes carried out

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of exergonic reactions. The harvested energy can then be used to power energy demanding processes

More information

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids Cellular Energy In order to sustain life (steady state), cells constantly expend energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis the hydrolysis of ATP yields a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a Phosphate

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation Honors Biology Chapter 6.8 6.12 Study Sheet The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation PYRUVATE OXIDATION DRAW THE DETAILED REACTION BELOW: REACTION SUMMARY: SUBSTRATES: PRODUCTS: THE CITRIC ACID

More information

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration 1 of 5 11/9/2011 8:11 PM Name: Hour: Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Energy in General 1. Differentiate an autotroph from a hetertroph as it relates to obtaining energy and the processes

More information

Glycolysis & Respiration

Glycolysis & Respiration Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of exergonic reactions. The harvested energy can then be used to power energy demanding processes

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Cellular Respiration. Sylvia S. Mader BIOLOGY. Chapter 8: pp. 133-149. Insert figure 8.2 here. 10th Edition

Cellular Respiration. Sylvia S. Mader BIOLOGY. Chapter 8: pp. 133-149. Insert figure 8.2 here. 10th Edition Chapter 8: pp. 133-149 BIOLOGY 10th Edition Cellular Respiration Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Insert figure 8. here and Cytoplasm e F ADH Mitochondrion

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION HARVESTING FREE ENERGY Photosynthesis takes free energy and puts it into carbohydrates/sugars Carbohydrates can be stored for later use; light can not and neither can ATP

More information

Cellular Respiration. Biology Gr11F. Grade 11F Science Related Reading/Biology. Name: Class: Date: Concept Mapping

Cellular Respiration. Biology Gr11F. Grade 11F Science Related Reading/Biology. Name: Class: Date: Concept Mapping Name: Class: Date: Grade 11F Science Related Reading/Biology Cellular Respiration Biology Gr11F Concept Mapping Complete the concept map showing the cellular respiration. 1 Unit: Linking Cell Structures

More information

Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 5

Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 5 Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 5 Introduction Being alive is work. Cells organize small organic molecules into polymers such as the proteins, carbohydrates, and so forth you studied last week.

More information

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy Chapter 8 Killer Bees Descendents of African honeybees that were imported to Brazil in the 1950s More aggressive, wider-ranging than other honeybees Africanized

More information

Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration. The Mighty Mitochondria. Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration. The Mighty Mitochondria. Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why you need oxygen? The Process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen That energy goes to make ATP. What does it all mean? C 6 H 12 O 6

More information

ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES

ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES ATP AND ENERGY: ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES Living things need continuous input of ENERGY to sustain life ENERGY is defined as the capacity of a system to perform work or an action. Living organisms

More information

Cellular Respiration Part V: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration Part V: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation Cellular Respiration Part V: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation Figure 9.16 Electron shuttles span membrane 2 NADH or 2 FADH 2 MITOCHONDRION 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate

More information

Cellular Respiration Page 9

Cellular Respiration Page 9 Cellular Respiration Page 9 I. The Importance of Food A. Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks they need to grow and reproduce. B. Food serves as a source of for the cells of the

More information

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks]

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks] Part 1: Multiple Choice SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test Mr. Dykstra Name: [25 marks] 1. Which of the following molecules links glucose oxidation, fatty acid catabolism, and the catabolism of

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

More information

REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. What happens to electrons as they are transported along the electron transport chain? a) they lose energy b) the gain energy c) they are pumped into the space between

More information

2. Cellular respiration uses oxygen to convert the chemical energy stored in organic molecules into -?-

2. Cellular respiration uses oxygen to convert the chemical energy stored in organic molecules into -?- HB Cell Respiration Questions (1/2 point each question or blank to fill in 37 points) 1. Organisms, such as plants that make their own food are called -?- 2. Cellular respiration uses oxygen to convert

More information

Glycolysis (splitting sugar) - OCCURS IN Cytoplasm

Glycolysis (splitting sugar) - OCCURS IN Cytoplasm Chpt 9 Cellular Respiration Food provides organisms with materials needed for growth, repair and energy. Carbohydrates are chemically stored energy needed by ALL living things calorie (scientific calorie)

More information

Cellular Respiration An Overview

Cellular Respiration An Overview Why? Cellular Respiration An Overview What are the phases of cellular respiration? All cells need energy all the time, and their primary source of energy is ATP. The methods cells use to make ATP vary

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Dr. Howaida Nounou. Dr. Howaida Nounou

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Dr. Howaida Nounou. Dr. Howaida Nounou CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1 The Pathway of energy in living organisms photosynthesis Light energy from the sun Chemical energy stored in glucose, fats, or carbohydrates cellular respiration Chemical energy

More information

The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration

The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis makes O 2 and organic molecules (like sugars and proteins), which are used in cellular respiration Cells use chemical energy

More information

Life requires energy. A cell uses energy to builcand maintain is structure, transport

Life requires energy. A cell uses energy to builcand maintain is structure, transport 1 Life requires energy. A cell uses energy to builcand maintain is structure, transport materials, manufacture products, move, grow,and reproduce. This energy ultimately comes from the sun. The figure

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name Advanced Biology Enzyme and Cellular Respiration Test Part I Multiple Choice (75 points) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The

More information

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells.

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells. Cellular respiration - how cells make energy - Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - ATP - this is provided by the lungs - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood

More information

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 Respiration and Fermentation 1. Some bacteria can use carbon dioxide rather than oxygen as the prime oxidizing molecule and therefore produce methane (CH4) rather than water as

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Text, Diagrams, Assessments, and Link to Standards Focus Questions 1) What is cellular respiration? 2) How is cellular respiration connected to breathing? 3) If

More information

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis and Respiration Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Do Now Photosynthesis and Respiration 4 Minutes Share Out What is SUCCESS? Success is not gained by defeat Success does not occur over night Success can emerge at anytime

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section C: Related Metabolic Processes 1. Fermentation allows some cells to produce ATP without the help of oxygen 2. Glycolysis and the Krebs

More information

Name Class Date SECTION 9-1 REVIEW CHEMICAL PATHWAYS. 1. cellular respiration. 2. glycolysis. 3. calorie. 4. fermentation

Name Class Date SECTION 9-1 REVIEW CHEMICAL PATHWAYS. 1. cellular respiration. 2. glycolysis. 3. calorie. 4. fermentation SECTION 9-1 REVIEW CHEMICAL PATHWAYS VOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms. 1. cellular respiration 2. glycolysis 3. calorie 4. fermentation M ULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.

More information

pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2 pyruvate, NADH, ATP

pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2 pyruvate, NADH, ATP 1. Glycolysis leads to the production of and two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation leads to the production of. Glycolysis plus the citric acid cycle can convert the carbons of glucose

More information

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to:

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to: and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Membrane Transport Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport Todays Outline -Releasing Pathways

More information

Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 8

Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 8 Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 8 Introduction Being alive is work. Cells organize small organic molecules into polymers such as the proteins, carbohydrates, and so forth you studied last week.

More information

Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis: 1. What is the term for the ability to perform work? Energy 2. Organisms that make their own food are called producers

More information

Cellular Respiration. The backwards and slightly more complicated version of photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration. The backwards and slightly more complicated version of photosynthesis Cellular Respiration The backwards and slightly more complicated version of photosynthesis Learning Outcomes I will. - Explain how glycolysis and the Kreb s cycle work and describe where these processes

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Bởi: OpenStaxCollege If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration will go forward. In eukaryotic cells, the pyruvate molecules produced at the end of glycolysis

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why exactly you need to breathe? What happens when you stop breathing? Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes

More information

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps):

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation?

More information

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy oweroint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko Introduction In

More information

Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS

Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Living cells require a continuous supply of energy for maintaining various life activities. This energy is obtained by oxidizing the organic compounds (carbohydrates,

More information

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcpnk92uswy What s the point? Cellular Respiration The point Stage 4: is to make ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP 2013-2014 Cellular respiration ATP accounting so far Even

More information

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme. CH s 8-9 Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein. Hydrolysis of sucrose by

More information

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Metabolism Metabolism Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules 2. Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs

More information

Cellular Respiration: Supplying Energy to Metabolic Reactions

Cellular Respiration: Supplying Energy to Metabolic Reactions Cellular Respiration: Supplying Energy to Metabolic Reactions ATP powers most of the processes in a cell including: * Muscle movement * Active Transport ATP also provides the necessary activation energy

More information

1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP

1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Presentation prepared by: Brian B. Parr, Ph.D. University of South Carolina Aiken Copyright 2009

More information

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Introduction oweroint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko In

More information

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food?

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food? Section 1 Do we get energy from food? CHAPTER 4 Food contains energy but it has to be broken down in order to be used. That means that energy comes from food but not directly. All cells, including plant

More information

An outline of glycolysis.

An outline of glycolysis. An outline of glycolysis. Each of the 10 steps shown is catalyzed by a different enzyme. Note that step 4 cleaves a six-carbon sugar into two three-carbon sugars, so that the number of molecules at every

More information

THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA: Glycolysis, Fermentation & Pyruvate Oxidation

THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA: Glycolysis, Fermentation & Pyruvate Oxidation THE CELLULAR RESIRATION SAGA: Glycolysis, Fermentation & yruvate Oxidation 1 HOW DO WE GET AT? AT is a product of cellular respiration O Breathing CO Breath in O O diffuses into bloodstream Lungs O diffuses

More information

Name Class Date. Explain how organisms get energy in the absence of oxygen. Identify the pathways the body uses to release energy during exercise.

Name Class Date. Explain how organisms get energy in the absence of oxygen. Identify the pathways the body uses to release energy during exercise. 9.3 Fermentation Lesson Objectives Explain how organisms get energy in the absence of oxygen. Identify the pathways the body uses to release energy during exercise. Lesson Summary Fermentation Fermentation

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org Chapter 4 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Derek Ramsey, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:monarch_butterfly_ Danaus_plexippus_Feeding_Down_3008px.jpg, and

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. Lab 6 Biol 1107L Spring 2015

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. Lab 6 Biol 1107L Spring 2015 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Lab 6 Biol 1107L Spring 2015 Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration ellular Respiration ellular Respiration A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). 6 H 12

More information

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain 2006-2007 Cellular respiration What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes

More information

Biology I: Study Guide # 3 Topics: Photosynthesis & Respiration

Biology I: Study Guide # 3 Topics: Photosynthesis & Respiration Biology I: Study Guide # 3 Topics: Photosynthesis & Respiration Name: Biology Textbook: pg. 200 214, 220-232 PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1. Define: a. autotroph: b. heterotroph: c. ATP: d. ADP: e. Glucose: f. photosynthesis:

More information

Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems. Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems

Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems. Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems 1 Cellular Respiration Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 2 Topics Introduction to cellular respiration Basic mechanisms of energy release and storage Stages of cellular respiration and fermentation Interconnections

More information

GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ

GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ GCE A Level Biology Energy and respiration сᴏᴏʟιᴏ 2013-2014 Q 1(a) Describe how ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation. [June 2012 # 1] Reduced NAD and reduced FAD are passed to the electron transport

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration STAGE 1: Glycolysis

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration STAGE 1: Glycolysis Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration STAGE 1: Glycolysis 1 What s the point? ATP The Point is to Make ATP! 2 Glycolysis Breaking down glucose glyco lysis (splitting sugar) glucose pyruvate 6C 2x 3C most ancient

More information