Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The Periodic Table. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The Periodic Table. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids"

Transcription

1 The Periodic Table Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids A table listing all of the known elements The most important organizing principle in chemistry Properties of metals high luster (shiny) solids at room temperature (except g) good conductors of heat/electricity malleable/ductile (deforms without fracturing) high density high melting point Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids Properties of nonmetals solids at room temperature: carbon, phosphorous, sulfur, selenium, iodine liquids at room temperature: bromine all others are gases at room temperature not lustrous or malleable/ductile poor conductors of heat and electricity low density and melting point Properties of metalloids solids at room temperature properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals

2 Compounds compound -- a combination of two or more elements atoms of the elements in a compound are combined in whole number ratios Examples: Water Elements: hydrogen, oxygen Formula: 2 (two hydrogen atoms for every one oxygen atom) Methanol Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Formula: C 4 (four hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every one carbon atom) C Molecules molecule -- the smallest individual unit of a compound a combination of two or more atoms from the same or different elements Chemical formulas of compounds The chemical formula of a compound shows which elements it is composed of and how many atoms of each element are present 1. The chemical formula contains the symbols of all the elements in the compound. NaCl 2. Subscripts indicate how many atoms of each element are present. 2 S 4 -- if only one atom of an element is present, the number one (1) is not shown as a subscript water water molecules 3. When the formula contains more than one group of atoms that occurs as a unit, parentheses are placed around the group. -- a subscript indicating how many of the groups are present in the compound appears to the right of the parentheses Example: (hydroxide ion) Na Mg() 2

3 Elements, atoms, compounds, molecules Element or compound? Elements can not be broken down into simpler substances Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances -- i.e., into simpler compounds and/ or elements Atoms are the smallest individual units of elements Examples Molecules are the smallest individual units of compounds -- molecules consist of two or more atoms of the same or different elements sodium (Na) carbon dioxide (C 2 ) Cu copper water ( 2 ) Mg magnesium Cl Cl chlorine ( Cl 2 ) sodium chloride (NaCl) mercury (g) Elements that exist as diatomic molecules There are seven elements that exist as diatomic molecules -- i.e., molecules that contain exactly two atoms Pure substances and mixtures substance -- a specific type of matter with a definite, fixed composition -- i.e., either elements or compounds mixture -- material containing two or more substances in variable proportions that are physically mixed but not chemically combined Element Symbol Formula ydrogen 2 Nitrogen N N 2 xygen 2 Fluorine F F 2 Chlorine Cl Cl 2 As free elements (i.e., when they are not part of a compound) these elements are always encountered as diatomic molecules Differences between compounds and mixtures Composition Separation of components Compounds Composed of two or more elements in definite, fixed proportions nly by chemical changes Mixtures May be composed of elements, compounds, or both in variable proportions By physical or mechanical means Bromine Br Br 2 Iodine I I 2 diatomic hydrogen gas molecule Identification of components A compound does not resemble the components from which it is formed Components do not lose their identity

4 Compounds vs. mixtures Types of mixtures Mixture of iron and sulfur Consists of Fe and S, but no definite formula Contains Fe and S in any proportion by mass Fe and S can be separated by physical means Compound of iron and sulfur FeS (iron sulfide) 63.5% Fe and 36.5% S by mass Fe and S can be separated only by chemical change omogeneous mixtures -- uniform in appearance -- has the same properties throughout -- solutions are homogeneous mixtures Examples: Fruit punch (water, sugar, red food coloring) Air (nitrogen, oxygen, C 2, argon, other gases) eterogeneous mixtures -- consists of visibly different substances or phases Examples: Trail mix (peanuts, cashews, M&Ms) Beach sand (bits of rocks, minerals, shells, coral) Fizzy mineral water (liquid, gas bubbles) Pure substances and mixtures Element, compound or mixture? Pure substances Fixed composition Mixtures Variable composition Not chemically combined Components can be separated by physical means Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate -- NaC 3 ) Salt and sugar combined in a bowl Salt (NaCl) crystals dissolved in water Elements nly one type of atom Compounds Two or more different types of atoms (elements) omogeneous uniform appearance and properties solutions eterogeneous visibly different substances or phases Nitrogen gas Rust (iron oxide -- Fe 2 3 ) Coffee Liquid ammonia (N 3 )

5 Physical and chemical changes Matter can undergo two types of changes -- physical and chemical Physical changes are changes in the physical properties of a substance (e.g., size, shape, density) or changes in the state of matter (solid, liquid, gas) without an accompanying change in chemical composition Examples: Melting ice (change from solid to liquid state) Boiling methanol (change from liquid to vapor state) eating water (increase in volume, decrease in density) ammering a gold nugget into a thin sheet of foil (change in size, shape) Physical and chemical changes Matter can undergo two types of changes -- physical and chemical Chemical changes result in the formation of new substances that have different properties and composition than the starting materials Examples: Adding vinegar to baking soda (fizzing bubbles indicate acid-base neutralization reaction) eating a copper wire to form black residue on surface (conversion of metallic copper to copper (II) oxide) Note: eating a platinum wire does not result in the formation of a residue on the wire (physical changes, but no chemical changes) Using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas (electrolysis) No new substances are formed in physical changes Example: Thermite reaction Chemical reactions The term chemical reaction means the same thing as chemical change chemical reaction -- a process in which atoms, molecules and/or ions rearrange to form new substances substances are consumed and new substances are formed chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed Thermite is a mixture of aluminum and iron oxide powder the aluminum and iron oxide react to form iron and aluminum oxide aluminum + iron (III) oxide iron + aluminum oxide This reaction also generates a LARGE amount of heat Chemical reactions chemical equation -- shorthand expression for a chemical reaction aluminum + iron (III) oxide 2 Al + Fe Fe + Al 2 3 reactants iron + aluminum oxide products reactant -- a starting substance that undergoes change during a chemical reaction product -- a substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction Reactants and products are separated by an arrow indicating the direction of the reaction

6 Physical quantities (measurements) A measurement of a physical property always consists of a numerical value together with a unit of that measurement The Metric System A decimal system (i.e., based on powers of 10) of units for measurements of mass, length, time, and other physical quantities Example: Length -- standard unit is the meter ( 1 m! 3.28 ft ) Examples: 12.5 meters 70.0 kilograms 89 F numerical value unit numerical value unit numerical value unit megameter (Mm) 10 6 m kilometer (km) 10 3 m hectometer (hm) 10 2 m dekameter (dam) 10 1 m meter (m) 10 0 m ( = 1 m ) decimeter (dm) 10-1 m centimeter (cm) 10-2 m millimeter (mm) 10-3 m micrometer (!m) 10-6 m nanometer (nm) 10-9 m Mass mass -- the amount of matter that an object possesses standard metric system unit (SI unit) is the kilogram (kg) 1 kg of mass is contained in an object that weighs 2.2 lbs (Note: mass and weight are not the same thing -- this will be explained in a minute) 1 kg = 1000 g 1 g = 1000 mg 1 kg = 10 6 mg 1 mg = g = 10-6 kg 1 kg mass -- amount of matter contained by object Mass and Weight 1 kg 2.2 lbs weight -- amount of force exerted on an object due to Earth s gravitational pull F = mg F = (1.0 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) F = 9.8 kg m/s 2 = 9.8 Newtons 9.8 N = 2.2 lbs g = 9.8 m / s 2

7 Earth s surface Mass and Weight The mass of an object is constant The weight of an object can change uter space Volume volume -- the amount of space occupied by matter standard metric system unit (SI unit) is the cubic meter (m 3 ) Commonly used units include the liter (L) and milliliter (ml) mass = 70 kg g = 9.8 m/s 2 mass = 70 kg g " 0 m/s 2 1 m 3 = 1000 L = 10 6 ml 1 L = 1000 ml 1 ml is also equivalent to one cubic centimeter (cm 3 or cc) 154 lbs weight! 0 lbs weight Volume Temperature Temperature is commonly measured on three different scales: Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin (the SI unit of temperature is Kelvin) 1 m 3 m 2 m 0 C = K = 32 F 100 C = K = 212 F For a rectangular solid: volume = length x width x height volume = 3 m x 2 m x 1 m = 6 m 3 volume " 100 ml T(K) = T( C) T( F) = [ 1.8 x T( C) ] + 32 T( C) = [ T( F) - 32 ] / 1.8

8 Temperature Example: What is 86 F in degrees centigrade ( C)? T( C) = [ T( F) - 32 ] / 1.8 T( C) = [ ] / 1.8 T( C) = 54 / 1.8 T( C) = 30. C Example: What is 30.0 C in degrees Kelvin (K)? T(K) = T( C) T(K) = T(K) = K Review: Scientific Notation scientific notation -- expressing a number as a power of 10 (a convenient way of writing very large and very small numbers) To put a number in scientific notation: move the decimal point left or right until there is only one digit to the left of the decimal point -- this is the base number count the number of places you had to move the decimal point -- this is the exponent for the power of 10!positive if the decimal point moved to the left!negative if it moved to the right Examples: 1000 = ,052 = x = 2.5 x = 5 x 10-2 Review: Scientific Notation Significant figures scientific notation -- expressing a number as a power of 10 (a convenient way of writing very large and very small numbers) Avogadro number (number of atoms or molecules in one mol) 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms/mol Scientific notation: x atoms/mol Numbers obtained from measurements are never exact values there is always some degree of uncertainty due to limitations of the measuring instrument and skill of the analyst the numerical value recorded for a measurement should give an indication of its precision (reliability) significant figures -- the number of digits in a measured value that are known precisely, plus one estimated digit ne nanometer (1 billionth of a meter) meters Scientific notation: 1.0 x 10-9 meters igher level of precision in making the measurement = More significant figures

9 Significant figures Significant figures The number of significant figures in a measured value reflects the level of precision associated with the method of measurement significant figures -- the number of digits in a measured value that are known precisely, plus one estimated digit What is the length of the metal bar? one significant figure (0 precise + 1 estimated) 2? ? g two significant figures (1 precise + 1 estimated) 1.61? three significant figures (2 precise + 1 estimated) g Top-Loading Balance Capacity: 1500 g Precision: ± 0.01 g Sample Mass: 3.12 g Significant figures Exact numbers 52.6 ml What is the volume of water in the graduated cylinder? Exact numbers have no uncertainty -- and therefore have an infinite number of significant figures 3 sig figs ow many significant figures in this measurement? Semi-Micro Balance Capacity: 10 g Precision: ± g Sample Mass: g Exact numbers result from simple counting operations people 5 samples Defined numbers are exact number of inches in one foot = 12 inches 53 ml ml number of minutes in one hour = 60 minutes

10 omework Chapter 1 Problems: 1.18, 1.24, 1.25, 1.29, 1.31, 1.37, 1.45, 1.50, 1.56, 1.60 Chapter 2 Problems: 2.26, 2.29, 2.34, 2.44, 2.45

Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving. Chapter 1. Helleur. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 st Ed.

Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving. Chapter 1. Helleur. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 st Ed. Why Clickers? to refresh the students during the lecture to assess student understanding of a topic to increase student participation in class to encourage student interaction in large lectures peer teaching

More information

Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,69,77,79,81,83 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies

More information

Exam # 1 CH 100, Introductory Chemistry, Fall, 2003 Name

Exam # 1 CH 100, Introductory Chemistry, Fall, 2003 Name Exam # 1 CH 100, Introductory Chemistry, Fall, 2003 Name Be sure to show your set up for all mathematical problems. Your answers must have the correct number of significant digits and the correct units.

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems to try at the end of the chapter. Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,39, 41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,87,89, 4.1 Physical States

More information

1. Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? a. solid b. plasma c. liquid d. gas

1. Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? a. solid b. plasma c. liquid d. gas CHAPTER 2 1. Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? a. solid b. plasma c. liquid d. gas 2. A pure substance which can be decomposed into two or more pure substances is a(n) a.

More information

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013 3 Elements and Compounds Chapter Outline 3.1 Elements A. Distribution of Elements Foundations of College Chemistry, 14 th Ed. Morris Hein and Susan Arena Copyright This reclining Buddha in Thailand is

More information

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 CHAPTER 3: MATTER Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 3.1 MATTER Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study

More information

Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe

Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe Problems: 1.1-1.40, 1.43-1.98 science: study of nature that results in a logical explanation of the observations chemistry: study of matter, its

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

Definition of Chemistry. Matter. Look at PLE#1

Definition of Chemistry. Matter. Look at PLE#1 Definition of Chemistry Chemistry is a physical science that deals with the composition, structure and properties of substances and the reactions they undergo. As a science, chemistry involves the intuitive

More information

SAMPLE PROBLEMS FOR TEST No. 1 ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

SAMPLE PROBLEMS FOR TEST No. 1 ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS SAMPLE PROBLEMS FOR TEST No. 1 ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS 1.5 The attractive force of gravity for objects near the earth s surface increases as you get closer to the center

More information

The Nature of Chemistry

The Nature of Chemistry CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property

More information

CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY. 1 mark questions

CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY. 1 mark questions CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY 1 mark questions 1. What is Chemistry? Ans: It is a Branch of science deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter. 2. What are

More information

Chapter Test B. Chapter: Measurements and Calculations

Chapter Test B. Chapter: Measurements and Calculations Assessment Chapter Test B Chapter: Measurements and Calculations PART I In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1.

More information

CHAPTER 1 THE TOOLS OF CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 1 THE TOOLS OF CHEMISTRY Chapter 1 Tools of Chemistry Page 1 CHAPTER 1 THE TOOLS OF CHEMISTRY 1-1. A computer disk is 3.5 inches on a side. What is this dimension in centimeters? (a) 8.9 cm (b) 12.3 cm (c) 1.38 cm (d) 3.5 cm 1-2.

More information

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES 31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

More information

Exam 1 Chemistry 65 Summer Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer for all 40 questions

Exam 1 Chemistry 65 Summer Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer for all 40 questions Name: Section: Exam 1 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer for all 40 questions 1. The measurement 0.000 0043 m, expressed correctly using scientific notation,

More information

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 The Elements Remember, elements are combined to form molecules the way letters are combined to form words. Presently there are about 115 known elements. Only

More information

1 Forming New Substances

1 Forming New Substances CHAPTER 2 1 Forming New Substances SECTION Chemical Reactions BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a chemical reaction? What can you tell that

More information

Using the Periodic table: Main Group. Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group. Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae

Using the Periodic table: Main Group. Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group. Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae Using the Periodic table: Main Group Main Group Elements 1 Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group Transition Metals Form various cations by loss of electrons e.g. Fe 2+ / Fe 3+, Cu + / Cu 2+ Cr 2+ /

More information

D. Hypothesis E. Independent Variable F. Dependent Variable

D. Hypothesis E. Independent Variable F. Dependent Variable Unit 1 Vocabulary: A. Technology B. Chemistry C. Scientific Method D. Hypothesis E. Independent Variable F. Dependent Variable G. Scientific Theory H. Scientific Laws I. Scientific Model A The use of knowledge

More information

The Mole Concept and Atoms

The Mole Concept and Atoms Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 4 24 September 2013 Calculations and the Chemical Equation The Mole Concept and Atoms Atoms are exceedingly

More information

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document.

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. Name: Period: Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. 1. Which of the following is a NOT a physical property of hydrogen? A. It is gas C. It is

More information

Gen Chem I Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 & 2)

Gen Chem I Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 & 2) Gen Chem I Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 & 2) 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. All of the following are properties of antimony. Which one

More information

TEKS Lesson 6.6A: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

TEKS Lesson 6.6A: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 6.6A Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, and malleability. : Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids How Are Elements Classified? All matter is made

More information

Henry8SCI3 (H8SCI_MATTER) 1. Look carefully at the pictures below. Which picture shows only a physical change in the wood?

Henry8SCI3 (H8SCI_MATTER) 1. Look carefully at the pictures below. Which picture shows only a physical change in the wood? Name: Date: 1. Look carefully at the pictures below. Which picture shows only a physical change in the wood? A. B. C. D. 2. During a science lab investigating chemical reactions, Mrs. Gray's students placed

More information

20.2 Chemical Equations

20.2 Chemical Equations All of the chemical changes you observed in the last Investigation were the result of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction involves a rearrangement of atoms in one or more reactants to form one or more

More information

Chapter 2 Matter and Energy

Chapter 2 Matter and Energy 1 Chapter 2 Matter and Energy Matter Matter is the material that makes up all things is anything that has mass and occupies space is classified as either pure substances or mixtures Pure Substances A pure

More information

MIDTERM DATES: Atoms and the Periodic Table Define and identify elements and compounds

MIDTERM DATES: Atoms and the Periodic Table Define and identify elements and compounds Chemistry 10 with Mrs. Howland MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE FORMAT: 60 multiple choice (1 pt each) 5 short answer or calculation problem OPEN RESPONSE (8 pts each) MIDTERM DATES: MY MIDTERM Lab Safety and Equipment

More information

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements Material: laboratory display of the elements and a wall periodic table is required. Objective: To learn the use of periodic table for writing electron configuration of elements. INTRODUCTION Basic building

More information

Name: KEY Block: Date: Unit 2 Test Review

Name: KEY Block: Date: Unit 2 Test Review Name: KEY Block: Date: Unit 2 Test Review Matter and Atomic Structure Complete the following problems to help prepare you for you Unit 2 Test. You more than likely will want to answer these questions on

More information

10 g 5 g? 10 g 5 g. 10 g 5 g. scale

10 g 5 g? 10 g 5 g. 10 g 5 g. scale The International System of Units, or the SI Units Vs. Honors Chem 1 LENGTH In the SI, the base unit of length is the Meter. Prefixes identify additional units of length, based on the meter. Smaller than

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including:

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: 7-5.5 Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: NaCl [salt], H 2 O [water], C 6 H 12 O 6 [simple sugar], O 2 [oxygen

More information

Monday, October 15th. Today: Chapter Frequency: BB Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1

Monday, October 15th. Today: Chapter Frequency: BB Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1 Today: Chapter 6.1-6.4 Monday, October 15th Frequency: BB 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1 Chemical Change- Section 6.1 A chemical change occurs when a substance is converted into one

More information

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai,

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai, Ch1 1) Which of the following underlined items is not an intensive property? A) A chemical reaction requires 3.00 g of oxygen. B) The density of helium at 25 C is 1.64 10-4 g/cm3. C) The melting point

More information

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014 1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

More information

Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions

Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions 1. Compared to the charge and mass of a proton, an electron has a. the same charge and a smaller mass b. the same charge and the same mass c. an opposite charge

More information

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY Measurements are part of our daily lives. We measure our weights, driving distances, and gallons of gasoline. As a health professional you might measure blood pressure,

More information

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry Mass, Moles, & Molar Mass Relative quantities of isotopes in a natural occurring element (%) E.g. Carbon has 2 isotopes C-12 and C-13. Of Carbon s two isotopes, there is 98.9% C-12 and 11.1% C-13. Find

More information

Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International)

Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International) Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International) How long is a yard? It depends on whom you ask and when you asked the question. Today we have a standard definition of the yard, which you can see marked on

More information

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Topic Using the Periodic Table Metals, Non- Metals & Metalloids I can Explain and identify the periods of the Periodic Table.

More information

THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER

THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER COURSE CONTENT 1. Define matter and state of matter 2. Properties of solids, liquids and gases 3. Changes in matter Physical and chemical changes Phase changes of

More information

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter on the Atomic Scale

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter on the Atomic Scale Chapter 1 In This Chapter This chapter introduces the fundamental components of matter, the different types of structures they can make when they join together, and the types of changes they undergo. Chapter

More information

AP Chemistry Summer Assignment Due August 23, 2016

AP Chemistry Summer Assignment Due August 23, 2016 The following assignments must be completed and turned in by the Due Date: August 23, 2016. Take time throughout the summer to complete these review assignments.! Complete the Chapter Questions! Complete

More information

Chemistry Continuing Practice Packet

Chemistry Continuing Practice Packet Chemistry Continuing Practice Packet Mrs. Andrechek Webberville High School The best way to learn and remember chemistry is to practice. Check out the following websites: http://www.chemistrylecturenotes.com

More information

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

More information

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods 1.1 The Discovery Process o Chemistry - The study of matter o Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff that things are made of. This

More information

4. Magnesium has three natural isotopes with the following masses and natural abundances:

4. Magnesium has three natural isotopes with the following masses and natural abundances: Exercise #1 Atomic Masses 1. The average mass of pennies minted after 1982 is 2.50 g and the average mass of pennies minted before 1982 is 3.00 g. In a sample that contains 90.0% new and 10.0% old pennies,

More information

Programme in mole calculation

Programme in mole calculation Programme in mole calculation Step 1 Start at the very beginning Atoms are very small indeed! If we draw a line 1 metre long, 6,000,000,000 (6 billion) atoms could be lined end to end. So a scientist cannot

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT

SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT 3 SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Chapter 1 Chemistry and the Atomic/Molecular View of Matter

Chapter 1 Chemistry and the Atomic/Molecular View of Matter Chapter 1 Chemistry and the Atomic/Molecular View of Matter Multiple Choice Questions Section 1.1 1. Chemistry can be defined as the study of a. the physical sciences. b. the chemical symbols. * c. the

More information

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study Describing Matter This section describes the kinds of properties used to describe matter. It also defines elements and contrasts compounds and mixtures. Use Target Reading Skills Write a definition of

More information

CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004. Name (print) SSN

CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004. Name (print) SSN CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004 Name (print) SSN Pledge: I have neither given nor received aid on this exam: Signature For ALL problems: SHOW ALL WORK TO GET FULL CREDIT

More information

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A theory is a. a. mathematical formula that models a pattern of behavior b. set of quantitative data c. well-tested unifying principle that explains

More information

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Name May 2012 HOMEWORK SHEET 1: States of Matter There are three states of matter: solid liquid gas Heat a solid to its melting point and it will

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test NAME Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter A. What is a mole? 1. Chemistry is a quantitative science. What does this term mean?

More information

Metric System Handout/Worksheet 8/03 Integrated Science 1 Redwood High School Name: Period:

Metric System Handout/Worksheet 8/03 Integrated Science 1 Redwood High School Name: Period: Metric System Handout/Worksheet 8/03 Integrated Science 1 Redwood High School Name: Period: Background The system of measurement used today by scientists in all countries of the world is called the metric

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

More information

Chemistry Final Exam Review

Chemistry Final Exam Review Name: Date: Block: Chemistry Final Exam Review 2012-2013 Unit 1: Measurement, Numbers, Scientific Notation, Conversions, Dimensional Analysis 1. Write 0.000008732 in scientific notation 8.732x10-6 2. Write

More information

Name Date Block. Positive (+) Neutral (o) no charge Negative (-)

Name Date Block. Positive (+) Neutral (o) no charge Negative (-) Name Date Block CFA #1 Review You will have approximately 5 minutes at each station to record your answers. You may use your notebook as a reference. WORK EFFICIENTLY & STAY FOCUSED! YOU GOT THIS! Station

More information

Chemistry: Matter. Matter: Mixtures. Distillation. Mixtures (Con( Con t) What is the Structure of Matter? The study of matter and its changes

Chemistry: Matter. Matter: Mixtures. Distillation. Mixtures (Con( Con t) What is the Structure of Matter? The study of matter and its changes Chemistry: Matter Part 1: The Classification of Matter The study of matter and its changes Matter: Anything that has mass and volume What is the Structure of Matter? are made of many Substances called

More information

Atomic mass and the mole

Atomic mass and the mole Atomic mass and the mole An equation for a chemical reaction can provide us with a lot of useful information. It tells us what the reactants and the products are in the reaction, and it also tells us the

More information

Chemistry Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures How atoms are combined to make substances

Chemistry Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures How atoms are combined to make substances Chemistry 1010 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures How atoms are combined to make substances Review What information does each block of your Periodic Table contain? atomic number, symbol, name, atomic mass

More information

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding CHEMISTRY Ionic Bonding 1 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds: Give and take! Ions and Ionic Bonds Atoms with five, six, or seven valence electrons usually become more stable when this number increases to eight.

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing Learning Target Chapter 7 Vocabulary 4 words 1. Chemical reaction 2. Reactant 3. Product 4. Coefficients balanced

More information

Chemical calculations

Chemical calculations Chemical calculations Stoichiometry refers to the quantities of material which react according to a balanced chemical equation. Compounds are formed when atoms combine in fixed proportions. E.g. 2Mg +

More information

X X X (polystyrene) Astatine X X X Salt water X X

X X X (polystyrene) Astatine X X X Salt water X X UNITS 1, 2, 3 PIC AND CHOOSE PRACTICE PROBLEMS ANSWERS UNIT 1 1) Discuss how a sample of sugar could be classified as: A) Macroscopic material -A teaspoon of sugar B) Microscopic material -A crystal of

More information

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Atoms Classifications of Matter: Elements An Element is a substance (for example,

More information

Name Class Date. physical property solid liquid

Name Class Date. physical property solid liquid 2.1 MATTER SECTION REVIEW Objectives Identify the characteristics of matter and substances Differentiate among the three states of matter Define physical property and list several common physical properties

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 1. Consider the equation: 2Ca(s) + O 2 (g) 2CaO(s) Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Calcium and oxygen are reactants.

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes

Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes CHEMISTRY August 29, 2007 1 Brainteaser Define physical and chemical change (in your own words). Is this picture of a physical or a chemical change? Explain your reasoning

More information

1. Which of the following is a property of both gases and liquids? A) definite shape B) indefinite shape C) definite volume D) indefinite volume

1. Which of the following is a property of both gases and liquids? A) definite shape B) indefinite shape C) definite volume D) indefinite volume Name: Date: 1. Which of the following is a property of both gases and liquids? A) definite shape B) indefinite shape C) definite volume D) indefinite volume 2. In which of the following pairs of properties

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Measurements. SI Units

Measurements. SI Units Measurements When you measure something, you must write the number with appropriate unit. Unit is a standard quantity used to specify the measurement. Without the proper unit, the number you write is meaningless.

More information

Chemistry Continuing Practice Packet

Chemistry Continuing Practice Packet Chemistry Continuing Practice Packet Mrs. Andrechek Webberville High School The best way to learn and remember chemistry is to practice. Check out the following apps: - Mahjong Chem - Formulas Lite - Atoms

More information

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS 3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS All matter is built up from chemical combinations of elements. As of 2003, there are 114 known elements, of which 88 are naturally occurring; the remaining

More information

Electrolysis This is when an electric current passes through an electrolyte.

Electrolysis This is when an electric current passes through an electrolyte. Conductors Metals and graphite are the only solids which conduct electricity, but no chemical change is involved. Liquid (melted) metals also conduct, but again there is no chemical change. Electrolytes

More information

Due at the end of laboratory.

Due at the end of laboratory. Chem 1314 Section 2 and 3 InClass Exercise #1 Name Fall 2000 TA Name Lab Section # ALL work must be shown to receive full credit. Due at the end of laboratory. ICE1.1. Provide brief definitions for each

More information

Section 3.1 Properties of Matter

Section 3.1 Properties of Matter Section 3.1 Properties of Matter In your textbook, read about physical properties and chemical properties of matter. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical mass physical

More information

Chemical Quantities: The Mole Chapter 7 Assignment & Problem Set

Chemical Quantities: The Mole Chapter 7 Assignment & Problem Set Chemical Quantities: The Mole Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Chemical Quantities: The Mole 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Name: Science Teacher: Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Atoms Fill in the missing information to summarize what you know about atomic structure. Name of Subatomic Particle Location within the Atom

More information

WORKSHOP: Matter and Working with Significant Figures

WORKSHOP: Matter and Working with Significant Figures Chem 305 Instructor s Edition Partner Section (Circle) M Tu W Th F Date WORKSHOP: Matter and Working with Significant Figures Part 1: Classifying Matter: Circle the appropriate words to make the statements

More information

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples Chemistry: 7. Ionic and Covalent Bonding Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC41 Understand how atoms of elements combine

More information

During photosynthesis, plants use light energy (sunlight) from the sun, carbon dioxide (CO 2. ) and water (H 2

During photosynthesis, plants use light energy (sunlight) from the sun, carbon dioxide (CO 2. ) and water (H 2 Scientist Guide The Spice of Life Introduction Plants make the oxygen we breathe and the food we consume. They do this through a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the single most important

More information

Sample Exercise 1.1 Distinguishing Among Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Sample Exercise 1.1 Distinguishing Among Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Sample Exercise 1.1 Distinguishing Among Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures White gold, used in jewelry, contains gold and another white metal such as palladium. Two different samples of white gold differ

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Goal is to understand and become proficient at working with: 1. Avogadro's Number, molar mass and converting between mass and moles (REVIEW). 2. empirical formulas from analysis.

More information

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen.

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen. Q1. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. (3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) The

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions. Elements & Compounds

The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions. Elements & Compounds The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions Elements & Compounds Elements are the simplest type of substance. Compounds are made of 2 or more elements joined together. Substances are made up of atoms. Atoms

More information

CHAPTER 3: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 3: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 3: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1-50, 57-58, 61-74, 107, 109-115 3.2 What is Matter? Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study matter at different levels: macroscopic: the level

More information