VOWEL SOUNDS A) STRUCTURAL / TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FEATURES OF PRONUNCIATION SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES HEIGHT TONGUE MONOPHTHONG OPEN

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "VOWEL SOUNDS A) STRUCTURAL / TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FEATURES OF PRONUNCIATION SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES HEIGHT TONGUE MONOPHTHONG OPEN"

Transcription

1 VOWEL SOUNDS A) STRUCTURAL / TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FEATURES OF PRONUNCIATION SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES PITCH RHYTHM INTONATION CONSONANTS SEGMENTAL FEATURES CLOSE HEIGHT TONGUE HALF CLOSE HALF OPEN MONOPHTHONG OPEN VOWELS PART TONGUE CENTRE BACK DIPHTHONG CLOSING ENDING IN ɪ ENDING IN ʊ CENTRING ENDING IN ə TRIPHTHONG CLOSING DIPHTHONGS + ə B) VOWEL SOUNDS When studying vowel sounds, both their phonetic nature and the phonological distributional possibilities can be considered. Generally as nucleus of the syllable structure, vowels may occupy the peak position and be preceded and/or followed by marginal consonant elements. Unlike consonants, vowel sounds do not produce any type of obstruction of the airflow coming from the lungs. This may seem an advantage, but the vowellike quality of some approximant consonants poses certain problems for the foreign learner of English. Although an articulatory description may be beneficial, an auditory and acoustic approach may help us discriminate vowel sounds from one another more effectively. Therefore, the change in the shape of the oral cavity due to the movements of the tongue may produce different modifications in the acoustic effect of sound production and in vowel quality. Lip position and lower jaw movement may also contribute to this effect. C) THE CARDINAL VOWELS AND THE VOWEL CHART 1

2 In 1917, Daniel Jones devised the vowel chart, a quadrilateral graph containing the most distinctive vowel sounds of a language in different positions, to represent the vowel area inside the oral cavity. The Vowel chart is closely related to the system of Cardinal vowels, also proposed by Jones, consisting in eight representative vowel sounds. According to Finch and Ortiz Lira (1982), they do not belong to any particular language, but can be used as reference points. The vowel sounds of any language can be identified with this system. The advantage of Cardinal Vowels is that their quality is invariable and permits accurate comparison The Cardinal Vowels are on the limits of the vowel diagram, i.e. they occupy the peripheral, extreme positions If the tongue exceeds this limit, frictions will be heard. CVs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are pronounced with spread or open lips, and the last three with lip rounding. D) CLASSIFICATION OF VOWEL SOUNDS In English, vowel classification as to the place and manner of articulation or voicing may not be relevant, since vowel sounds are voiced and they do not show any type of modification of the outcoming stream of air. Other distinctive features are employed, which involve height of the tongue within the oral cavity, part of the tongue involved, lip rounding and tenseness or laxness, among others. Height of the tongue: Four classes can be distinguished according to the degree of height to which the tongue is raised or not: a) Close vowels are those in which the tongue is raised as high as possible consistently with the sounds remaining vowels; b) Half-close vowels are those in which the tongue occupies a position about one-third of the distance from close to open ; c) Half-open vowels are those in which the tongue occupies a position about two-thirds of the distance from close to open. d) Open vowels are those in which the tongue is as low as possible. (Jones: 1980) Part of the tongue: Out of the five parts of the tongue, only three are involved in vowel sound production: the front, the centre and the back. Vowels articulated in each part are called front, central and back vowel sounds, respectively. Lip position: Three main types can be found, and their acoustic and auditory differentiation is perceptible to the trained ear. When pronouncing vowels, the lips may be: a) Rounded, with a slight lip protrusion and approximation of the corner of the lips, as in ɔː b) Neutral, with the lips neither rounded or spread, as in ə c) Spread, like for a smile, teeth are visible and lips are parted from each other and the corners are lengthened, as in iː Both neutral and spread lip positions may also be known as unrounded. English vowel sounds articulated with the front of the tongue have a spread or neutral lip position, and those produced with the back part have a more rounded lip position, with the exception of ɑː, as in park. Tenseness and Laxness According to Jones (1980), those who consider that vowels may be differentiated by degrees of muscular tension distinguish two classes, tense vowels and lax vowels. Tense vowels are those which are supposed to require considerable muscular tension on the part of the tongue; lax vowels are those in which the tongue is supposed to be held loosely. The difference in quality between the English vowels in seat siːt and in sit sɪtis ascribed by some writers to a difference of tension (the vowel in seat being considered tense and the vowel in sit lax). 2

3 Length A traditional classification divides pure vowel sounds into two: long and short. Long vowels show a certain extension in tempo and include iː, ɑː,ɔːuː, ɜː. Short vowels, on the other hand, are uttered with a small amount of time, and they include ɪ, e,ʌɒ, ʊə. A vowel sound which cannot be classified as either long or short is æ. When discriminating long sounds from short ones, length is not a convenient category, since long vowel sound may be clipped (i.e. shortened) if followed by voiceless sounds and they can keep their length if followed by voiced sounds or due to stress. Kelly (2000) reports that short vowels are actually more likely to be longer before certain types of voiced consonants. However, a length mark is conventionally used to distinguish them in transcription. Although diphthongs can be included under the long-vowels category, they suffer the same processes of length change just mentioned. E) DESCRIPTION OF VOWEL SOUNDS iː This vowel sound has a close resemblance to Cardinal Vowel N 1, since it occupies the close position, though not so close. The part of the tongue used to produce it is the front and the rims make a firm contact with the upper molars. The lips are slightly spread and the opening of the jaw is from narrow to medium. It is considered to be relatively long and almost never unstressed. In certain dialects (Cockney and Birmingham), the pronunciation of this vowel implies a diphthongisation, beginning with the vowel and then gliding to a closer position. The result is ɪi. ɪ In consonance with iː, this sound is produced with the same type of lip position and jaw aperture. However, it is retracted from front and in the half-close position. The rims of the tongue make a slight contact with the upper molars, so the airflow passes more freely. The production of ɪ is laxer than for iː. It is considered a short vowel sound and almost always monophthongal. e Intermediate between Cardinal Vowels N 2 and N 3, i.e. mid between half-close and half-open positions, this sounds implies the raising of the front part of the tongue. The tongue rims may make contact with the upper molars. The lips may take a spread or neutral position. It is considered to be a relatively short vowel sound. æ This phoneme is pronounced with the front part of the tongue, almost at rest, between Cardinal Vowels N 3 and N 4, i.e. halfway between half-open and open positions. The position of the lips may be spread or neutral, with a medium to wide jaw opening. It is normally short, but it may be long in other contexts. ɑː For the production of this sound, the back, though more centralized, part of the tongue is used in a fully open position. It is nearest to Cardinal Vowel N 5 than to N 4. The lips are in a neutral position and the jaw opening is from medium to wide. Notice that this vowel sound is generally replaced for the vowel sound æ in words such as father, aunt, etc. 3

4 This vowel sound is relatively long. ɒ When pronouncing this phoneme, the back part of the tongue is used, with a close approximation to Cardinal Vowel N 5, although the lip rounding for this sound makes the difference. The tongue is raised above the open position and no contact is made between the tongue rims and the upper molars. This phoneme is not part of the phonemic inventory of AmE, in which it is replaced by either the cardinal sound ɑor the sound ɔː. This sound is considered to be relatively short. ɔː For the production of ɔː, the back part of the tongue is raised between Cardinal Vowels N 6 and N 7, i.e. between the half-open and half-close positions. Unlike ɒ, the lips are more closely rounded and the gap flanked by them is smaller. The jaw aperture is medium to wide. It is considered to be a relatively long vowel. ʊ The articulation of this phoneme involves the more advanced area of the back part of the tongue, placed in half-close position, closer than for Cardinal Vowel N 7. It has a slight lip-rounding and the opening between the jaws is medium. For some authors, it is the lax correspondent for uː, and a relatively short vowel sound. uː Unlike Cardinal Vowel N 8, this phoneme is a little more advanced from back and not so close. The lips are closely or moderately rounded and the jaws have a narrow to medium opening. There exists a diphthongal variant used in some dialects, especially in final position. This sound is considered to be tense and relatively long. ʌ This central vowel phoneme is pronounced just above the open position, with neutrally open lips. There is a wide opening of the jaws. This sound is relatively short. ɜː Halfway between the half-open and half-close position, this phoneme is central and pronounced with unrounded lips. The opening of the jaws is narrow. It is considered a relatively long vowel and for some authors, a variety of ə. ə The height to which the tongue is raised for the production of this sound is difficult to establish, mainly covering the whole area between the half-close and half-open positions. There are two main variants: a closer variety in which the central part of the tongue is raised towards a half-close position, as for the initial vowel sound in about, and non-final vowel sounds, as in standard. The second variant is used for word final vowel sounds, as in sailor, sofa, among others. This phoneme is a relatively short vowel sound and never pronounced in stressed position. 4

5 THE VOWEL CHART DIPHTHONGS F) DEFINITION According to Roach (1991), RP has a large number of diphthongs, sounds which consist of a movement or glide from one vowel to another In terms of length, diphthongs are like long vowels Perhaps the most important thing to remember about all the diphthongs is that the first part is much longer and stronger than the second part the total number of diphthongs is eight. For Cruttenden (1994), diphthongs are those vocalic elements which form a glide within one syllable. They may be said to have a first element (the starting point) and a second element (the point in the direction of which the glide is made. G) CLASSIFICATION OF DIPHTHONGS Diphthongs can be classified into two groups, according to the height or part of the tongue of the last element: Closing and Centring diphthongs. The first element in a closing diphthong is opener than the final close element. In a centring diphthong, the first element is either a front or back vowel and the last element is central ( schwa ). Auditorily, diphthongs may also be termed as either rising or falling. Falling diphthongs consist of two elements and the first element is more prominent than the second. In rising diphthongs, the second element is more prominent. English diphthongs are all falling. The RP diphthongs have as their first element sounds in the general region of ɪ, e, a, ə, u and for their second element ɪ, ʊ, ə. Diphthongs may also undergo clipping, i.e. shortening, when followed by a voiceless sound. H) DESCRIPTION OF DIPHTHONGS eɪ This diphthong starts in a position between cardinal vowels ɛand eto the vowel sound ɪ. The lips are spread. aɪ The starting point of this diphthong is nearer than. The lips move from a neutral to lightly spread position. ɔɪ With a starting point nearer ɔthan ɒ, and ending near ɪ. The lips may change from a rounded or to a slightly spread position. əʊ This diphthong starts in the position for schwa and then glides towards ʊ. The lips change from a neutral to a rounded position. 5

6 aʊ For the production of this sound, a more centralized back part of the tongue, as for ɑ, initiates the glide. The finishing point of this diphthong does not completely reach the ʊ area. The lips are slightly rounded. ɪə When pronouncing this phoneme, the back part of the tongue is used, with a close approximation to Cardinal Vowel N 5, although the lip rounding for this sound makes the difference. The tongue is raised above the open position and no contact is made between the tongue rims and the upper molars. This phoneme is not part of the phonemic inventory of AmE, in which it is replaced by either the cardinal sound ɑor the sound ɔː. This sound is considered to be relatively short. eə For the production of this diphthong, the starting point is a vowel in the half open front position and moving almost horizontally to the opener variety of schwa when in final position and a closer position when followed by a consonant. The lips are neutrally open throughout. Nowadays a long monophthong ɛː is a completely acceptable alternative in General RP. (Cruttenden: 1994) ʊə The diphthong glides from a half close position to a more open variant of schwa. The lips are neutrally rounded at the beginning, becoming spread in the final element. This diphthong is nowadays being levelled to ɔː by many speakers. DIPHTHONGS CENTRING CLOSING ending in ə ending in ɪ ending in ʊ ɪə eə ʊə eɪ aɪ ɔɪ əʊ aʊ DIPHTHONGS AND THE VOWEL CHART TRIPHTHONGS OR DIPHTHONGS + ə I) DEFINITION With the exception of centring diphthongs, closing diphthongs may allow the possibility of the addition of ə in slow, formal style and only on rare occasions. The vocalic cluster is produced as part of one syllable. Therefore, the combinations with schwa may produce the following triphthongs (Roach) or closing diphthongs + ə (Cruttenden: 1994): eɪə, aɪə, ɔɪə, əʊə, aʊə. 6

7 J) PHONOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES There are three possibilities for a diphthong to take place: 1) As an inseparable part of the word: 2) As a suffix (morpheme) appended to the root: 3) As a separable element in a compound: K) SMOOTHING OR LEVELLING In rapid or colloquial speech, these triphthongs may be reduced an allophonic diphthongal variant, in which one element is omitted, and when the triphthong is felt to contain an inseparable morpheme. The most common processes of smoothing include the following: Omission of ɪ: aɪə aːə eɪə eːə ɔɪə ɔːə Omission of ʊ: aʊə ɑːə ( əʊə ɜː) TRIPHTHONGS AND THE VOWEL CHART 7

2.2 Vowel and consonant

2.2 Vowel and consonant 2.2 Vowel and consonant The words vowel and consonant are very familiar ones, but when we study the sounds of speech scientifically we find that it is not easy to define exactly what they mean. The most

More information

3 Long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs

3 Long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs 3 Long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs 3.1 English long vowels In Chapter 2 the short vowels were introduced. In this chapter we look at other types of English vowel sound. The first to be introduced

More information

SEDAT ERDOĞAN. Ses, Dil, Edebiyat, Öğrenim... TEMEL İNGİLİZCE. Ses dilin temelidir, özüdür... Türkiye de ses öğrenimi

SEDAT ERDOĞAN. Ses, Dil, Edebiyat, Öğrenim... TEMEL İNGİLİZCE. Ses dilin temelidir, özüdür... Türkiye de ses öğrenimi SEDAT ERDOĞAN Ses, Dil, Edebiyat, Öğrenim... TEMEL İNGİLİZCE Ses dilin temelidir, özüdür... Türkiye de ses öğrenimi olmadığından dil öğrenimi zayıftır, kötüdür... PRONUNCIATION HINTS */a/ vowel sound is

More information

The PronSci Rectangle charts: Phonetic Guide

The PronSci Rectangle charts: Phonetic Guide The PronSci Rectangle charts: Phonetic Guide Guide to the phonetics of the PronSci Rectangle charts for British and American English This document should be read with a key to the charts to hand. Keys

More information

SPEECH PROCESSING Phonetics

SPEECH PROCESSING Phonetics SPEECH PROCESSING Phonetics Patrick A. Naylor Spring Term 2008/9 Aims of this module In this lecture we will make a brief study of phonetics as relevant to synthesis and recognition of speech Describe

More information

Vowel and consonant vowel consonant distribution close open

Vowel and consonant vowel consonant distribution close open Vowel and consonant The words vowel and consonant are very familiar ones, but when we study the sounds of speech scientifically we find that it is not easy to define exactly what they mean. The most common

More information

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekday section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekday section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekday section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Thomas E. Payne, Hanyang Oregon 2007 The following are questions that may appear on the mid-term exam for Linguistics 511G. Approximately

More information

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekend section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekend section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekend section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Thomas E. Payne, Hanyang Oregon 2007 The following are questions that may appear on the mid-term exam for Linguistics 511G. Approximately

More information

Vowel articulation in English. LING110 Fall Quarter 2002

Vowel articulation in English. LING110 Fall Quarter 2002 Vowel articulation in English LING110 Fall Quarter 2002 Articulatory parameters for classifying vowels Height of tongue Backness of tongue Lip rounding Tense/Lax Nasality Rhotacization A word of caution

More information

Gran Vía 28, 1º dcha Salamanca

Gran Vía 28, 1º dcha Salamanca 7 PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. VOWELS, PHONETIC SYMBOLS, STRONG AND WEAK FORMS. DIPHTHONGS, PHONETIC SYMBOLS. COMPARISON WITH THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE CORRESPONDING

More information

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS ASSINGMENT - 2 Phonology (5658) THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS Mrs Ishrat Aamer Qureshi Student of Diploma TEFL Roll No : AP504192 Department of English, Alama Iqbal

More information

English Pronunciation for Malaysians

English Pronunciation for Malaysians English Pronunciation for Malaysians A workshop for JBB lecturers from IPGKDRI Ruth Wickham, Brighton Training Fellow, IPGKDRI Contents Introduction... 2 Objectives... 2 Materials... 2 Timetable... 2 Procedures...

More information

English Phonetics and Phonology: English Consonants

English Phonetics and Phonology: English Consonants Applied Phonetics and Phonology English Phonetics and Phonology: English Consonants Tom Payne, TESOL at Hanyang University 2007 How Speech Sounds are Produced Speech sounds are produced by a moving column

More information

A COURSE IN ENGLISH PHONETICS FOR EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

A COURSE IN ENGLISH PHONETICS FOR EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS VILNIUS UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF PHILOLOGY Giedrė Balčytytė-Kurtinienė A COURSE IN ENGLISH PHONETICS FOR EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Segmental Phonetics. Syllable. Stress. Vilnius, 2014 Apsvarstė ir rekomendavo

More information

Cross-language acoustic and perceptual similarity of vowels

Cross-language acoustic and perceptual similarity of vowels University of Sheffield Department of Germanic Studies & Department of Human Communication Sciences Cross-language acoustic and perceptual similarity of vowels The role of listeners native accents Daniel

More information

Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and a Manchester accent

Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and a Manchester accent Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and a Manchester accent Introduction: This page is a brief guide to phoneme-grapheme correspondences for English spoken with a Manchester accent. It is intended as a resource

More information

Vowel Shifts of English

Vowel Shifts of English Vowel Shifts of English SAITO Hiroko Introduction One of the causes that have created the differences of pronunciation among major present-day regional varieties of English such as North American English

More information

and triphthongs Long vowels, diphthongs O AU3, Exs I -5

and triphthongs Long vowels, diphthongs O AU3, Exs I -5 Long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs 3.1 Long and short vowels In Chapter 2 the short vowels were introduced. In this chapter we look at other types of English vowel sound- The first to be introduced

More information

Chapter 3: The Sounds of Language: Phonetics Part II: Vowels.

Chapter 3: The Sounds of Language: Phonetics Part II: Vowels. 25 Chapter 3: The Sounds of Language: Phonetics Part II: Vowels. It is in vowels that accents of English differ most, often quite radically. If you speak an accent other than RP, you may find some vowels

More information

The pronunciation of English

The pronunciation of English The pronunciation of English The pronunciation of English 1. What is the difference between phonetics and phonology? 2. What are the main articulators involved in the production of speech sounds? 3. What

More information

Developing Pronunciation. Learning Enhancement Team

Developing Pronunciation. Learning Enhancement Team Developing Pronunciation Learning Enhancement Team LET@mdx.ac.uk Developing Pronunciation: Getting the small sounds right Session Aims To become familiar with the phonemic chart To practice some individual

More information

Phonetics: The Sounds of Language

Phonetics: The Sounds of Language 01:615:201 Introduction to Linguistic Theory Adam Szczegielniak Phonetics: The Sounds of Language Copyright in part : Cengage learning Sound Segments Knowing a language includes knowing the sounds of that

More information

LING 220 LECTURE #4. PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE (continued) VOICE ONSET TIME (=VOICE LAG) AND ASPIRATION

LING 220 LECTURE #4. PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE (continued) VOICE ONSET TIME (=VOICE LAG) AND ASPIRATION LING 220 LECTURE #4 PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE (continued) VOICE ONSET TIME (=VOICE LAG) AND ASPIRATION VOICE ONSET TIME (VOT): the moment at which the voicing starts relative to the release of

More information

Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 1 (pp. 1-13)

Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 1 (pp. 1-13) Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 1 (pp. 1-13) I. Basic concepts Linguistics is the study of mental grammar There are many things you know about your language that you have not been taught To study language

More information

Table 1 gives lexical set words (Wells, 1982) for New Zealand English (NZE)

Table 1 gives lexical set words (Wells, 1982) for New Zealand English (NZE) NZE Phonology 1 Vowels Table 1 gives lexical set words (Wells, 1982) for New Zealand English (NZE) vowels, together with suggested transcription symbols (for further details see Bauer and Warren, 2004).

More information

Articulatory Phonetics. and the International Phonetic Alphabet. Readings and Other Materials. Review. IPA: The Vowels. Practice

Articulatory Phonetics. and the International Phonetic Alphabet. Readings and Other Materials. Review. IPA: The Vowels. Practice Supplementary Readings Supplementary Readings Handouts Online Tutorials The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Contemporary Linguistics: Chapter 2 (pp. 34-40) Handouts for This

More information

24.900: Introduction to Linguistics. Phonology Class 3. April 13, 2005

24.900: Introduction to Linguistics. Phonology Class 3. April 13, 2005 24.900: Introduction to Linguistics Phonology Class 3 April 13, 2005 Phoneme: A contrastive phonological segment whose phonetic realizations are predictable by rule. a. Review sheet for quiz. b. No practice

More information

3 The sounds of language

3 The sounds of language 3 The sounds of language I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble but not you On hiccough, thorough, lough and through. Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,

More information

Pronunciation Difficulties of Japanese Speakers of English: Predictions Based on a Contrastive Analysis Steven W. Carruthers

Pronunciation Difficulties of Japanese Speakers of English: Predictions Based on a Contrastive Analysis Steven W. Carruthers 17 Pronunciation Difficulties of Japanese Speakers of English: Predictions Based on a Contrastive Analysis Steven W. Carruthers Abstract A contrastive analysis of English and Japanese phonology can help

More information

Differences of Vowel Pronunciation in China English and American English: A Case Study of [i] and [ɪ]

Differences of Vowel Pronunciation in China English and American English: A Case Study of [i] and [ɪ] Sino-US English Teaching, ISSN 1539-8072 February 2013, Vol. 10, No. 2, 154-161 D DAVID PUBLISHING Differences of Vowel Pronunciation in China English and American English: A Case Study of [i] and [ɪ]

More information

The sound patterns of language

The sound patterns of language The sound patterns of language Phonology Chapter 5 Alaa Mohammadi- Fall 2009 1 This lecture There are systematic differences between: What speakers memorize about the sounds of words. The speech sounds

More information

Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net. Media & Mass Communication ISSN 1314-8028, Volume 3, 2014

Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net. Media & Mass Communication ISSN 1314-8028, Volume 3, 2014 PRONUNCIATION OF LOAN WORDS IN SLOVAK LANGUAGE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA Hana Vančová Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Education, Trnava University in Trnava, Priemyselná 4, 918 43 Trnava,

More information

Archive of SID. An Analysis of Pronunciation Errors of Iranian EFL Learners. www.sid.ir. Mahmood Hashemian m72h@hotmail.com Shahrekord University

Archive of SID. An Analysis of Pronunciation Errors of Iranian EFL Learners. www.sid.ir. Mahmood Hashemian m72h@hotmail.com Shahrekord University IJRELT Volume 1 Issue 1 winter 2012 An Analysis of Pronunciation Errors of Iranian EFL Learners Mahmood Hashemian m72h@hotmail.com Shahrekord University Kamal Heidari Soureshjani k_tefl_h@yahoo.com Islamic

More information

Formant frequencies of British English vowels produced by native speakers of Farsi

Formant frequencies of British English vowels produced by native speakers of Farsi Formant frequencies of British English vowels produced by native speakers of Farsi Gordon HUNTER, Hanna Kebede To cite this version: Gordon HUNTER, Hanna Kebede. Formant frequencies of British English

More information

The Vowels of American English Marla Yoshida

The Vowels of American English Marla Yoshida The Vowels of American English Marla Yoshida How do we describe vowels? Vowels are sounds in which the air stream moves up from the lungs and through the vocal tract very smoothly; there s nothing blocking

More information

Some Basic Concepts Marla Yoshida

Some Basic Concepts Marla Yoshida Some Basic Concepts Marla Yoshida Why do we need to teach pronunciation? There are many things that English teachers need to fit into their limited class time grammar and vocabulary, speaking, listening,

More information

Macmillan Books for Teachers. Sound Foundations. Learning and teaching pronunciation. Adrian Underhill MACMILLAN

Macmillan Books for Teachers. Sound Foundations. Learning and teaching pronunciation. Adrian Underhill MACMILLAN Macmillan Books for Teachers Sound Foundations Learning and teaching pronunciation Adrian Underhill MACMILLAN Macmillan Education Between Towns Road, Oxford OX4 3PP, UK A division of Macmillan Publishers

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Common Course in English For BA/B Sc/B Com/BBA I Semester 2011 Admission

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Common Course in English For BA/B Sc/B Com/BBA I Semester 2011 Admission UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Common Course in English For BA/B Sc/B Com/BBA I Semester 2011 Admission A01 COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH QUESTION BANK 1. There are speech sounds

More information

THE PHONETICS OF ARABIC

THE PHONETICS OF ARABIC D. Newman Arabic Phonetics : Sound Descriptions Page 1 of 6 THE PHONETICS OF ARABIC The pages below are extracts from a book that is being prepared for publication. As a result, not every category of sound

More information

A LITTLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PHONETICS. Peter Roach Professor of Phonetics University of Reading, UK.

A LITTLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PHONETICS. Peter Roach Professor of Phonetics University of Reading, UK. A LITTLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PHONETICS Peter Roach Professor of Phonetics University of Reading, UK. email: p.j.roach@reading.ac.uk Website: http://www.linguistics.reading.ac.uk/staff/peter.roach 2002 This

More information

Phonetic transcription. Ling 205, autumn 2012 Week 3

Phonetic transcription. Ling 205, autumn 2012 Week 3 Phonetic transcription Ling 205, autumn 2012 Week 3 How many syllables? Syllables can be thought of as local peaks of voicing loudness within a word, which are more than fleeting in duration. Basically

More information

The Sounds of Spanish: Analysis and Application, by Robert M. Hammond Chapter 1 review questions

The Sounds of Spanish: Analysis and Application, by Robert M. Hammond Chapter 1 review questions Chapter 1 review questions 1. What is the difference between positive transfer and negative transfer? 2. What is the difference between a phonological representation and a phonetic representation? 3. In

More information

Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language

Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language 01:615:201 Introduction to Linguistic Theory Adam Szczegielniak Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language Copyright in part: Cengage learning Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language There are only a

More information

Spanish Voices in the English classroom

Spanish Voices in the English classroom 1 Spanish Voices in the English classroom Abstract English Vowels for Spanish Speakers is a repertoire of English vowel sounds that has been carefully selected according to what sounds best and most natural

More information

Vowel Structure of Urdu

Vowel Structure of Urdu Nakhat Fatima - Rabea Aden 72 Vowel Structure of Urdu Abstract: The following paper is presented to establish Urdu vowel structure. In this paper we have discussed the vowel structures of Urdu, which have

More information

IMPROVEMENT OF ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION OF RUSSIAN LEARNERS IN A RUSSIAN SCHOOL WITH THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION MA thesis

IMPROVEMENT OF ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION OF RUSSIAN LEARNERS IN A RUSSIAN SCHOOL WITH THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION MA thesis UNIVERSITY OF TARTU DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IMPROVEMENT OF ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION OF RUSSIAN LEARNERS IN A RUSSIAN SCHOOL WITH THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION MA thesis IRINA ART SUPERVISOR:

More information

Comparative Analysis of Vowel Space of L1 Spanish Speakers and General American English

Comparative Analysis of Vowel Space of L1 Spanish Speakers and General American English Linguistic Portfolios Volume 1 Article 9 2012 Comparative Analysis of Vowel Space of L1 Spanish Speakers and General American English Lindsay Giacomino St. Cloud State University Follow this and additional

More information

Observed pronunciation features in Swedish L2 produced by two L1-speakers of Vietnamese

Observed pronunciation features in Swedish L2 produced by two L1-speakers of Vietnamese Observed pronunciation features in Swedish L2 produced by two L1-speakers of Vietnamese Mechtild Tronnier 1, Elisabeth Zetterholm 2 1 Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

More information

Problems in Learning and Teaching English Pronunciation in Pakistan

Problems in Learning and Teaching English Pronunciation in Pakistan 2012 Volume 1, Issue 4 Int. J. of Res. in Linguistics & Lexicography: INTJR-LL-1(4)-43 48 ISSN 2226-5589 (Online) 2226-4973 (Print) Problems in Learning and Teaching English Pronunciation in Pakistan By

More information

A Study on Teaching English Pronunciation in Primary Schools in Italy

A Study on Teaching English Pronunciation in Primary Schools in Italy Corso di Laurea Magistrale (ordinamento ex D.M. 270/2004) in Scienze del Linguaggio Tesi di Laurea A Study on Teaching English Pronunciation in Primary Schools in Italy Relatore Chiar.mo Prof. Graziano

More information

Office Phone/E-mail: 963-1598 / lix@cwu.edu Office Hours: MW 3:50-4:50, TR 12:00-12:30

Office Phone/E-mail: 963-1598 / lix@cwu.edu Office Hours: MW 3:50-4:50, TR 12:00-12:30 ENG 432/532: Phonetics and Phonology (Fall 2010) Course credits: Four (4) Time/classroom: MW2:00-3:40 p.m./ LL243 Instructor: Charles X. Li, Ph.D. Office location: LL403H Office Phone/E-mail: 963-1598

More information

Phonetics: The Sounds of American English

Phonetics: The Sounds of American English The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language Phonetics: The Sounds of American English February 2015 Volume 18, Number 4 Title Authors Contact Information Type of product Platform OS Version

More information

Mark Hancock. Background. The art of the chart

Mark Hancock. Background. The art of the chart The art of the chart Mark Hancock Most teachers of English will have come across a sound chart at some point, but few realise how arbitrary they are. I do not mean 'arbitrary' in the negative sense of

More information

Phonetics Articulatory Phonetics

Phonetics Articulatory Phonetics 2 Phonetics Articulatory Phonetics SPEECH SOUND FORM Learning Objectives When you have finished this chapter, you should be able to: Define phonetics and the branches of phonetics. List the differences

More information

Introducing Voice Analysis Software into the Classroom: how Praat Can Help French Students Improve their Acquisition of English Prosody.

Introducing Voice Analysis Software into the Classroom: how Praat Can Help French Students Improve their Acquisition of English Prosody. Introducing Voice Analysis Software into the Classroom: how Praat Can Help French Students Improve their Acquisition of English Prosody. Laurence Delrue Université de Lille 3 (France) laurence.delrue@univ-lille3.fr

More information

Pronunciation [50 minutes] Essential Presentation Elements

Pronunciation [50 minutes] Essential Presentation Elements Pronunciation [50 minutes] Materials Tissue Slip strip (optional) Handout #10 Addressing Pronunciation Problems Handout #11 English Speech Sounds Handout #12 Tips, Tricks and Methods in Pronunciation Suggested

More information

Pronunciation of English [prəәnʌnsieʃəәn ʌv ɪnglɪʃ]

Pronunciation of English [prəәnʌnsieʃəәn ʌv ɪnglɪʃ] Pronunciation of English [prəәnʌnsieʃəәn ʌv ɪnglɪʃ] Linguistics 001 9/26/2011 Standard English spelling does not identify pronunciations clearly or reliably Sound change progresses naturally, while orthography

More information

BBN ANG 141 Foundations of phonology 5 Phonology 2: The vowel phonemes of English

BBN ANG 141 Foundations of phonology 5 Phonology 2: The vowel phonemes of English BBN ANG 141 Foundations of phonology 5 Phonology 2: The vowel phonemes of English Péter Szigetvári Dept of English Linguistics, Eötvös Loránd University 11 March 2009 szp (delg) intro phono 5/vowel phonemes

More information

VOWEL LENGTH DISCRIMINATION AMONG MALAY SPEAKERS OF

VOWEL LENGTH DISCRIMINATION AMONG MALAY SPEAKERS OF VOWEL LENGTH DISCRIMINATION AMONG MALAY SPEAKERS OF MALAYSIAN ENGLISH: AN INSTRUMENTAL STUDY WAN ASLYNN SALWANI WAN AHMAD Abstract Malaysian English is considered to have a smaller vowel inventory compared

More information

English Phonetics and Phonology

English Phonetics and Phonology CAMBRIDGE English Phonetics and Phonology A practical course Peter Roach Fourth edition English Phonetics and Phonology A practical course English Phonetics and Phonology: A practical course by Peter Roach

More information

English vowels. Tense and Lax. Basic vowel description. Main vowel symbols of GA and WCE. Narrow transcription

English vowels. Tense and Lax. Basic vowel description. Main vowel symbols of GA and WCE. Narrow transcription Main vowel symbols of GA and WCE English vowels Narrow transcription Front Central Back* Height [i] beat [u] boot higher high [I] bit [U] book lower high [e] bait [o] boat higher mid [E] bet [ ] sofa [ç]

More information

Common Pronunciation Problems for Cantonese Speakers

Common Pronunciation Problems for Cantonese Speakers Common Pronunciation Problems for Cantonese Speakers P7 The aim of this leaflet This leaflet provides information on why pronunciation problems may occur and specific sounds in English that Cantonese speakers

More information

Grammar Year 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Year 1. There are a few nouns with different morphology in the plural (e.g. mice, formulae).

Grammar Year 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Year 1. There are a few nouns with different morphology in the plural (e.g. mice, formulae). Grammar Year 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Term digraph grapheme phoneme Year 1 Guidance A type of grapheme where two letters represent one phoneme. Sometimes, these two letters are not next to one another; this

More information

Teaching English Pronunciation to Japanese Learners. Barbara Bradford, SOAS

Teaching English Pronunciation to Japanese Learners. Barbara Bradford, SOAS Teaching English Pronunciation to Japanese Learners Barbara Bradford, SOAS It is generally accepted that the Japanese have some serious problems in getting to grips with the pronunciation of English. Many

More information

Pronunciation Problems with Vowels by Japanese Speakers of English: Insights from a Contrastive Analysis Yoshie Nishikiori

Pronunciation Problems with Vowels by Japanese Speakers of English: Insights from a Contrastive Analysis Yoshie Nishikiori Pronunciation Problems with Vowels by Japanese Speakers of English: Insights from a Contrastive Analysis Yoshie Nishikiori Abstract This paper aims to compare the differences between English and Japanese

More information

Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Educación y Trabajo Social

Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Educación y Trabajo Social Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Educación y Trabajo Social Máster de Formación del Profesorado de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, Bachillerato, Formación Profesional y Enseñanzas de Idiomas

More information

English Phonetics and Phonology. Rebecca Chen Week 1

English Phonetics and Phonology. Rebecca Chen Week 1 English Phonetics and Phonology Rebecca Chen Week 1 1 The English Sound System Things to ponder... What are the relationships between sounds and letters? How are sounds produced? How are speech sounds

More information

Pronunciation Practice and Students Oral Performances

Pronunciation Practice and Students Oral Performances REPUBLIQUE ALGERIENNE DEMOCRATIQUE ET POPULAIRE الجمهىريت الجسائريت الذيمقراطيت الشعبيت MINISTERE DE L ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR ET DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE وزارة التعليم العالي و البحث العلمي UNIVERSITE

More information

Title: Phonological Differences between Japanese and English: Several Potentially Problematic. Areas of Pronunciation for Japanese ESL/EFL Learners

Title: Phonological Differences between Japanese and English: Several Potentially Problematic. Areas of Pronunciation for Japanese ESL/EFL Learners 1 Title: Phonological Differences between Japanese and English: Several Potentially Problematic Areas of Pronunciation for Japanese ESL/EFL Learners Author: Kota Ohata Indiana University of Pennsylvania

More information

British and American Phonetic Varieties

British and American Phonetic Varieties ISSN 1798-4769 Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 647-655, May 2015 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0603.23 British and American Phonetic Varieties Naghmeh Mirzaie Hosseinzadeh

More information

Prelinguistic vocal behaviors. Stage 1 (birth-1 month) Stage 2 (2-3 months) Stage 4 (7-9 months) Stage 3 (4-6 months)

Prelinguistic vocal behaviors. Stage 1 (birth-1 month) Stage 2 (2-3 months) Stage 4 (7-9 months) Stage 3 (4-6 months) 3 stages of phonological development 1. Prelinguistic vocal behaviors 2. Phonology of the first 50 words 3. Emergence of rules Prelinguistic vocal behaviors Reflexive/vegetative sounds (birth-1 month)

More information

CALL EM AS YOU HEAR EM:

CALL EM AS YOU HEAR EM: CALL EM AS YOU HEAR EM: Ear Training & Phonetic Transcription (& Brain Stuff) for Teaching Pronunciation Dr. Robin C. Barr Linguist-in-Residence American University, Washington DC January 29, 2012 Myths

More information

Pronunciation Considerations in ESL: Voice Quality Settings l John H. Esling University of Victoria

Pronunciation Considerations in ESL: Voice Quality Settings l John H. Esling University of Victoria 1 Pronunciation Considerations in ESL: Voice Quality Settings l John H. Esling University of Victoria Voice quality settings are the various composite postures or longterm features of speech. They include

More information

Distinctive Features

Distinctive Features 1 CSD 232 Descriptive Phonetics Distinctive Features Eulenberg/Farhad Spring 2011 2 Phonological Analysis A Phonological Analysis consists of the following elements: List of the phonemes of a language

More information

An Analysis of the Vowel Sounds of Pakistani English

An Analysis of the Vowel Sounds of Pakistani English Bulletin of Education and Research June 2012, Vol. 34, No. 1 pp.1-18 An Analysis of the Vowel Sounds of Pakistani English Qaisera Ashraf Sheikh Abstract English in Pakistan has gone through an evolutionary

More information

Part II Phonology. 2. Segmentals Vowels and Diphthongs. 3. Suprasegmentals Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm

Part II Phonology. 2. Segmentals Vowels and Diphthongs. 3. Suprasegmentals Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm Part II Phonology 1. Segmentals Consonants 2. Segmentals Vowels and Diphthongs 3. Suprasegmentals Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm 4. Suprasegmentals Tones and Intonations The English Consonants Stops

More information

Card Features Card Front Card Back

Card Features Card Front Card Back LipSync Moving Sound Formation Cards is an innovative teaching tool designed to help students learn the sounds of the English language. The set is ideal for young children, early readers, students with

More information

Unstressed Syllables for Pre-Intermediate Learners

Unstressed Syllables for Pre-Intermediate Learners Unstressed Syllables for Pre-Intermediate Learners Abstract Matthew Miklas Language Institute Thammasat University matt_miklas@yahoo.com Being a stress-timed language, the teaching of English presents

More information

Diction for Singing. David Jones, D.M.A SFA Regents Professor of Music, Voice. Charts: Nita Hudson, M.M. SFA Instructor of Voice

Diction for Singing. David Jones, D.M.A SFA Regents Professor of Music, Voice. Charts: Nita Hudson, M.M. SFA Instructor of Voice Diction for Singing By David Jones, D.M.A SFA Regents Professor of Music, Voice Charts: Nita Hudson, M.M. SFA Instructor of Voice My first job was that of a Jr. High Choral Director. I inherited an unauditioned

More information

English Phonetics: Consonants (i)

English Phonetics: Consonants (i) 1 English Phonetics: Consonants (i) 1.1 Airstream and Articulation Speech sounds are made by modifying an airstream. The airstream we will be concerned with in this book involves the passage of air from

More information

Pronunciation matters by Adrian Tennant

Pronunciation matters by Adrian Tennant Level: All Target age: Adults Summary: This is the first of a series of articles on teaching pronunciation. The article starts by explaining why it is important to teach pronunciation. It then moves on

More information

Bachelors of Science Program in Communication Disorders and Sciences:

Bachelors of Science Program in Communication Disorders and Sciences: Bachelors of Science Program in Communication Disorders and Sciences: Mission: The SIUC CDS program is committed to multiple complimentary missions. We provide support for, and align with, the university,

More information

LING 520 Introduction to Phonetics I Fall Week 1. Introduction Anatomy of speech production Consonants and vowels Phonetic transcription

LING 520 Introduction to Phonetics I Fall Week 1. Introduction Anatomy of speech production Consonants and vowels Phonetic transcription LING 520 Introduction to Phonetics I Fall 2008 Week 1 Introduction Anatomy of speech production Consonants and vowels Phonetic transcription Sep. 8, 2008 What is phonetics? 2 Phonetics is the study of

More information

ENG 432/532 Phonetics and Phonology Fall 2013

ENG 432/532 Phonetics and Phonology Fall 2013 ENG 432/532 Phonetics and Phonology Fall 2013 Course credits: Five (5) Instructor: Charles Li, Ph.D. Office Phone/E-mail: 963-1598 / lix@cwu.edu Time/classroom: MW2:00-3:40 p.m./ LL307 Office location:

More information

Ling 103 Transcription of English Syllable Structure

Ling 103 Transcription of English Syllable Structure Ling 103 Transcription of English Syllable Structure General American English Consonants and Glides labial coronal dorsal laryngeal voiceless stop p t k voiced stop b d g voiceless affricate voiced affricate

More information

7.2. The structure of the syllable. Phonotactic constraints

7.2. The structure of the syllable. Phonotactic constraints Chapter 7: Beyond the segment: yllable structure in English 7.1. The yllable: a fundamental phonological unit in any language. A tentative definition 7.2. The structure of the syllable. Phonotactic constraints

More information

Contrastive Analysis Between Japanese and American English Sound Systems: From an Articulatory Setting Perspective

Contrastive Analysis Between Japanese and American English Sound Systems: From an Articulatory Setting Perspective Contrastive Analysis Between Japanese and American English Sound Systems: From an Articulatory Setting Perspective Junko Noguchi I. Which phonological features should be taught? What should teachers teach

More information

The Pronunciation of the Aspirated Consonants P, T, and K in English by Native Speakers of Spanish and French

The Pronunciation of the Aspirated Consonants P, T, and K in English by Native Speakers of Spanish and French 144 The Pronunciation of the Aspirated Consonants P, T, and K in English by Native Speakers of Spanish and French Philip Suarez Florida International University, USA Abstract: This study examines whether

More information

Test at a Glance. About this test

Test at a Glance. About this test English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) Test at a Glance Test Name English to Speakers of Other Languages Test Code 0360 Time 2 hours, with a 30-minute listening section Number of Questions 120,

More information

4 Phonetics. Speech Organs

4 Phonetics. Speech Organs 4 Phonetics Speech is a very hierarchical and complex physical phenomenon, including issues related to cognition, language, physiology, hearing and acoustics. A research including features of these fields

More information

PERCEPTION AND ANALYSIS OF CHINESE ACCENTED GERMAN VOWELS

PERCEPTION AND ANALYSIS OF CHINESE ACCENTED GERMAN VOWELS ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS 32, 1, 89 100 (2007) PERCEPTION AND ANALYSIS OF CHINESE ACCENTED GERMAN VOWELS Hongwei DING, Oliver JOKISCH, Rüdiger HOFFMANN Dresden University of Technology Laboratory of Acoustics

More information

Pronunciation. Unit 2 Intonation in question tags. Unit 1 e sounds /e/, /iː/, /ə/

Pronunciation. Unit 2 Intonation in question tags. Unit 1 e sounds /e/, /iː/, /ə/ Unit 1 e sounds /e/, /iː/, /ə/ Unlike Italian, in English we can pronounce e in several different ways. These are three of them: 1 /iː/ is in long, stressed syllables 2 /e/ can be in short stressed syllables

More information

Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 5

Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 5 Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 5 More on word stress Words with Romance suffixes normally stressed on the last syllable. Examples: referee trainee chimpanzee shampoo taboo

More information

Phonetics. Today s video clip. What s phonetics? Consonants vs. Vowels. ARBC0225/LNGT0225 Arabic Linguistics 2/26/2014.

Phonetics. Today s video clip. What s phonetics? Consonants vs. Vowels. ARBC0225/LNGT0225 Arabic Linguistics 2/26/2014. ARBC0225/LNGT0225 Arabic Linguistics علم اللسانيات العربية Today s video clip اللغة العربية في لبنان http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2j4wmhyldaa Lecture #6 Feb 26 th, 2014 For Monday s class, we will read

More information

Pronunciation Problems: A Case Study on English Pronunciation Errors of Low Proficient Students

Pronunciation Problems: A Case Study on English Pronunciation Errors of Low Proficient Students Available online at http://ijleal.ump.edu.my/ International Journal of Language Education and Applied Linguistics (IJLEAL) Copyright Penerbit Universiti Malaysia Pahang ISSN: 2289-7208 print; 2289-9294

More information

Pronunciation Studio. Index

Pronunciation Studio. Index Pronunciation Studio Free Course Sample from our 120 page course book with audio: An English Acc nt Phonetics Intonation Schwa IPA Spelling & Sound Index Pg Contents 1 Introduction 2 IPA Chart 3 Consonant

More information

L3: Organization of speech sounds

L3: Organization of speech sounds L3: Organization of speech sounds Phonemes, phones, and allophones Taxonomies of phoneme classes Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics Speech perception Prosody Introduction to Speech Processing Ricardo

More information

Sound Categories. Today. Phone: basic speech sound of a language. ARPAbet transcription HH EH L OW W ER L D

Sound Categories. Today. Phone: basic speech sound of a language. ARPAbet transcription HH EH L OW W ER L D Last Week Phonetics Smoothing algorithms redistribute probability CS 341: Natural Language Processing Prof. Heather Pon-Barry www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/ponbarry/cs341.html N-gram language models are used

More information

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline August 2011 V2 Pearson Education Ltd 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of Pearson Education Ltd. Introduction The

More information

Progress Report Spring 20XX

Progress Report Spring 20XX Progress Report Spring 20XX Client: XX C.A.: 7 years Date of Birth: January 1, 19XX Address: Somewhere Phone 555-555-5555 Referral Source: UUUU Graduate Clinician: XX, B.A. Clinical Faculty: XX, M.S.,

More information