The Essential Guide To Motor Oil. Here's something your didn't know about motor oil.

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1 The Essential Guide To Motor Oil Here's something your didn't know about motor oil.

2 Contents Introduction 2 What does motor oil do in my engine and why is it important? 3 What is motor oil made up of? 4 Why do I need to change my motor oil? 5 How often should I change my motor oil? 5 Choosing the right motor oil 6 What are API ratings? 7 What are ACEA ratings? 7 What are ILSAC ratings? 8 What are OEM ratings? 8 What grade of engine oil should I use? 9 Warranty 9 How do I make the right choice? Good 10 Better 11 Best 12 What is as important to my car s performance as changing the oil? 13 Safety information 14 How do I dispose of used oil? 14 For more information 14

3 Introduction For over 140 years, Valvoline has served the needs of car owners with quality motor oils and automotive products longer than any other motor oil company. In fact, Valvoline is the oldest trademark in the entire petroleum industry. Valvoline understands that today's motor oil market has an increasing assortment of engine oils needed to cater for the various car makes and models. Choosing the motor oil that is right for your vehicle and budget is a common source of confusion and frustration. This guide to motor oil aims to remove confusion and keep motor oil simple. It has been developed to help you better understand the basics of motor oil so you can make an informed choice. The more you know about motor oil, the better you will be able to protect your vehicle's engine. Valvoline, a division of Ashland, is a leading innovator and supplier of quality, high-performing automotive and industrial products in more than 100 countries. Best known for its lubricants, Valvoline also markets Eagle One appearance products, SynPower performance products, Pyroil automotive chemicals and MaxLife products created for higher-mileage engines. If you have any further questions or comments regarding Valvoline products, please call our Technical Hotline between 8.30am-4.30pm Monday to Friday AEST. 2

4 What does motor oil do in my engine and why is it important? The main purpose of motor oil is to stop metal from touching metal. An engine contains hundreds of moving parts that must be kept separate from each other. If metal surfaces come in contact, wear may occur and friction will increase. With friction comes heat, and heat will warp and distort moving engine parts. Motor oil creates a slick film between metal parts that lets them glide over each other. Motor oil also: - Reduces friction and prevents wear; - Allows for easy starting; - Seals tiny gaps between the piston ring and cylinder walls; - Cools moving parts by dispersing heat; - Keeps engine surfaces clean; - Holds foreign deposits (like by products of combustion) in suspension away from engine parts; and - Prevents rust and corrosion. 3

5 What is motor oil made up of? Motor oil has changed dramatically since Valvoline first launched lubricating oils over 140 years ago. Modern motor oils are made up of the following: Base stocks + Additives The base stocks used can be conventional stocks, man made synthetics or a mixture of conventional and synthetic stocks. Conventional base oils are made from crude oil which has undergone certain extraction processes and minor chemical restructuring in an oil refinery. Conventional base oils are a mixture of thousands of different chemicals. Synthetics differ from conventional base oils in that they are synthesized from relatively pure chemicals for specifically designed performance characteristics. The raw material for synthetics could come from many sources. Synthetic base stocks generally offer superior low temperature flow properties and enhanced response to certain engine oil additives. Regardless of the type of base stocks used, it is necessary to combine them with additives to meet the demanding requirements of modern engines Additives are the active ingredient in motor oils. These additives must be replenished through regular oil changes. They may include any of the following: - Detergents - Dispersants - Anti-Wear Agents - Extreme Pressure Additives - Oxidation Inhibitors - Anti-Foaming Agents - Rust and Corrosion Inhibitors - Viscosity Index Improvers - Pour Point Depressants - Friction Modifiers 4

6 Why do I need to change my motor oil? After a period of use, motor oil deteriorates and becomes unable to do an efficient job lubricating and cooling engine parts. The two main reasons for this are: Accumulation of contaminants During the normal operation of an engine, contaminants begin to accumulate in the engine oil. The engine oil is designed to lock away and neutralise by-products of combustion such as soot, carbon and acids. As contaminant levels build-up over time, critical properties of the engine oil such as viscosity can be affected. Depletion of oil additives Additives are consumed as they perform their vital role. If the additives are depleted, corrosion, oxidation and accelerated engine wear can occur. For this reason, engine manufacturers recommend that the oil be changed at certain time or distance intervals to ensure protection of your equipment is not compromised. How often should I change my motor oil? Some types of car operations are more severe than others, placing greater demands on the motor oil and calling for more frequent oil changes. For this reason, car manufacturers give two recommendations for oil changes in their owner's manuals. Standard Service Standard conditions are generally where a vehicle drives more than 15,000km per year on bitumen, with little stop start driving and few periods of long idling. These service conditions can be met with a high performance mineral oil from one of the products in Valvoline s XLD range. Severe Service If you drive in city traffic, do lots of short trips, drive off the bitumen, or tow any sort of load, you are driving in severe conditions. These service conditions can be met with either a full synthetic, such as SynPower or a synthetic blend such as DuraBlend or SynGard. 5

7 Choosing the right motor oil The first step in choosing motor oil is to check the owner's manual for the recommended SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity grade for your vehicle. There are two common types of SAE classifications: monograde and multigrade. A monograde such as SAE 30 has certain cold weather limitations. In very cold weather, it may not flow adequately to protect the engine during the time the engine takes to reach operating temperature. Multigrade oils, such as SAE 10W-30, can be used across a broad range of temperatures. These are widely used because they allow for easy starting and pumping at low temperatures; yet they are thick enough at high temperatures to lubricate effectively. S A E 1 0 W S A E 1 0 W The W stands for winter and indicates that the oil meets certain viscosity requirements for low temperature or winter operation. S A E 1 0 W S A E 1 0 W The number in front of the W indicates the low temperature viscosity. The number refers to the viscosity of the oil when the engine is cold and indicates the oils performance when the engine is starting up. The thinner the oil when cold the quicker it moves around the engine and the faster it protects vital engine components. S A E 1 0 W S A E 1 0 W The high-temperature viscosity (the second number, 30 in a 10W-30) indicates thickness at operating temperature. Thicker oils make it easier to maintain oil pressure and reduce the tendency for oil consumption, particularly in worn engines. Thick oils trade off fuel efficiency to achieve this as the engine has to work harder to move the oil around. When comparing viscosity numbers, a higher number will not flow as easily as a low number. 6

8 What are API ratings? The American Petroleum Institute (API) classification system provides information about the engine oil. The letter S followed by another letter (for example SM ) indicates that the oil is appropriate for petrol engines. SM oils are superior to SL oils in many performance criteria including enhanced fuel efficiency whilst also meeting the energy conserving classification and enhanced emissions systems protection. The letter C followed by another letter and/or number (for example CI-4) indicates that the oil is appropriate for diesel engines. The second letter in both the S and the C categories is assigned alphabetically. Generally the further along we move in the alphabet indicates the latest technology and quality enhancements in motor oil. What are ACEA ratings? ACEA stands for the Association des Constructeurs Europeens d Automobiles and represents a large group of European engine manufacturers. ACEA has established four performance categories: the A category for petrol engines; the B category for passenger car diesel engines; the C category represents catalyst compatible oils; the E category for heavy duty diesel engines. A Category (petrol engines) A1 and A2 oils represent the base performance level with A1 being used for lower viscosity fuel efficient oils and A2 for higher viscosity oils. A3 and A5 oils are the highest performing ACEA gasoline engine oils with the A3 being used for the higher performance oils and A5 for the high performance lower viscosity fuel efficient oils. The A4 classification is reserved for a future specification for direct injection gasoline engines. B Category (passenger car diesel engines) The B category is similarly divided with the exception that the B4 classification for direct injection passenger diesel engines has been established and that the B5 classification combines the performance requirements of B3 and B4 in a lower viscosity fuel efficient oil. 7

9 C Category (catalyst compatible engines) The C category is intended for use with vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters and three way catalysts in petrol applications. C1 and C2 classifications are based on ACEA A5/B5 ratings, whilst the C3 classification is based on ACEA A3/B3 ratings. What are ILSAC ratings? ILSAC stands for the International Lubricant Standardisation Advisory Committee. For lubricants to meet the GF specification, they must prove to be energy conserving. With the latest rating being GF-4, it provides better fuel economy than GF-3. In the Australian market you may find the following ILSAC ratings: - ILSAC GF-3 (introduced in 2001) - ILSAC GF-4 (introduced in 2004) What are OEM approvals? Some OEMs specify that engine oils must meet a range of stringent requirements before it can be used and warranted in their engines. To minimise misapplication, Valvoline have noted whether these requirements have been met by noting OEM performance specifications on pack; the most common approvals in Australia being the following: - BMW: LL98 and LL01 - Ford: M2C-915A, M2C 153E/F and M2C-153G - General Motors: GM6094M - Mercedes Benz: MB229.1, MB229.3 and MB Volkswagen: VW502.00, VW503.01, VW504.00, VW and VW

10 So, what grade of engine oil should I use? There are a number of ways to determine what engine oil is suited to your vehicle. The best way to find the correct lubricant grade and recommendation is to refer to your vehicle owner s manual. In here you should be able to locate: - Viscosity or SAE rating - API, ACEA, ILSAC and OEM approval If you are unable to access your vehicle owner s manual most auto part stockists will have a Valvoline lubrication recommendation guide. Here you can look up the make and model of your vehicle and match to it the Valvoline engine oil best suited to your vehicle. You can also obtain this information online at You will be presented with an engine oil recommendation that also includes suitable transmission and power steering fluids for your vehicle. The lubricant guide will also advise how many litres you will require to perform the oil change. Warranty Valvoline s range of engine oils either meet or exceed the ratings printed on pack. Providing that you select the correct lubricant for your vehicle, Valvoline guarantees the engine oil used will not void new car warranty. 9

11 How do I make the right choice? Good Valvoline s range of conventional mineral based oils are suitable for the everyday driver. Standard service conditions can be met with the following products: XLD Lo-Vis 10W-30 - Meets latest engine specifications - Premium base stocks - Enhanced fuel efficiency - API SM ILSAC GF-4 XLD Plus 20W-50 - For conventional and multi valve engines - Premium mineral base stocks - API SL/CF, ACEA A2, B2 XLD Premium 20W-50 - For conventional and multi valve engines - Premium mineral base stocks - API SJ/CF, ACEA A2, B2 XLD Classic 20W-50 - Offers protection for cars manufactured before API SG/CD XLD HiVis 20W-60 - Developed to protect and extend the life of older technology and worn engines - API SJ/CD Diesel Formula 15W-40 - For turbo and non turbo diesel engines - API CG-4 10

12 How do I make the right choice? Better Sometimes you need a Better oil to cope with your driving conditions. Severe service conditions can be met with the following products. DuraBlend 5W-30, 10W-30, 10W-40 and 15W-50 - specially formulated for tough driving conditions, stop-go driving, extended idling, short trips & towing SynGard 10W-40 - Provides engine protection from start up to shut down - SynGard with Advanced Chemaloy Shield reduces engine wear and improves engine responsiveness and ensures high engine performance - Provides better deposit control for a cleaner engine - API SM/CF ACEA A3,B3 MaxLife 20W-50 - For high mileage engines - Suits most 4,6 and 8 cylinder engines with over 100,000km - API SM/CF ACEA A3,B3 XLD Engine Armour 15W-40 - Quality synthetic fortified for improved protection over standard mineral oils - API SM/CF ACEA A3,B3 Super Diesel 15W For turbo and non turbo engines - Suits Cummins, Mack and Caterpillar engines - API CH-4/SJ

13 How do I make the right choice? Best Sometimes only the best will do. Severe and high performance applications can be met with Valvoline's SynPower range. Valvoline s SynPower motor oil is specially formulated with 100% synthetic base stocks for ultimate protection, high performance, long drain and severe service application. SynPower 0W-40, MXL 0W-30, 5W-40 and 10W-50 - Maximum thermal and oxidation stability - Fully compatible with all conventional motor oils - Offers superior low temperature and high temperature properties - Optimum cold start properties - Lowest oil burnoff - Enhanced wear protection 12

14 What is as important to my car s performance as changing the oil? Looking after your vehicle is not just a matter of changing your oil regularly. For maximum engine protection Valvoline recommends that you change your oil filter every time you change your oil. Cleaning and protecting your fuel system is as important to your car's performance as changing the oil. For maximum engine performance add fuel injector cleaner to your fuel every time you change your oil and every 5000km. Change Oil Valvoline offer the choice of a mineral based, synthetic blend or full synthetic lubricants which one you choose is dependent on your vehicle and driving habits. Change Oil Filter When selected correctly and properly installed, Valvoline filters meet or exceed OEM requirements. Valvoline guarantees its filters are completely free of any fault or defects in both materials and workmanship. When you buy Valvoline filters, you can be sure your engine is well protected. Add Fuel Injector Cleaner at next fuel fill Valvoline Fuel Injector and Carby Cleaner restores power to your engine in one simple treatment by removing the deposits that plug, block and affect the performance of fuel injectors and carburettors. It also cleans intake valves and removes deposits from combustion chambers

15 How do I dispose of used oil? Protect our environment. Do not pollute drains, soil or water with used engine oil. Please dispose of used oil in accordance with state waste management authority requirements. Improperly disposed motor oil can contaminate drinking water and poison wildlife. In fact, the used motor oil generated from one oil change can contaminate more than one million litres of water. For more information on used oil recycling visit For your safety Be careful when handling used oil. Avoid skin contact with used engine oil. Wear suitable gloves. After contact with skin, wash immediately with soap and water. Prolonged and repeated contact with used engine oil from petrol engines may cause skin cancer. Always ensure the bottle is stored upright and the cap is tight. For more information For more information please contact the Valvoline Technical Hotline on between 8.30am- 4.30pm Monday to Friday AEST

16 For more information contact the Valvoline Technical Hotline on Registered Trademark, Ashland. Valvoline (Australia) Pty Ltd 30 Davis Rd, WETHERILL PARK NSW 2164

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