History of Mars Exploration. Telescopes Orbiters Landers Martian Meteorites

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1 Mars Remote Sensing Prepared for UTSA Remote Sensing by Danielle Wyrick Dept. of Earth, Material, and Planetary Sciences Southwest Research Institute October 24, 2005

2 History of Mars Exploration Telescopes Orbiters Landers Martian Meteorites

3 History of Mars Exploration Marsnik Attempted Mars Flyby Marsnik Attempted Mars Flyby Sputnik Attempted Mars Flyby Mars Attempted Mars Flyby Sputnik Attempted Mars Lander Mariner Attempted Mars Flyby Mariner Mars Flyby Zond Attempted Mars Flyby Zond Lunar Flyby, Mars Test Vehicle Mariner Mars Flyby Mariner Mars Flyby Mars 1969A Attempted Mars Orbiter Mars 1969B Attempted Mars Orbiter Mariner Attempted Mars Flyby Cosmos Attempted Mars Orbiter/Lander Mars Mars Orbiter / Attempted Lander Mars Mars Orbiter/ Lander Mariner Mars Orbiter Mars Mars Flyby / Attempted Mars Orbiter Mars Mars Orbiter Mars Attempted Mars Lander Mars Mars Flyby / Attempted Mars Lander Viking Mars Orbiter and Lander Viking Mars Orbiter and Lander Phobos Attempted Mars Orbiter/Phobos Landers Phobos Mars Orbiter/Attempted Phobos Landers Mars Observer Attempted Mars Orbiter Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Mars Attempted Mars Orbiter/Landers Mars Pathfinder Mars Lander and Rover Nozomi (Planet-B) Attempted Mars Orbiter Mars Climate Orbiter Attempted Mars Orbiter Mars Polar Lander Attempted Mars Lander Deep Space 2 (DS2) Attempted Mars Penetrators 2001 Mars Odyssey Mars Orbiter Mars Express Mars Orbiter / Attempted Lander/Rover Spirit (MER-A) Mars Rover Opportunity (MER-B) Mars Rover

4 Mariner 4-9 ( ) Primary mission First detailed views of the Martian surface and satellites Atmospheric measurements Surface measurements Significance First close-up images of surface Beat the Russians

5 Viking 1 & 2 ( ) Primary mission Obtain high resolution images of surface m/pixel Characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere Search for evidence of life

6 Viking 1 & 2 ( ) Landers Surface images Surface samples analyzed for composition and signs of life Significance Still the most complete data set available

7 Mars Global Surveyor (1997-Today) Primary Instruments Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) High resolution imagery of 1.5 m/pixel Temporal changes in atmosphere and surface

8 Mars Global Surveyor (1997-Today) Primary Instruments Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Topography Spatial resolution ~300 m/pixel Vertical resolution ~1 m MEGDR & PEDR

9 Mars Global Surveyor (1997-Today) Primary Instruments Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Used to study the composition of the rock, soil, ice, atmospheric dust and clouds

10 Mars Global Surveyor (1997-Today) Primary Instruments Gravity Magnetic Lander Pathfinder Significance Still providing data after eight years in orbit!

11 Mars Odyssey (2001-Today) Primary Instruments Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) Search for thermal signatures Determine the distribution of minerals Visual (19 m/pixel) and Infrared data (80 m/pixel)

12 Mars Odyssey (2001-Today) Primary Instruments Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) Determine chemical elements, e.g. hydrogen for the presence of water Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) Study of radiation environment

13 Mars Odyssey (2001-Today) Landers MER-A A Spirit MER-B B Opportunity

14 Mars Express (2003-Today) Primary Instruments High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) 2-10 m/pixel Full color 3D imaging

15 Mars Express (2003-Today) Primary Instruments OMEGA VIS/IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer 100 m/pixel micron wavelength

16 Mars Express (2003-Today) Primary Instruments Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) Atmospheric composition Has detected methane

17 Mars Express (2003-Today) Primary Instruments Primary Instruments SPICAM UV/IR Atmospheric Spectrometer O 3 and H 2 O in atmosphere ASPERA Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser Detect loss of H 2 O to solar wind MARSIS Sub-Surface Sounding Radar Altimeter Detect subsurface water and ice Lander Beagle crashed and burned

18 Visual Imagery Global data sets

19 Topography Global data sets

20 Albedo Global data sets

21 Thermal Inertia Global data sets

22 Gravity Global data sets

23 Magnetic Global data sets

24 Martian Meteorites SNCs History Discovery Possible evidence of life Significance Geochemical studies Evolution of Mars Problems Lack of geologic context

25 Tectonics Major Research Areas

26 Volcanoes Major Research Areas

27 Major Research Areas Dichotomy boundary

28 Impact craters Major Research Areas

29 Water Major Research Areas

30 Dust Major Research Areas

31 Polar caps Major Research Areas

32 Problems No ground truthing No scale or reference Lack of data Specialized software Planetary evolution Dominant geological processes Terminology and geography

33 Problems: lack of data No seismic (or other subsurface) data No sample return Laboratory analyses limited Meteorite source locations unknown No in situ absolute dating Image source: Lake Malawi Drilling Project

34 Problems: coordinate systems Viking images Viking Mosaic (MDIM 2..1) MOC Images MOC Mosaic MEGDR (all versions) PEDR (vs. l) IAU/IAG 2000 Equatorial radius Polar radius Wo (affects prime meridian) Latitude system -ographic -ocentric -ographic -ocentric -ocentric Longitude system +W +E +W +E +E Longitude range 0 to to to to to 360

35 Problems: software Orbiter ancillary data: SPICE kernals necessary for projection into coordinate space Planetary processing software is long outdated and currently undergoing major overhaul Terrestrial commercial software issues Coordinate systems and projections often limited to Earth Planetary Data System (PDS) file format

36 Problems: software (continued) Planetary Data and Software Resources NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) USGS Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) Requires UNIX or LINUX Large program size (> 10GB) Planetary Interactive G.I.S.-on on-the-web Analyzable Database (PIGWAD)

37 Problems: Mars geology Geologic History Gravity Climate Temperatures Composition Water

38 Problems: Terminology & Geography Different names on different planets Mars term Areo- Planum Dorsum Labyrinthus Fossa Undae Catena Meaning Mars Highland plains Ridge Complex of intersecting valleys Long, narrow, shallow depression Dunes Chain of craters

39 The Good News? Back log of data New missions, including sample return New software development, both planetary and terrestrial More terrestrial experts entering the field (e.g. geologists, biologists) will bring new interpretations and discoveries

40 Conclusions

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