1 Project Planning using MS Project Week 4
2 Last Week Project Definition Report Project Appraisal Techniques Scoping Tools Breakdown Structures
3 This Week What is Scheduling? Purpose of Scheduling Estimating i Task Duration Task Dependency Network Diagram
4 Scheduling It is about sequencing project activities and milestones into a sensible and logical order It involves linking activities to form a project network to show how different activities are related to each other One requirement is to establish the timing and resources
5 Purpose of Scheduling Its is used to find the expected project duration and milestone dates It is used to make sure that the project is completed by a target date For example, recently the Common Wealth Games held in India had a definite opening date. All work should have been completed!!!! To get stakeholder commitment
6 Estimating Task Duration Use Historical Data past experience is a good predictor of future events Time the activity possible to do a trial run Use a probabilistic method such as expert judgment or simulation i techniques or Weighted Average
7 Weighted Average Most Optimisitc tc (a) the minimum time Most Likely (m) the most likely duration assuming normal conditions Most Pessimistc (b) the expected duration if major difficulties are encountered Example Most Optimistic (a) = 24hrs Most Likely (m) = 48hrs Most Pessimistic (b) = 96hrs
8 Weighted Average = (a + 4m + b)/6 = (24 + 4(48) + 96)/6 = 312/6 = 52 hrs Using a distribution called a beta distribution approximation
9 Tasks Dependencies A relationship between two linked tasks Linked by a dependency between finish and start dates Defining task dependencies correctly results in a schedule that's easy to maintain regardless of what happens or how quickly There are four types of dependency: Finish to Start, Start to Start, Finish to Finish and Start to Finish
10 Task dependencies vs Date Constraints Applying dependencies to tasks is preferable to setting hard dates in a schedule. Fixed dates applied to tasks, called date constraints, quickly increase the effort to maintain the schedule. If you use date constraints, you often must manually recalculate dates when the schedule changes. However, date constraints t don't always cause schedule problems. For example, when tasks occur on specific dates, such as training classes or conferences, date constraints keep those events tied to the correct dates on the calendar.
11 Chronology vs Control Although tasks are called either successors or predecessors, a dependency is not really about chronology, but about control. A task dependency d specifies which h of two tasks controls the scheduling of the other. The independent d task (the predecessor) determines the scheduling of the dependent task (the successor). A predecessor can occur before, at the same time as, or after its successor.
12 Finish to start start (FS) This type of dependency is the most common, perhaps because control and chronology work in the same direction in this dependency. After the predecessor task finishes, the successor task starts. This means activity A must finish before activity B has permission to start For example: After members of a construction crew set up the concrete forms for a foundation, they start to pour the concrete into the forms.
13 Start to start to (SS) This type of dependency indicates that the start t of one task triggers the start t of fthe second task. A lag time between tasks is often used with this type of dependency. This means that once activity A has started, activity B can also start. For example: Members of a road crew start to place traffic cones to close a lane on the highway. Ten minutes after they start (lag time), the line painting machine starts to paint lines.
14 Finish to finish (FF) This type of dependency includes one task that continues only as long as another task is in progress. This means activity A must finish before activity B can finishi For example: Traffic flaggers direct traffic until construction work is completed. The concession stand at a sports arena stops serving refreshments when the game ends. In fact, it often stops serving alcoholic beverages two hours before the game ends (but not tin Trinidad) id d)
15 Start to finish to (SF) This type of dependency turns most people's concept of predecessor and successor tasks upside down. The confusion occurs because in most start to finish to cases, the predecessor occurs after the successor. And the start of the predecessor controls the finish of the successor. For example: Conference registration must start whether the registration booth is ready or not. Therefore, the start of the task "Check in registered attendees" controls the end of the task "Set up registration booth."
16 Key Terms Lead Time is overlap between tasks that have a dependency. For example, if a task can start when its predecessor is half finished, you can specify a finish to start dependency with a lead time of 50 percent for the sucessor task. You enter lead time as a negative value in MS Project.
17 Key Terms cont d Lag Time is a delay between tasks that have a dependency. For example, if you need a two day delay between the finish of one task and the start of another, you can establish a finish to start dependency and specify two days of lag time. You enter lag time as a positive value in MS Project
18 Key Terms cont d Total Slack is the amount of time a task can be delayed before the project finish date is delayed. Total slack can be positive or negative. If total slack is a positive number, it indicates the amount of time that the task can be delayed without delaying the project finish date. If total slack is a negative number, it indicates the amount of time that must be saved so that the project finish date is not delayed. Negative slack indicates that there is not enough time scheduled for the task and is usually caused by constraints dates.
19 Key Terms cont d Free Slack is the amount of time a task can be delayed before its successor task is delayed. Use the Free Slack to determine whether a task has any time available for a delay. This can be useful if a resource needs more time on a task, or if you want to assign a resource to another task. You can also use the Free Slack field to determine how to recover a schedule that's slipping.
20 Key Terms cont d Critical Path The critical path is the series of Critical Path The critical path is the series of tasks (or even a single task) that dictates the calculated finish date of the project. That is, when the last task in the critical path is completed, the project is completed. It is identified by the series of task where the Float or Slack is Zero
21 Example using A O N ID TASK NAME DURATION PREDECESSORS 1 A1 CLIENT WORKSHOP 10 2 A2 CASE MODEL A3 USER REVIEW B1 Db DEFINITION B2 FORMS DESIGN B3 REPORT DESIGN ,5 7 C1 SYSTEM TESTING C2 HANDOVER TO CLIENT ,7 EST DUR EFT TASK NAME LST FLOAT LFT
22 Forward Pass to calculate EST and EFT The EST for the first activity is zero EFT for an activity it is always found by adding its duration to its EST. i.e. EFT = EST + Duration The EST for all remaining activities is the same as the EFT of its immediate predecessor i.e. EST = EFT of preceeding activity In the case of convergence, the EST is taken from the path having the highest EFT The EFT of the last activity is the duration of the project
23 Reverse Pass to calculate LST and LFT The LFT for the last activity is the same as its EFT The LST for an activity i is always found by subtracting its duration from its LFT i.e. LST = LFT Duration The LFT for all remaining activities is given by the LST of its immediate successor i.e. LFT = LST of the successor activity (moving from start to finish) or predecessor (moving from finish to start) In case of convergence, the LFT is taken from the path having the lowest LST
24 On each row enter: Task Name Duration and Using MS Project Predecessor Leave out Start Date and Finish Date
25 Entering a Start Date Go to Project menu Select Project Information Top left hand corner you will see: Project Start Date Project Finish Date Schedule from (default is Project Start Date, but you can actually work backwards given a constraint of a finish date)
26 Click on the Pull down menu Scroll to your month and year Choose date: 1 st March h20100 Click on OK to the bottom of the dialogue box Should get a Finish Date: 18 th June 2010
27 Entering Lag Time Double click on the Task The Task Information Dialog Box appears Choose the Predecessor Tab Enter the Lag time in the table Enter 5 days lag for Task 4 B1 Database Definition You should get Finish Date: 25 th June 2010
28 Formatting the bars to show Go to Format menu Select Bar Styles Critical Tasks Scroll to end of table and on a new row Enter Critical in Name column Use drop down menu in the Show For column select critical Click on Bars Tab In middle section change Color to red Click OK
29 Changing Working Time Go to Tools Menu Select Change Working Time Using the table: In the first row under type nonworking or Holiday Set date May Click on details button verify that date is a non working day New Finish Date should be: 28 th June 2010
30 Resource Allocation ID TASK NAME Resources 1 A1 CLIENT WORKSHOP SA , PG 2 A2 CASE MODEL SA, PG 3 A3 USER REVIEW SA, PG 4 B1 Db DEFINITION SA, PG 5 B2 FORMS DESIGN SA, PG 6 B3 REPORT DESIGN SA, PG 7 C1 SYSTEM TESTING SA, PG 8 C2 HANDOVER TO CLIENT SA,PG RATES: SA $400.00/DAY PG $300.00/DAY
31 Adding resources for a task Double click on the first task Select the Resources Tab from the Task Information Dialogue Box Under Resource Name column type in the name of the resource to be used. Eg. Systems Analyst Under Units enter the number of resources required. 100%=1 person Repeat for use of more than one resource for a task
32 Repeat for each task Repeat the previous procedure for each task Remember once you have entered a resource once, there is no need to type it again, just use the drop down menu in the Resource Name column to select the resource. Remember to be consistent. Don t enter SA, sa, Sa to mean the same, because they are in fact different resource as they are spelt differently.
33 Entering the Rates for Resources Go to View menu Select Resource Sheet Enter the rates in the Std. Rate column for the respective resource Be sure to put in the time factor, $/day (per day), $/hr (per hour) If there are unwanted resource you can delete by right clicking on the ID number of the resource in question and select Delete Resource.
34 Inserting a New Column Make sure you are on the Gantt ttchart tview. View Menu, select Gantt Chart Right click on the column heading that you want the new column to go next to Select tinsert Column OR Click on the column next to were you want the new column to go Use the Insert Menu choose Column In the Column Definition iti Box, change the Field Name from ID to the name of the new field you want
35 Use the drop down menu to choose from the list provided. Commonly used fields are: Fixed Cost, Cost, Total Slack, Free Slack
36 Adding a Fixed Cost to the Project The project has a fixed cost for Administration Building Rent and Miscellaneous of $10, allocated to the entire Project Go to Tool Menu Select Options Click on the View tab Check the box Show Project Summary Task Add a column for Fixed Cost (see previous slides)
37 In the Gantt Chart view Enter $10, into the Project Summary Task under the Fixed Cost Column
38 Generating Reports MS Project 2003 Go to View menu Select Reports Click on the Category e.g. Costs Click on Select Click on the type e.g. Budget Choose Select
39 Generating Reports MS Project 2007 Go to Reports Menu Click on Reports Click on the Category e.g. Costs Click on Select Click on the type e.g. Budget Choose Select Should get a Total of $111,000.00
40 Work Completed as at 21 May 2010 ID TASK NAME % Complete 1 A1 CLIENT WORKSHOP 100 % 2 A2 CASE MODEL 60% 3 A3 USER REVIEW 100% 4 B1 Db DEFINITION 40% 5 B2 FORMS DESIGN 80% 6 B3 REPORT DESIGN 0% 7 C1 SYSTEM TESTING 0% 8 C2 HANDOVER TO CLIENT 0% Reschedule Incomplete work as at 21 st May 2010
41 Adding Work Completed for a task Double click on the first task Select the General Tab from the Task Information Dialogue Box Enter the % complete in the Percentage Complete Box Repeat for each task
42 Rescheduling Incompleted Work to start Go to Tools menu Select Tracking then Update Project On the Update Project dialogue box select Reschedule uncompleted work to start after Enter date using drop down menu 21 st May 2010 Select entire project Click on OK after a particular date
43 Look at the last task on the Gantt chart you will see the new finish date New Finish Date : 27 th July 2010 Notice on the blue bars of the task that were uncompleted but should have been completed to date, are now split using to show that we have reschedule to uncompleted work to start after a certain date
44 Viewing Project Statistics Go to Project menu Select Project information Click on the Statistics i button to the bottom left corner The Statistics dialogue box shows a summary of the project