Complete the following items. Americans Divided

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1 UNIT THREE: Creating a New Nation ( ) CHAPTER SEVEN: The American Revolution ( ) LESSON 7-1: The Early Years of the War, pgs ) describe how the war divided Americans 2) list reasons why both sides struggled in preparing for war 3) evaluate Britain's Northern strategy 4) analyze the effects of the Battle at Saratoga neutral(195)- not favoring any one side pacifist(196)- someone who is opposed to war George (197)- commander of the Continental Army mercenary(198)- professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country strategy(199)- an overall plan of action rendezvous(200)- a meeting guerrillas(*)- small band of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks John Burgoyne(199)- British army general in the Revolutionary War Joseph Brant(200)- Mohawk Chief allied with the British Benedict Arnold(200)- U.S. Army general in the Revolutionary War who later turned traitor; switched sides Horatio Gates(201)- U.S. Army general in the Revolutionary War Battles of Saratoga(201)- a series of conflicts in 1777 near Albany, New York Americans Divided [195, 20-30% vs %] 1. TRUE / FALSE: At the beginning of the American Revolution there were more colonists that favored staying loyal to the King (Loyalists) than there were those who wanted to separate from English rule (Patriots). 2. TRUE / FALSE: Both slaves and Native Americans took part in the Revolutionary War some fighting for the American Continental Army and some fighting against it on the British side. [196] Preparing for War 3. List three examples of the struggles General had with his new Continental Army at the start of the war. a. soldiers were volunteers who were untrained and undisciplined [197] b. soldiers only served one-year tours of duty and were always in short supply (never more than 17,000) [197] c. army often lacked basic supplies like blankets, food, shoes, guns and ammo [197] 4. List two examples of the struggles the British had assembling an army at the start of the war. a. many British officers refused to fight in the war [197] b. unable to recruit enough British soldiers, England hired German mercenaries (the Hessians) [ ] Lesson 7-1 is continued on the next page. 1

2 Lesson 7-1 continued Britain's Northern Strategy and Saratoga: A Turning Point 5. TRUE / FALSE: A major part of the British plan was to send three armies from three different locations to take control of the Hudson River valley and isolate (cut off) the New England colonies from the rest of the states. [199] 6. Draw lines connecting what happened to each of the three armies that derailed this plan. [ ] a. General Burgoyne would move from Canada tricked to retreat by a lie about army size movement b. Lt. Colonel St. Leger would move through movement was slow, ended fighting alone at Saratoga the Mohawk Valley c. General Howe would follow the Hudson River diverted toward Philadelphia, defeated Washing twice North from NYC before taking the Colonial Capital City 7. In what two ways was the Battle of Saratoga extremely beneficial to the Americans. [201] a. British were NOT able to divide the colonies and separate New England from the rest of the states b. countries that were not friendly toward Great Britain (France) would begin openly helping the Americans Major Battles of the Revolutionary War Battle Date Location American British Outcome 1 - Long Island August, 1776 New York (pg. 198) General Howe This is the first major battle after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. 's army is badly beaten and he loses the city of New York to the British. The British now use all their military power against the colonists. 2 - Trenton December, 1776 New Jersey (pg. 199) Americans capture Trenton, New Jersey in a surprise attack on Christmas. wins his first major battle boosting the moral of the soldiers and convincing more men to enlist or re-enlist. 3 - Philadelphia September, 1777 Pennsylvania (pg. 200) General Howe Americans lose their capital to the British. The American Army escapes to York, Pennsylvania. 4 - Fort Stanwix August, 1777 Oriskany, New York (pg. 200) Benedict Arnold General St. Leger Chief Joseph Brant British strategy to take the Hudson river valley and divide the New England colonies from the rest of the country is ruined. 5 - Saratoga October, 1777 New York (pg. 201) General Gates General Burgoyne This is a major defeat for the British and becomes the turning point of the War. France enters the war on the side of the Americans shortly after this battle. 2

3 Major Battles of the Revolutionary War (continued) Battle Date Location American British Outcome 6 - Valley Forge winter Pennsylvania (pgs ) General 's troops suffer a terrible winter. This is the low point of the American army. Almost half of the army dies of cold and disease or deserts. 7 - (fort) Kaskaskia and Vinncennes (Fort Sackville) May, 1778-Feb Northwest Territory - Illinois (pgs ) 8 - Bonhome Richard vs. Serapis September 1779 Atlantic Ocean - off British Coast (pgs ) George Rogers Clark John Paul Jones Henry Hamilton Americans capture the fort without a shot being fired (at the Fort) Clark retakes Vincennes and secures the area west of Appalachian mountains for the U.S. Americans win naval battle which boosts our moral by showing the British navy can be defeated - and off the British shores. 9 - Camden August 1780 South Carolina (pgs ) Horatio Gates Baron de Kalb General Cornwallis Half-starved and poorly supplied Americans are crushed by the British. Gates and poorly trained militia run away during the battle and Baron de Kalb is killed. The American army spirits fall to new low Guerrilla Fighting Entire War North and South Carolina (pg. 215) Francis Marion "Swamp Fox" Americans used "Hit and Run" tactics to harass the British and destroy their moral and supply line Cowpens January, 1781 South Carolina (pg. 215) General Morgan General Cornwallis Americans win a spectacular victory proving they had mastered the formal battle tactics of the British Yorktown September 28, 1781, ends October 19, 1781 Virginia (pg. 216) General General Rochambeau General Cornwallis and French surround Cornwallis and force him to surrender his entire army. This is the final "official" battle of the war. 3

4 LESSON 7-2: The War Expands, pgs ) identify reasons why Spain and France entered the war. 2) summarize the effects of the winter at Valley Forge on American army. 3) explain how the Americans expanded the war. ally(205)- a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal desert(207)- to leave military duty without permission Marquis de Lafayette(207)- French aristocrat who volunteered to serve in s army Valley Forge(207)- site in southeast Pennsylvania where and his army camped the winter of George Rogers Clark(209)- frontiersman who helped defend the Western frontier Wilderness Road(209)- a trail into Kentucky privateer(210)- a privately owned ship that has been given government permission to attack an enemy s merchant ships John Paul Jones(210)- sea commander who attacked British ships near the British coast Help From Abroad [205, only after American forces proved they would win a major battle - Saratoga] 1. TRUE / FALSE: As soon as the American colonies completed the Declaration of Independence France openly entered the war as an ally. 2. Why did Spain enter the war on the American side? Spain was an ally of France [206] 3. Select seven ways that having the aid of France and Spain greatly helped the American's in this war. [205, ] brought navy [*205] sent cavalry horses sent troops sent officers forced the British to spread out their resources sent delegates to British parliament introduced new weapons sent supplies sent money sent spies to England Winter at Valley Forge 4. TRUE / FALSE: Although the winter of Valley Forge (southeast of Pennsylvania) was unbearable for and his men, it did serve as a statement of the American Army's determination. Likewise, because of the training, provided by German Officer the Baron Von Steuben, the army became better trained and disciplined. [ ] Frontier Fighting 5. List two examples of the violent nature of the fighting taking place in the Frontier around [ ] a. British officer Henry Hamilton was known as the hair-buyer for paying Indians for American scalps b. American George Rogers Clarks men executed NA allies in view of fort (Vincennes) to scare them into surrender War on the Waves 6. How did privateers (like John Paul Jones) impact the war? [ ] a. since America had few ships of its own, privateers were given permission to attack British ships; steal cargo b. John Paul Jones began to attack British ships off Britain's coast - British merchants called for war's end Jones captured the British ship the Serapis and in doing so wrecked his own ship the Bonhomme Richard; was the battle where Jones used the phrase "...I have not yet begun to fight!" 4

5 LESSON 7-3: The Path to Victory, pgs ) analyze how the combined efforts of the Americans and their allies brought about an American victory and end to the war. Battle of Charles Town(214)- British siege of Charles Town (Charleston), South Carolina, in May 1780, in which the American suffered their worst defeat of the war Lord Cornwallis(214)- British general whose campaigns in the South led to his defeat at Yorktown redoubt(216)- a small fort Battle of Yorktown(216)- final battle of the war, in which French and American forces led by George defeated British General Cornwallis The War Moves South [213, promised slaves freedom if they helped] 1. TRUE / FALSE: When the British took the fighting into the southern colonies they expect help from many of the loyalists there and that slaves would escape and join the British army. 2. In what ways did the American loss at the Battle of Charlestown and at Camden effect the Patriots? a. America lost almost all of its army in the Southern colonies [214] b. American General Horatio Gates fled fighting at Camden - replace by Nathaniel Greene; Baron de Kalb was killed during fighting [215] [215, Francis Marion the "swamp fox"] 3. TRUE / FALSE: Though the British were successful in major battles (until Cowpens in South Carolina) the guerrilla -style of hit-and-run fighting in the south hurt the British by disrupting their supply line (route for getting supplies). 4. Why was the British victory at Gilford, North Carolina a major part of their later defeat and surrender at Yorktown?. [216, British supplies were low and lost so many men during the battle that Cornwallis's army was greatly weakened] The End of the War 5. When British General Cornwallis attempted to get supplies at Yorktown, Virginia what happened that forced him to surrender on October 19, 1781 and end the American Revolutionary War? a. French navy (coming up from West Indies) cut off British ships with supplies coming south from New York [216] b. General Lafayette along with General and General Rochambeau cut off Cornwallis's retreat back inland off the peninsula Why the Americans Won 6. Examine the chart on page 218. Which of the American "strengths" in the Revolutionary War do you think was the most helpful to the colonists in winning the war? (vary) motivation popular support leadership foreign allies communication/supplies troop strength 5

6 LESSON 7-4: The Legacy of War, pgs ) summarize the costs of the war. 2) explain the terms of the Treaty of Paris. 3) identify the ideals on which the new nation was created. Treaty of Paris(224)- the 1783 treaty that ended the Revolutionary War disputes(225)- disagreements outposts(225)- military bases, usually located on the frontier nondenominational(227)- not favoring a particular religion Elizabeth Freeman(227)- enslaved African American who won her freedom in court Richard Allen(227)- African-American preacher who helped start the Free African Society Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom(228)- statement of religious liberty, written by Thomas Jefferson Costs of the War [223] 1. How many American's are thought to have died in the Revolutionary War? 25,700 colonists killed/10,000 British 2. What was the estimated American financial cost of the Revolutionary War? $27 million dollars 3. TRUE / FALSE: Benedict Arnold was a scorned name in the colonies after the war because of an egg dish that he had created which caused many illnesses. [224, betrayed America and switched to fighting for the British] 4. Which of the terms of the Treaty of Paris did both sides not live up to? [225] a. U.S. was recognized as an independent country b. U.S. boundaries were the Mississippi River (west), Canada (north), and Spanish Florida (south) c. U.S. could fish off Canada's Atlantic Coast near Newfoundland and Nova Scotia d. Each side would repay money it owed the other e. British would return slaves and captives f. U.S. Congress "recommended" that seized property be returned to Loyalists 5. TRUE / FALSE: The Treaty of Paris caused boundary disputes between the British, the Americans, the Spanish (Spain) and with Native Americans. [ , Spain controlled Mississippi, Britain kept forts on Great Lakes but gave away Native American land west of Appalachians Mts.] Creating a New Nation 6. What ideal did the new state governments (after British rules was removed) all include in their constitutions? [ , rights of individual citizens - freedom of religion, freedom of press, some prohibited slavery (Delaware)] 7. TRUE / FALSE: America's first attempt at a constitution, the Articles of Confederation, gave a great deal of power to the national (federal) government and less to individual state governments. [227, federal limited to treaties and war] 8. Why do you think it was more common for the Northern states than Southern states to enact laws that outlawed for slowly phased out slavery? [ns, slavery was more important to farming (plantation/cash crops) done in the south] 9. TRUE / FALSE: Although freedom of religion was a common part of the states' constitutions, also common was the feeling that government should not collect taxes to help support any religions. [228] 6

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