# A Case Method Approach of Teaching How Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis is Connected to the Flexible Budgeting Process and Variance Analysis

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2 We assume students will already have a basic understanding of concepts learned in core courses in their MBA program such as Finance, Financial Accounting, Marketing and Management. In addition to being familiar with concepts of fixed versus variable costs, students are assumed to be familiar with how changes in these costs interact with changes in sales revenue to determine net income, as well as understand the budgeting process, concepts which should have already been covered in their Managerial Accounting course. An additional benefit of this case is that students can treat it as a simulation exercise in which they vary assumptions about different variables such as: sales price, direct materials quality, total fixed costs, depreciation lives, and sales mix, etc. to see how all variables, individually and collectively, affect their break-even points. This point is often overlooked in textbooks that focus more on an equation approach in a static rather than a dynamic analytical approach (Machuga, 2012). A very important concept for students to understand is whether they have accomplished profit goals they set in their CVP analysis. In other words, they need to understand how to take their assumptions from the first part of the case and use them to develop the necessary budgets in order to finally prepare a projected Income Statement. Budgets force management to plan for the future as does CVP analysis. In addition, preparing a number of budgets allows students to understand that in order accomplish their profit goal they must also prepare budgets to coordinate activities throughout the company. This case will allow students to understand how budgets can help them coordinate activities throughout the entire company by integrating material purchases plans, and labor use, etc. Even more importantly, students will learn the importance of budgets and their use for evaluation and control purposes. Because the actual level of activity will most likely differ from the planned level of activity, we also require the students to prepare a Flexible budget. The Flexible budget allows them to understand the reason planned results differ from actual results in terms of activity variances versus revenues and spending variances (Horngren et al., 2012). DEVELOPMENT OF THE CASE The case assumes students will open a milkshake shack on the beach of a resort on the big Island of Hawaii. I have studied existing restaurants, read industry reports, and have done some research on expected minimum costs to be incurred in operating the business. A unique feature of my milkshakes is that I will serve them with flavored straws that match the flavor of the chosen milkshakes by customers. My research embeds the following assumptions: (see Machuga, 2012) Sales prices of milkshakes (\$7.00 for small, and \$10.00 for large) Cost of materials needed to make milkshakes: DIRECT MATERIAL INGREDIENTS Small (8 oz. size) Large (12 oz. size) Whole Milk (\$15 for a 5 gallon=640 oz.) (need 2 oz. of milk) (need 3 oz. of milk) Cream (\$20 for 1 gallon=128 oz.) (need 2 oz. of cream) (need 3 oz. of cream) Sugar (\$10 for a 15 lb. bag=30 cups) (need ½ cup of sugar) (need ¾ cup of sugar) Premium Vanilla Ice Cream (\$24 for 600 oz.) (need 6 oz. of ice cream) (need 9 oz. of ice cream) Flavorings.25 per shake.40 per shake Flavored specialty straws.75 per straw.75 per straw Cups (500 8 oz. a cost of \$200) Cups ( oz. a cost of \$250) Fixed costs: Shack rental: \$500 a month Cleaning and other miscellaneous supplies: \$100 a month Equipment: Industrial Milk Shake Maker: \$72 per machine x 10 machines=\$720 Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

4 Salary of 2 part-time workers 1, Rental Supplies Milk Shake Maker depreciation (720/ 36months) Refrigerator/freezer depreciation 4.00 (480/120 months) Counter tops depreciation (1,200/120months) Tables and benches depreciation (1,080/36 months) Annual insurance (600/12months) Interest on loan Advertising expense 5, Accounting and bookkeeping expense Owner s salary and benefits 8, Dues and membership fees Licenses and permit fees Maintenance services Office supplies Sign 8.37 (100/12months) Total monthly Fixed Costs \$16, Variable Costs per unit: Ingredient Cost Small Large Whole milk \$15 for 640 oz per oz Cream \$20 for 128 oz per oz Sugar \$10 for 30 cups per cup Premium Vanilla Ice Cream \$24 for 600 oz per oz Flavorings Flavored Specialty Straws Cups-8 ounces \$200 for 500 cups per cup 0.40 Cups-12 ounces \$250 for 500 cups per cup 0.50 TOTAL DIRECT MATERIAL COST PER UNIT \$2.17 \$2.80 Variable Cost Income Statement: using a 40% (small) and 60% (large) sales-mix in determining the break-even sales volume: Small (40%) Large (60%) Weighted total Sales after taking out the 10% owed \$7*90%=6.3*40%= \$10*90%=\$9*60%= per unit to resort Variable cost 2.17*40%= *60%= per unit Contribution margin per unit Total Fixed costs 16, per month 1) You will need to sell 3,135 milkshakes/month to break even = (\$16,840.61/5.372) 1,254 (3,135*40%) will be small and 1,881 (3,135*60%) will be large. Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

6 SALES BUDGET for January February March 1 st qtr Total April May 1 st qtr Large shakes expected 75,000 75,000 90, ,000 75,000 75,000 to be sold: (visitors*.60) Expected sales price \$ 9.00 \$ 9.00 \$ 9.00 \$ 9.00 \$ 9.00 \$9.00 (\$10*90%) Total sales (\$) \$675,000 \$675,000 \$810,000 \$2,160,000 \$675,000 \$675,000 Small shakes expected 50,000 50,000 60, ,000 50,000 50,000 to be sold: (visitors *.40) Expected sales price \$ 6.30 \$ 6.30 \$ 6.30 \$ 6.30 \$ 6.30 \$6.30 (\$7*90%) Total sales (\$) \$315,000 \$315,000 \$378,000 \$1,008,000 \$315,000 \$315,000 TOTAL SALES \$990,000 \$990,000 \$1,188,000 \$3,168,000 \$990,000 \$990,000 The next budget to be prepared is the Production budget, where the number of milk shakes needed to be produced (based on the sales budget) are determined. This will equal: Number of milk shakes expected to be sold + safety stock (ending finished goods inventory) in case demand is higher than predicted Total milk shakes needed Less: Beginning finished goods inventory (which is zero at the start of business) Milk shakes needed to be produced To prepare the production budget we used the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected milk shake sales is desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Large Milk Shakes: January s ending inventory: February sales of 75,000 *.10 = 7,500 February s ending inventory: March sales of 90,000 *.10 = 9,000 March s ending inventory: April sales of 75,000 *.10 = 7,500 April s ending inventory: May sales of 75,000 *.10 = 7,500 Small Milk Shakes: January s ending inventory: February sales of 50,000 *.10 = 5,000 February s ending inventory: March sales of 60,000 *.10 = 6,000 March s ending inventory: April sales of 50,000 *.10 = 5,000 April s ending inventory: May sales of 50,000 *.10 = 5,000 PRODUCTION BUDGET - 1 st QTR January February March 1 st Qtr total April Large shakes (sales budget) 75,000 75,000 90, ,000 75,000 + desired ending inventory 7,500 9,000 7,500 7,500 7,500 Total needed 82,500 84,000 97, ,500 82,500 Less: beginning inventory -0-7,500 9, ,500 Large shakes to produce 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

7 PRODUCTION BUDGET - 1 st QTR January February March 1 st Qtr total April Small shakes (sales budget) 50,000 50,000 60, ,000 50,000 + desired ending inventory 5,000 6,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Total needed 55,000 56,000 65, ,000 55,000 Less: beginning inventory -0-5,000 6, ,000 Small shakes to produce 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 After the number of milk shakes needed to be produced is determined, we can plan for the amount of direct materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead that will be needed. A DIRECT MATERIALS budget will need to be produced for each ingredient used to make the milk shakes. The direct materials budget for whole milk was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected milk needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost of whole milk was determined to be \$ per ounce Milk Purchases Budget 1 st quarter Large Milk Shake Production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Milk required per shake (ounces) 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces Ounces Needed for Large Milk Shake 247, , , , ,000 Production Small Milk Shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Milk required per shake (ounces) 2 ounces 2 ounces 2 ounces 2 ounces 2 ounces Ounces needed for Small Milk Shake 110, , , , ,000 Production Total Ounces Required for Production 357, , ,500 1,072, ,000 Plus: Desired ending Inventory 33,150 38,350 32,500 32,500 32,500 Total Ounces Available 390, , ,000 1,105, ,500 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-33,150 38, ,500 Total Ounces to be Purchased 390, , ,650 1,105, ,000 Cost per Ounce \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Total Cost of Milk to be Purchased \$9, \$7, \$8, \$25, \$7, DIRECT MATERIALS BUDGET CREAM. The direct materials budget for cream was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected cream needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost of cream was determined to be \$ per ounce 184 Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6) 2013

8 Cream Purchases budget 1 st Quarter Large Milk Shake production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Cream required per shake(ounces) 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces Ounces Needed for Large Milk Shake 247, , , , ,000 Production Small Milk Shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Cream required per shake(ounces) 2 ounces 2 ounces 2 ounces 2 ounces 2 ounces Ounces Needed for Small Milk Shake 110, , , , ,000 Production Total Ounces Required for Production 357, , ,500 1,072, ,000 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 33,150 38,350 32,500 32,500 32,500 Total Ounces Available 390, , ,000 1,105, ,500 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-33,150 38, ,500 Total Ounces to be Purchased 390, , ,650 1,105, ,000 Cost per Ounce \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Total Cost of Cream to be Purchased \$61, \$52, \$59, \$172, \$50, DIRECT MATERIALS BUDGET SUGAR. The direct materials budget for sugar was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected sugar needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost of sugar was determined to be \$ per cup. Sugar Purchases Budget 1 st Quarter Large Milk Shake Production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Sugar required per shake (in cups) ¾ cup ¾ cup ¾ cup ¾ cup ¾ cup Cups Needed for Large Milk Shake 61,875 57,375 66, ,625 56,250 Production Small Milk Shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Sugar required per shake (in cups) ½ cup ½ cup ½ cup ½ cup ½ cup Cups Needed for Small Milk Shake 27,500 25,500 29,500 82,500 25,000 Production Total Cups Required for Production 89,375 82,875 95, ,125 81,250 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 8,288 9,588 8,125 8,125 8,125 Total Cups Available 97,663 92, , ,250 89,375 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-8,288 9, ,125 Total Cups to be Purchased 97,663 84,175 94, ,250 81,250 Cost per Cup \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Total Cost of Sugar to be Purchased \$32, \$28, \$31, \$92, \$27, DIRECT MATERIALS BUDGET ICE CREAM. The direct materials budget for ice cream was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected ice cream needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost of ice cream was determined to be \$0.04 per ounce. Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

9 Ice Cream Purchases Budget 1 st Quarter Large Milk Shake Production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Ice Cream Required per shake 9 ounces 9 ounces 9 ounces 9 ounces 9 ounces Ounces needed for Large Milk 742, , ,500 2,227, ,000 Shake Production Small Milk Shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Ice Cream Required per shake 6 ounces 6 ounces 6 ounces 6 ounces 6 ounces Ounces needed for Small Milk 330, , , , ,000 Shake Production Total Ounces Required for 1,072, ,500 1,150,500 3,217, ,000 Production Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 99, ,050 97,500 97,500 97,500 Total Ounces Available 1,171,950 1,109,550 1,248,000 3,315,000 1,072,500 Less: Beginning -0-99, , ,500 Total Ounces to be Purchased 1,171,950 1,010,100 1,132,950 3,315, ,000 Cost per ounce \$ 0.04 \$ 0.04 \$ 0.04 \$ 0.04 \$ 0.04 Total Cost of Ice Cream to be Purchased \$46, \$40, \$45, \$132, \$39, DIRECT MATERIALS BUDGET FLAVORINGS. The direct materials budget for flavorings was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected flavoring needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost of flavorings was \$ 0.40 for a large shake and \$ 0.25 for a small shake. Flavorings Purchases Budget - 1 st Quarter Large Milk Shake Production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 7,650 8,850 7,500 7,500 7,500 Total Available 90,150 85,350 96, ,000 82,500 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-7,650 8, ,500 Total to be Purchased 90,150 77,700 87, ,000 75,000 Cost per unit \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 Total Cost of Flavorings to be Purchased for Large Milk Shakes \$36, \$31, \$34, \$102, \$30, Small Milk Shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 5,100 5,900 5,000 5,000 5,000 Total Available 60,100 56,900 64, ,000 55,000 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-5,100 5, ,000 Total to be Purchase 60,100 51,800 58, ,000 50,000 Cost per unit \$ 0.25 \$ 0.25 \$ \$ 0.25 \$ 0.25 Total Cost of Flavorings to be Purchased for Small Milk Shakes \$15, \$12, \$14, \$42, \$12, Total Cost of Flavorings to be Purchased for ALL Milk Shakes \$51, \$44, \$49, \$144, \$42, Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6) 2013

10 DIRECT MATERIALS BUDGET STRAWS. The direct materials budget for straws was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected straw needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost per straw is \$ Straws Purchases Budget 1 st Quarter Large Milk Shake Production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Small milk shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Total straws Required for Production 137, , , , ,000 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 12,750 14,750 12,500 12,500 12,500 Total Available 150, , , , ,500 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-12,750 14, ,500 Total Straws to be Purchased 150, , , , ,000 Cost per straw \$ 0.75 \$ 0.75 \$ 0.75 \$ 0.75 \$ 0.75 Total cost of straws to be Purchased \$112, \$97, \$108, \$318, \$93, DIRECT MATERIALS BUDGET CUPS. The direct materials budget for cups was prepared using the following assumptions: 10% of next month s expected cup needs are desired to be left in ending inventory as a safety cushion. Cost per cup is \$ 0.50 for a large shake and \$ 0.40 for a small shake. Cups Purchases Budget 1 st Quarter Large Milk Shake Production 82,500 76,500 88, ,500 75,000 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 7,650 8,850 7,500 7,500 7,500 Total Available 90,150 85,350 96, ,000 82,500 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-7,650 8, ,500 Total cups to be Purchased 90,150 77,700 87, ,000 75,000 Cost per Cup \$ 0.50 \$ 0.50 \$ 0.50 \$ 0.50 \$ 0.50 Total Cost of Cups to be Purchased \$45, \$38, \$43, \$127, \$37, Cups Purchases Budget 1 st Quarter Small Milk Shake Production 55,000 51,000 59, ,000 50,000 Plus: Desired Ending Inventory 5,100 5,900 5,000 5,000 5,000 Total Available 60,100 56,900 64, ,000 55,000 Less: Beginning Inventory -0-5,100 5, ,000 Total cups to be Purchased 60,100 51,800 58, ,000 50,000 Cost per Cup \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 \$ 0.40 Total Cost of Cups to be Purchased \$24, \$20, \$23, \$68, \$20, Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

11 MANUFACTURING OVERHEAD BUDGET First, we need to determine whether each manufacturing overhead expense is variable or fixed. It has been determined that all the manufacturing overhead costs are fixed, although salary of part-time workers and utilities can be variable or mixed expenses as well. Manufacturing Overhead Budget 1 st Quarter January February March Total Fixed manufacturing overhead costs: Salary of 2 part-time workers 1, , , , Rent and utilities expense , Supplies for making milk shakes Depreciation milk shake maker Depreciation refrigerator/freezer Depreciation counter tops TOTAL FIXED COSTS \$2, \$2, \$2, \$6, OPERATING BUDGET First we need to determine whether each operating budget expense is variable or fixed. It has been determined that all the operating costs are fixed. Operating Budget 1 st Quarter January February March Total Fixed operating expenses: Depreciation tables and benches Insurance expense Interest expense Advertising expense 5, , , , Accounting and bookkeeping expense , Owner s salary expense 8, , , , Dues and membership expense Licenses and Permits expense Maintenance expense , Office supplies expense Depreciation sign TOTAL FIXED COSTS \$14, \$14, \$14, \$43, Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6) 2013

12 So what is the BUDGETED MANUFACTURING COST FOR ONE UNIT: Direct Materials Variable Costs per unit: Ingredient Cost Small Large Whole milk \$15 for 640 oz per oz Cream \$20 for 128 oz per oz Sugar \$10 for 30 cups per cup Premium Vanilla Ice Cream \$24 for 600 oz per oz Flavorings Flavored Specialty Straws Cups-8 ounces \$200 for 500 cups per cup 0.40 Cups-12 ounces \$250 for 500 cups per cup 0.50 TOTAL DIRECT MATERIAL COST PER UNIT \$2.17 \$2.80 LARGE MILK SHAKES per the PRODUCTION budget we expect to produce 1,580,000 in the first Year: (125, , , , , , , , , , , ,000). (1) Direct materials cost per milk shake: = 2.80 (2) Manufacturing overhead: Fixed (\$2, *12months * 60% per quarter)/ 1,580,000 = milk shakes = 0.01 Cost of manufacturing each large milk shake = \$2.81 SMALL MILK SHAKES per the PRODUCTION budget we expect to produce 165,000 in the first quarter. (1) Direct materials cost per milk shake: = 2.17 (2) Manufacturing overhead: Fixed (\$2, * 12 months * 40% per quarter)/ 1,580,000 = milk shakes = 0.01 Cost of manufacturing each small milk shake = \$2.18 Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

13 PROJECTED INCOME STATEMENT MONTH OF JANUARY Large (60%) Small (40%) Total Number of milk shakes expected to be sold 75,000 50, ,000 Sales price per milk shake (less resort fee) \$9.00 \$6.30 Cost of goods sold per milk shake \$2.81 \$2.18 Sales \$675,000 \$315,000 \$990,000 Less: cost of goods sold \$211,500 \$109,500 \$321,000 Gross Profit \$463,500 \$205,500 \$669,000 Less: Operating expenses 26,150 17,434 43,584 Operating Income \$437,350 \$188,066 \$625,416 Income tax expense (income tax rate = 35%) \$153,073 \$ 65,823 \$218,896 Net Income \$284,277 \$122,243 \$406,520 Due to global warming, demand for milk shares was much larger than expected. The amount of large milk shakes actually sold in January were 85,000 (10,000 over budget) while the amount of small milk shakes actually sold in January were 45,000 (5,000 under budget). The budgets prepared above were planned prior to the beginning of the year and are valid for the planned level of sales activity. If the actual level of sales activity differs from the planned level, comparing our budgets above with actual results may lead to incorrect conclusions about performance. Therefore we must prepare a FLEXIBLE budget that adjusts revenues and expenses given the actual level of sales activity that occurred. Large Milk Shakes - Flexible Budget Performance Report for the Month ended January 31 Planned Budget based on budgeted sales of 75,000 milk Activity and Spending Variances Actual results based on actual sales of 85,000 milk shakes Spending Variances Flexible budget based on actual sales of 85,000 milk shakes shakes Revenue (\$9.00q) \$675,000 90,000 F \$765,000 \$765,000 Less: Cost of goods \$211,500 8,500 U \$220,000 19,700 F \$239,700 sold (\$2.82q) Gross Profit \$463,500 81,500 F \$545,000 19,700 F \$525,300 Less: Operating 26,150 1,600 U 27,750 1,600 U 26,150 expenses Operating Income \$437,350 79,900 F \$517,250 18,100 F \$499,150 Income tax expense \$153,073 \$181,038 \$174,703 (tax rate = 35%) Net Income \$284,277 \$336,212 \$324, Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6) 2013

14 Small Milk Shakes - Flexible Budget Performance Report for the Month ended January 31 Planned Budget based on budgeted sales of 50,000 milk Activity and Spending Variances Actual results based on actual sales of 45,000 milk shakes Spending Variances Flexible budget based on actual sales of 45,000 milk shakes shakes Revenue (\$6.30q) \$315,000 31,500 U \$283,500 \$283,500 Less: Cost of goods \$109,500 9,000 F \$100,500 1,950 U \$98,550 sold (\$2.19q) Gross Profit \$205,500 22,500 U \$183,000 1,950 U \$184,950 Less: Operating 17, U 17, U 17,434 expenses Operating Income \$188,066 22,616 U \$165,450 2,066 U \$167,516 Income tax expense \$ 65,823 \$57,907 \$58,613 (tax rate = 35%) Net Income \$122,243 \$107,543 \$108,885 CONCLUSION This case integrates key concepts of Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis, and Flexible Budgeting in a case study-setting to enable students to understand the different stages involved in starting up a business, preparing required budgets, projecting out results, monitoring business performance, and reconciling variances between projected and actual results. We show students the importance of these key practical yet very relevant management-accounting tools, all done in one integrative setting instead of teaching those concepts separately. Furthermore, our case study accomplishes these goals in a dynamic simulationstyle exercise that allows students to make their own assumptions about key input variables needed in the analysis and witness firsthand how changes in these assumptions impact their business performance results. Students often wonder how they can use and integrate concepts learned throughout different accounting courses with other business courses in the areas of finance, management and marketing. This case accomplishes precisely this very goal by enabling students who go through the exercise which the case presents to apply what they learned in various business disciplines in an integrated and comprehensible way. It is often viewed that flexible budgeting is a key starting point for developing a full cost-accounting system and subsequent analyses of variances between budgeted and actual results in an effort to improve cost control and operational performance. This case provides the necessary tools to both business school students in general, as well as accounting students in particular who will move on to higher-level accounting courses such as a cost-management class, typically taken in their major, to understand the full picture needed to start and maintain a successful small business. REFERENCES Choo, F. & Tan K.B. (2011). An Income Statement Approach for Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis by Using a Company s CVP Model. Journal of Accounting and Finance, 11(4), Garrison, R.H, Noreen E., & Brewer P.C. (2010). Managerial Accounting, 12 th edition. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Horngren, C.T., Datar, S.M., & Rajan, M. (2012). Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis, 14 th edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6)

15 Machuga. (2012). A Case Method Approach to Teaching Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis. Journal of Accounting and Finance, 12(5), The Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism of the State of Hawaii (Hawaii.gov/debdt ). APPENDIX: LOAN AMORTIZATION SCHEDULE: Beginning Balance Payment Interest Expense Principle reduction Ending balance 20, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Journal of Accounting and Finance vol. 13(6) 2013

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