Calibration of ultrasonic meters using small volume provers. Dr Gregor Brown Research Director Caldon Ultrasonics

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1 Calibration of ultrasonic meters using small volume provers Dr Gregor Brown Research Director Caldon Ultrasonics

2 Introduction Background Challenges associated with calibrating ultrasonic meters using small volume provers API Chapter 5.8 guidelines Improvements that can be achieved Summary and conclusions

3 Why use small volume provers? Traceable calibration of ultrasonic meters can be performed in a calibration laboratory or in the field Reliance on laboratory calibration requires great care at each stage Meter selection Specification of calibration conditions Avoidance of installation effects

4 Advantages of field calibration (proving) Calibrating a meter in the field removes some of the uncertainty related to fluid properties and installation conditions No need to periodically remove and return the meter to a calibration laboratory

5 Disadvantages of proving Installation of a prover can be more costly both in terms of capital and maintenance In practice, a requirement for in-situ proving could limit the size of ultrasonic flow meter that can be used

6 Small Volume Provers By small volume prover we mean a piston style prover, often called small volume, compact or portable provers as they can be smaller in size than their ball prover equivalents

7 Small Volume Prover Standby Start and End Detector Switches Invar Rod Prover Body Spring Plenum Hydraulic System Inlet Outlet From Meter

8 Small Volume Provers The essential difference between a piston prover and a ball prover is the enhanced resolution of the detector switches, hence allowing the same uncertainty to be achieved with a smaller volume

9 Challenges for ultrasonic meters The small volume of piston provers results in two specific challenges for ultrasonic meters A short time for each calibration run Only a small volume of flowing fluid is passed though the meter for each run These might sound like the same thing, but they relate to two different aspects of meter performance

10 Short time per calibration run Ultrasonic meters measure the flow electronically and hence sample the flow, perform calculations and then update an electronic output Too low a sampling rate, or a significant delay between sampling and output, will result in errors when the flowrate changes during proving

11 Short time per calibration run This is recognised in API Chapter 5.8, Appendix C Manufactured Flow Pulses and Their Impact on the Proving Process

12 Sampling and update rate Caldon meters perform approximately 400 velocity measurements a second and update the flowrate output at a rate between 50 and 100 Hz depending on meter model If the flow rate variations during proving are not too If the flow rate variations during proving are not too extreme, this is sufficient to minimise synchronisation uncertainties

13 What about the second issue?

14 Performance of modern electronics Modern transit time ultrasonic meter electronics allow measurement of transit time differences with sub nanosecond accuracy This can be verified at zero flow conditions Yet when we use the meters in flowing conditions Yet when we use the meters in flowing conditions the variability is greater

15 Flow effect on variability of measurements Flowrate (m3/hr) Standard deviation Flowrate Standard deviation of transit time difference (ns) 0 09:21:36 09:28:48 09:36:00 09:43:12 09:50:24 09:57:36 10:04:48 0 Time

16 Variability in percentage terms Standard deviation (%) 1 m/s 3 m/s 5 m/s 7 m/s 9 m/s 10 m/s Path number

17 This instability of reading is caused by turbulence

18 Turbulence Leonardo da Vinci ( ) First to attempt scientific study of turbulence (turbolenza): placed obstructions in water and observed the result: Observe the motion of the surface of the water, which resembles that of hair, which has two motions, of which one is caused by the weight of the hair, the other by the direction of the curls; thus the water has eddying motions, one part of which is due to the principal current, the other to random and reverse motion.

19 So what are the practical implications of the effects of turbulence?

20 Transit times with flow Transit Time t up t down

21 Flow with turbulence

22 Averaging the random turbulence Average velocity with superimposed turbulence Average velocity Ultrasonic velocity sample

23 Averaging the random turbulence Average velocity with superimposed turbulence Average velocity Ultrasonic velocity sample

24 Averaging the random turbulence Average velocity with superimposed turbulence Average velocity Ultrasonic velocity sample

25 Averaging the random turbulence Average velocity with superimposed turbulence Average velocity Ultrasonic velocity sample

26 Averaging the random turbulence

27 Larger volumes and more runs The effects of turbulence are random and are reduced by averaging It is not the sample rate of the meter that is the limiting factor in terms of repeatability, it is the frequency of the turbulence This fact is recognised in API Chapter 5.8, which allows for more runs to be used, and acknowledges that owing to the effects of turbulence, larger prover volumes are normally required for ultrasonic meters

28 API recommended volumes 600 Suggested Volume (barrels) runs, equation 5 8 runs, equation 5 10 runs, equation 5 5 runs, API B-2 8 runs, API B-2 10 runs, API B Meter diameter (inches)

29 How can we apply this to SVPs? First we have to choose the size a small volume prover that we are going to use We do this by considering the flow capacity of the prover and also with due consideration of the resulting prove time compared to update rate of the meter Once we know our prover size we have to use a sufficient number passes per run to accumulate the volume suggested by API

30 Prover volume vs flowrate Displaced volume (m 3 ) Daniel Brooks Calibron SyncoTrak Flow Management Devices 8-inch ultrasonic meter y = 1.379E-04x 16-inch ultrasonic meter Maximum flowrate (m 3 /hr)

31 So how many passes are required? Even if the prover is sized to cover the full range of the meter, then to accumulate the API suggested volumes (for a meter factor uncertainty of 0.027%), typically more than 300 passes in total are required Ouch!

32 Can improvements be made? A number of things can potentially be done to improve performance Increasing the sample rate used in the meter has limited effect on its own but can help when combined with flow conditioning measures A test programmed carried out in the Cameron laboratories has demonstrated that significant levels of improvement can be achieved

33 Test programme Tests carried out using a 6-inch meter with a reducing nozzle (4-inch throat) The meter was tested directly against a 120 litre Brooks small volume prover The meter body had eight paths and could be tested as either a four or eight path meter Tests were conducted with and without a Cameron designed turbulence conditioner

34 Test programme Tests carried out using a 6-inch meter with a reducing nozzle (4-inch throat) Tested directly against a 120 litre Brooks small volume prover The meter body had eight paths and could be tested as either a four or eight path meter Tests were conducted with an without a proprietary turbulence conditioner

35 Example data sets path meter 25 Hz sample frequency path meter 50 Hz sample frequency Pulse count Pulse count Pass number Pass number

36 Caldon meter with reducing nozzle Reducing nozzle shaped inlet Substantial diameter/area reduction Beta < 0.64, area ratio < 0.41 Downstream pressure recovery cone

37

38 Diagnostic data indicating improved repeatability 8% 7% Meter with reducing nozzle Meter without reducing nozzle Path velocity standard deivation 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% Path number

39 Presentation of proving data Results are presented in the form of a provability factor The basis of this factor is described in the paper presented at South East Asia flow measurement workshop in March this year It is used to describe the proving performance of a meter design independent of the size of the meter, or the size of the prover used to perform the tests

40 Provability factor The fluid volume required to achieve a given proving performance is proportional to the provability factor Therefore the smaller the provability factor the better The API Chapter 5.8 suggested volumes correspond to a provability factor equal to x10-5

41 4-path meter with reducing nozzle 2.5E E-05 Provability factor,p 1.5E E m3/hr, 35 psi plenum pressure 192 m3/hr, 75 psi plenum pressure 320 m3/hr, 35 psi plenum pressure 320 m3/hr, 75 psi plenum pressure P corresponding to API table b-2 Caldon standard 4-path meter vs SVP 5.0E E Flow sampling and update rate (Hz)

42 Eight paths vs four paths 3.5E E E-06 Provability factor, p 2.0E E E-06 4-path configuration, 185 m3/hr 4-path configuration, 320 m3/hr 5.0E-07 8-path configuration, 330 m3/hr 0.0E Flow sampling and update rate (Hz)

43 Turbulence conditioning It has been shown already that the repeatability of the measurements is affected by natural turbulence This creates the opportunity to improve performance by adding a turbulence conditioning device upstream of the meter The job the conditioner has to do is different to that of a normal flow conditioner

44 Turbulence conditioning It divides the flow into smaller channels thus restricting the size of the turbulent eddies Reduces variability in the samples by averaging along/within the path Increases the turbulence frequency It should be placed close to the meter so that natural turbulence does not redevelop between the conditioner and the meter

45 Turbulence conditioner

46 Turbulence conditioner As the conditioner has small openings, in practice it may be necessary to use a strainer upstream

47 Diagnostic data indicating improved repeatability Path velocity standard deivation 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% Meter with reducing nozzle Meter without reducing nozzle Meter with reducing nozzle and turbulence conditioner 1% 0% Path number

48 4 and 8 paths with turbulence conditioner 3.0E E-06 4-path configuration, no conditioner 4-path configuration, with conditioner at 0D 8-path configuration, no condtioner 8-path configuration, conditoner at 0D 8-path configuration, conditioner at 4D Provability factor, p 2.0E E E E E Flowrate (m 3 /hr)

49 Summary comparison Green = SVP with < 10 passes per run Pipe diameter (inches) Prover volume vs meter size for 5 runs with 0.05% spread 4-path meter with reducing 8-path meter with reducing API path meter 8-path meter Table with with nozzle and B-2 reducing reducing turbulence nozzle nozzle conditioner Prover size (barrels) nozzle and turbulence conditioner

50 CONCLUSIONS Ultrasonic meters are fundamentally different from turbine and PD meters and have to be treated differently Sample rate and calculation delays can result in errors if the meter s electronics are not of a sufficiently fast design

51 CONCLUSIONS API chapter 5.8 gives recommendations in terms of proving volume and number of runs based on an assumed meter performance The API suggested volumes result in a large number of passes per run when using a SVP Combined with some ultrasonic meters having lower sampling rates and/or longer calculation delays this has resulted in a widely held perception that ultrasonic meters can not be calibrated directly using a SVP

52 CONCLUSIONS The test data presented in this paper shows that dramatic reductions in proving volume requirements can be achieved by changes to meter design or by use of specialised flow conditioning Combined with fast sampling and update rates, this means that ultrasonic meters can be calibrated directly using small volume provers using only a small number of passes per run

53 THANK YOU QUESTIONS?

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