# WORST-CASE PERFORMANCE LIMITATION OF TCP SACK AND A FEASIBLE SOLUTION

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3 For the rest of the paper, we use the first alternative. However, the second alternative is clearly more efficient as it saves more space in the TCP options field. From the proposed format shown in Fig. 2 note that: Since the sequence numbers range from 0 to , the maximum value that X can take is 32. We need 5 bits to send the value of X. To keep it simple, we allocate 1 byte for this purpose. This is the extra byte that the new format has after the Length field, labeled 'X'. The first field after 'X' will be the right edge of the 1st block - a 32-bit sequence number. The next field (O 12 ) is the offset of the left edge of the 1 st block with respect to the right edge. We can represent this number using X bits (not the usual 32 bits!). All the offsets are computed with respect to the right edge of the 1st block, as this is the only absolute 32-bit sequence number that will be sent to the data sender. At the TCP sender side, when it receives an ACK with SACK data in it, it reads the value of X and A. Then, using blocks of X bits, it reads all the offset values and recreates the edges by subtracting the offset from the value of A. B. Example It is easier to understand the proposed changes using an example. The following is one of the examples used in RFC 2018 [1]. It is used here so that the difference can be compared. Assume the starting sequence number is 5000 and that the data transmitter sends a burst of 8 segments, each containing 500 data bytes. In the presented scenario, every other segment (2 nd, 4 th, 6 th etc.) is lost. Table 2 illustrates how the current implementation handles the scenario and Table 3 shows the case of the proposed implementation. Table 2. Case with the current implementation Triggering First Block Second Block Third Block Forth Block ACKS Segment L edge R L R L R L R (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) Table 3. Case with the proposed implementation Triggering First Block Second Block Third Block Forth Block Fifth Block ACKs Segment R L R L R L R L R L (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) (Lost) (Lost)

5 bad state) at the current sampling instant, then with probability p (respectively q) it will continue to be in the good state (respectively bad state) at the next instant also and with a probability 1-p (resp. 1-q) the transition to the bad state (respectively good state) takes place. When the link is in the good state (respectively bad state), each packet may be corrupted with the probability α (resp. β). The values used in the simulation are given in Table 4. Table 4. Parameter values used in two state error model Variable Source to Destination to Destination Source t t P q α β Table 5 below shows the throughput measured for different periods of trial runs. Each value in the table is the average of measured throughputs from ten runs. Table 5. Throughput over different trial run time periods No- Offset (Kbps) Offset (Kbps) 50s 60s 120s 300s 600s The above results clearly show that when TCP connections are established over a long period of time, under the error conditions simulated, the new modification to SACK that we have suggested performs better than the existing implementation. We see that the new implementation of SACK always gives a better throughput. VI. CONCLUSION Current SACK implementation has the limitation of being able to send a maximum of only 3 or 4 SACK blocks with each ACK. In this paper we propose an alternate representation for the SACK blocks in the option field of the TCP segment for TCP SACK implementation to overcome this limitation. Using examples and simulations, we showed that the modified implementation of SACK produces better TCP performance in terms of the throughput obtained, and makes the SACK mechanism more resilient to the high packet error rates often seen in wireless scenarios. REFERENCES [1] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, A. Romanow, TCP selective acknowledgment and options, RFC 2018, IETF, October [2] V. Jacobson, R. Braden, D. Borman, TCP Extensions for High Performance, RFC 1323, IETF, May [3] S. McCanne, S. Floyd, ns-2 Network Simulator - [4] S. Floyd, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, M. Podolsky, An Extension to the Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Option for TCP, RFC 2883, IETF, July [5] K. Fall, S. Floyd, Simulation based Comparisons of Tahoe, Reno, and SACK TCP, Computer Communications Review, vol.26, pp 5-21, [6] M. Allman, D.Glover, NASA Lewis, L. Sanchez, Enhancing TCP Over Satellite Channels Using Standard Mechanisms, RFC 2488, IETF, January [7] S. Floyd, Issues with TCP SACK, Technical Report, LBL Network Group, [8] A. Romanow, S. Floyd, Dynamics of TCP traffic over ATM Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 13 No. 4, p , 1995.

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