Student Review Sheet Matter & Energy Semester B Examination

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1 Matter & Energy Semester B Examination Test Description Length: 2 hours Items: 59 SR (~85%), 2 BCRs (~15%) Unit Approximate Number of Selected Response Items Science Process Skills 13 Molecules to Atoms 16 Physical Change 4 Solutions and Their Properties 4 Chemical Changes & Bonding 12 Chemical & Nuclear Reactions 10 Totals 59 The vocabulary terms and objectives are grouped into units for your convenience. Some items may occur in multiple units during the semester. The vocabulary includes terms that students may encounter when reading examination items. Some Vocabulary for the Exam: Skills & Processes balance beaker bunsen burner conclusion control data density dependent variable experiment graduated cylinder hypothesis independent variable models reliability range (of data) scientific notation thermometer volume X-axis and Y-axis Atoms to Molecules acid atom atomic number bond charge compound electron electron cloud energy level family fission formula unit fusion group half-life ion ionic bond isotope mass number metal molecule monomer neutron nucleus (nuclei) oxidation number period periodic table polar proton radioactive subatomic particle valence electron Physical Change average kinetic energy boiling point energy freezing point gas heating curve liquid mass melting point phase change phases of matter physical change solid states of matter Chemical Changes & Bonding chemical reaction products Matter & Energy Semester B Examination 1 Montgomery County Public Schools

2 reactants reactivity synthesis Solution and Their Properties acid (strong vs. weak) base (strong vs. weak) concentration indicator ph precipitate solubility solute solution solvent universal solvent Chemical & Nuclear Reactions alpha particle balanced equation beta particle catalyst conservation of energy decay decomposition fission fusion gamma Law of Conservation of Matter reaction rate Upon successful completion of Semester B the student should be able to: Skills and Processes read and interpret a technical passage. interpret graphs and diagrams. check graphs to determine that they do not misrepresent results. recognize safe laboratory procedures. identify meaningful, answerable, scientific questions. identify appropriate methods for conducting an investigation. identify the hypothesis of an experiment. identify the control in an experiment. distinguish between a dependent variable and an independent variable. identify the appropriate instruments and materials needed to conduct an experiment. defend the need for verifiable data. organize data using appropriate techniques. identify trends revealed by data. analyze data to form conclusions. use analyzed data to confirm, modify or reject a hypothesis. express large numbers using scientific notation. Molecules to Atoms determine the number of protons or neutrons in an element. explain how a neutral atom becomes an ion. determine the number of atoms of an element in a compound based on the formula. determine the ratio of elements found in a compound from a model. identify properties of subatomic particles. identify the shape of a polar or non- polar molecule. describe the relationship between polar solvents and ions. Chemical Changes and Bonding predict which element will be more reactive based on its location in the periodic table. predict the number of valence electrons in an element based on its location in the Matter & Energy Semester B Examination 2 Montgomery County Public Schools

3 periodic table. predict the oxidation number of an element based on its location in the periodic table. predict the number of atoms in a compound using oxidation numbers. predict the location of an element in the periodic table based on the number of electrons in its outer energy level. identify the correct formula for a compound given the oxidation numbers. describe how an ionic bond forms between atoms. identify the formula of a monomer that bonds to form a polymer. Physical Change use a heating curve to identify states of matter. use a heating curve to identify where phase changes occur. use a heating curve to identify changes in kinetic energy of a substance. Solutions and Their Properties identify the solute and solvent in a solution. compare the solubility of two solids in water. characterize substances as acids of bases according to ph value. Chemical and Nuclear Reactions identify factors that change the rates of chemical reactions identify the equation for a synthesis reaction. explain the Law of Conservation of Matter utilizing data. identify equations that illustrate the Law of Conservation of Matter. identify a decomposition reaction. identify the process during which atoms split or fuse. calculate amount of decay based on the half-life of an element. BCRs were put on the exam review sheets to encourage appropriate student collaboration and review of concepts in preparation for the entire exam (not just the BCRs). Teachers should not address these BCRs during the course of their instruction nor should they assist in preparing students for the BCRs during exam review. Students are able to collaborate and use other resources to review and solidify concepts. Students should be prepared to answer any of the following BCRs. Teachers will select TWO from the list below on the day of the exam: Matter & Energy Semester B Examination 3 Montgomery County Public Schools

4 BCR: Phase Change Rubbing alcohol is a compound used to cleanse and cool the skin. When wiped on skin, it seems to disappear quickly and leaves the skin feeling cooler. Explain what happens to the rubbing alcohol s molecules as they disappear. Be sure to include the following: The phase of matter that the alcohol is in before and after it disappears The name of the phase change that occurs The changes that occur to the molecules position and molecular movement during the phase change The source and role of energy in this phase change BCR: Steel Wool Two students design an experiment to test the Law of Conservation of Mass. They observe that steel wool rusts if left out in the air for a long time. The equation for the rusting of steel wool is: 4Fe + 3O 2 2Fe 2 O 3 They determine the initial mass of a piece steel wool. They soak the steel wool in some water to make the reaction go faster. They place the wet steel wool in a dish for a few days. After two days, they allow the steel wool to dry. Then, they observe the steel wool and determine the final mass. Their results are shown below. RUSTING OF STEEL WOOL Initial Final Observations Mass Mass 10.0 g 13.2 g Steel wool turned brown and powdery. The students concluded that their experiment violated the Law of Conservation of Mass. Was the students conclusion correct? In your response, be sure to state the Law of Conservation of Mass. describe why the students concluded that the experiment violated the Law of Conservation of Mass. support your response with evidence from the equation. Matter & Energy Semester B Examination 4 Montgomery County Public Schools

5 BCR: Helium Helium is located on the Periodic Table at the top of Group 18. The atomic number of helium is 2. Its average atomic mass is He Helium How does a model of helium help explain the current atomic theory? In your response, be sure to explain why models of atoms are used. draw and label a model of the helium atom. label the protons, neutrons, electrons, nucleus, and electron cloud. compare the masses of the proton, neutron, and electron. compare the charges of the proton, neutron, and electron. Matter & Energy Semester B Examination 5 Montgomery County Public Schools

6 BCR: Conductivity A student designs an experiment to test if ionic or covalent compounds can conduct electricity. She mixes sugar (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) with pure water in one beaker and salt (NaCl) with pure water in another beaker. She then tests to determine if either combination will conduct electricity. She allows electricity to flow through each combination, and then through an electric light bulb. She then observes in which case the bulb lights up. In your answer, be sure to include the following: Identify which compound is ionic and which is covalent. Your prediction as to which combination (sugar and water or salt and water) would conduct electricity Why one, both or neither would conduct electricity The difference between ionic and covalent compounds The following information will be provided in the test book for students to use during their exam: Science Rubric for BCRs Periodic Table of the Elements Matter & Energy Semester B Examination 6 Montgomery County Public Schools

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