Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of Trunk and Lower Extremity Exercises

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1 Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of and Lower 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscular Analysis of & Lower Strength, endurance, & flexibility of the lower extremity, trunk, & muscles are very important in skillful physical performance & body maintenance Whether the muscle is lengthening or shortening during movement determines contraction type Muscles may shorten or lengthen in the absence of a contraction through passive movement caused by other contracting muscles, momentum, gravity, or external forces such as manual assistance machines 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscular Analysis of & Lower Concentric contractions shortening contraction of muscles against gravity or resistance Eccentric contraction muscle lengthens under tension to control the joints moving with gravity or resistance Muscular Analysis of & Lower Quadriceps contracts eccentrically when the body slowly lowers in a weightbearing movement through lower extremity action functions as a decelerator to knee joint in weight-bearing movements by contracting eccentrically to prevent too rapid of a downward movement slow descent is eccentric & ascent from the squatted position is concentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

2 Muscular Analysis of & Lower Quadriceps function in squatting descent at the same speed as gravity, essentially under no muscular control, the muscle lengthening would be passive movement & change in muscle length would be caused by gravity, not by active muscular contraction Free Weight-Training Exercises Exercise with weights is a commonly used means of developing & maintaining muscular strength in young people & adults When using free weights it is important to ensure that one group of muscles is not overdeveloped and another is underdeveloped Thorough knowledge of muscles being used is essential 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Sit-up, bent knee Participant lies on back, forearms crossed and lying across chest, with knees flexed 90 degrees & feet about hip-width apart s & knees are flexed in this manner to reduce hip flexor length, thereby reducing their contribution to sit-up & allow more emphasis on s Participant curls up to a sitting position, rotates trunk to right, touches left elbow to right knee Returns to starting position Rotate to left on next repetition 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Cervical spine Sit-up, bent knee Curling phase to sitting-up position Agonists Cervical spine flexors Sternocleidomastoid flexors Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique flexors Rotating to right phase Agonists Maintenance of cervical Right lumbar rotation Maintenance of hip Cervical spine flexors (isometric Sternocleidomastoid Right lumbar rotators R) Rectus abdominis L) External oblique R) Internal oblique R) Erector spinae flexors (isometric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

3 Maintenance flexors of hip Sit-up, bent knee Return phase to sitting-up position Return phase to starting position Agonists Agonists Cervical Maintenance Cervical spine flexors Cervical spine flexors spine of cervical (isometric (eccentric Sternocleidomastoid Sternocleidomastoid Left lumbar Right lumbar rotators flexors (eccentric rotation to (eccentric neutral R) Rectus abdominis Rectus abdominis position L) External oblique External oblique R) Internal oblique Internal oblique R) Erector spinae flexors (eccentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Alternating Prone s Participant lies prone position, with the shoulders fully flexed in a relaxed position lying in front of the body Participant raises head, upper trunk, & thighs from the floor Knees are kept in full extension Then return to starting position 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Shoulder Shoulder girdle Adduction Alternating Prone s Agonists in Lifting Shoulder joint flexors Pectoralis major (clavicular head or upper fibers) Deltoid Coracobrachialis Shoulder girdle adductors Trapezius Rhomboids extensors Erector spinae Splenius Abduction (return to neutral relaxed position) Agonists in Lowering Shoulder joint flexors (eccentric Pectoralis major (clavicular head or upper fibers) Deltoid Coracobrachialis Shoulder girdle adductors (eccentric Trapezius Rhomboids & cervical spine extensors (eccentric Erector spinae Splenius extensors (eccentric extensors (return to neutral relaxed position) All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education Squat Participant places a barbell on the shoulders behind the neck and grasps it with palmsforward position of hands Participant squats down until thighs are parallel to floor, keeping back straight Return to starting position Ensure that the shins remain as vertical 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

4 Squat Agonists in Lowering extensors (eccentric Knee Knee extensors (eccentric Ankle Dorsi Plantar flexors (eccentric Plantar Agonists in Lifting extensors Knee extensors Plantar flexors 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Dead Lift Participant begins in hip flexed position, keeping arms, legs, & back straight, and grasps the barbell on the floor Move to standing position is made by extending the hips Lumbar extensors must be utilized as isometric stabilizers of the low back while the hip extensors perform the majority of the lift in this exercise 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Wrist & hand Maintenance of extension Dead Lift Agonists in Lifting Wrist & hand flexors (isometric extensors (isometric Erector spinae (sacrospinalis) extensors Knee Knee extensors (quadriceps) 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Wrist & hand Maintenance of extension Dead Lift Agonists in Lowering Wrist & hand flexors (isometric extensors (isometric Erector spinae (sacrospinalis) extensors (eccentric Knee Knee extensors (quadriceps) (eccentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

5 Isometric Exercises An exercise technique in which there is contraction of muscle groups with no appreciable muscle shortening not as productive in terms of overall strength gains as isotonics an effective way to build & maintain muscular strength in a limited range of motion Contractions should be held approximately 7-10 seconds for a training effect Abdominal Contraction Participant contracts anterior region muscles as strongly as possible without moving the trunk or hips Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominis 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Participant sits on a bench or chair with the knees slightly bent & with left leg over right Attempt to raise right leg while resisting it with left leg Leg Lifter 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Leg Lifter Agonists in Right Attempting Upward Ankle Dorsi Ankle dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Peroneus tertius Knee Knee extensors (quadriceps) flexors Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae Plantar Agonists in Left Resisting Upward Plantar flexors Gastrocenemius Knee flexors (hamstrings) Semimbranosus extensors Semimbranosus 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

6 Sled Participant lies supine with the knees & hips flexed in a position close to chest Feet are placed on the apparatus plate Knees & hips are extended completely to move the plate upward Return to the starting position 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Ankle Plantar Knee Agonists in Pushing Ankle plantar flexors Knee extensors (quadriceps) extensors Sled Agonists in Lowering Dorsi Ankle plantar flexors (eccentric Knee extensors (quadriceps) (eccentric extensors (eccentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Rowing Exercise Participant sits on a movable seat with knees & hips flexed close to the chest Arms are reaching forward to grasp a horizontal bar Legs are extended forcibly as arms are pulled toward chest Return to starting position 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Foot & ankle Plantar Rowing Exercise Agonists in arm pull/leg push Ankle plantarflexors Knee Quadriceps (knee extensors) extensors extensors Erector spinae Agonists in return to starting Dorsi Ankle dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Peroneus tertius Knee flexors (hamstrings) flexors flexors Rectus abdominis Internal oblique 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. External oblique

7 Shoulder Adduction, girdle downward rotation, & depression Shoulder joint Elbow joint Shoulder joint extensors Latissimus dorsi Teres major Posterior deltoid Teres minor Infraspinatus Elbow joint flexors Brachialis Brachioradialis Rowing Exercise Agonists in arm pull/leg push Shoulder girdle adductors, downward rotators, & depressors Trapezius (lower) Rhomboid Pectoralis minor Agonists in return to starting Abduction, Shoulder girdle adductors, downward upward rotators, & depressors (eccentric rotation, & elevation Trapezius (lower) Rhomboid Pectoralis minor Shoulder joint extensors (eccentric Latissimus dorsi Teres major Posterior deltoid Teres minor Infraspinatus Elbow joint flexors (eccentric Brachialis Brachioradialis Wrist & Wrist & hand flexors (isometric Wrist & hand flexors (isometric hand Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher

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