Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes

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1 Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes CHEMISTRY August 29,

2 Brainteaser Define physical and chemical change (in your own words). Is this picture of a physical or a chemical change? Explain your reasoning 2

3 Properties of Matter Substances Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition is called a substance, also known as a pure substance. For example: Table salt Water 3

4 Properties of Matter Substances Why is seawater NOT an example of a substance? Seawater, on the other hand, is not a substance because samples taken from different locations will probably have differing compositions. That is, they will contain differing amounts of water, salts, and other dissolved substances. 4

5 Physical Properties of Matter A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample s composition. Physical properties describe pure substances, too. NOT IN NOTES SORRY 5

6 Physical Properties & Changes Characteristics of a substance that can be observed without altering the identity of the substance. State, density,, color, odor,, melting point, boiling point,, luster, conductivity, brittleness,, malleability. NOT IN NOTES SORRY 6

7 Physical Change Does not alter the identity of a substance Crushing, tearing, changes of state (solid to liquid to gas) NOT IN NOTES SORRY 7

8 Extensive and Intensive Properties Physical properties can be further described as being one of two types. Extensive properties are dependent upon the amount of substance present. For example, mass, which depends on the amount of substance there is, is an extensive property. Length and volume are also extensive properties. 8

9 Extensive and Intensive Properties Intensive properties are independent of the amount of substance present. Density is an example of an intensive property of matter. Density of a substance (at constant temperature and pressure) is the same no matter how much substance is present. 9

10 Chemical Properties of Matter Chemical property : The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances. Rusting is an example of a chemical property of iron Similarly, the inability of a substance into change into another substance is also a chemical property. Resistance of iron to undergo change in the presence of nitrogen. 10

11 Chemical Changes Characteristics of a substance that cannot be observed without altering the identity of the substance. Reactivity,, flammability, reaction types Alter the identity or chemistry of substance Burning, cooking, rusting 11

12 States of Matter The physical state of a substance is a physical property of that substance. Each of the three common states of matter can be distinguished by the way it fills a container. 12

13 Solids A solid is a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume. For example: Wood, iron, paper, and sugar 13

14 Solids The particles of matter in a solid are very tightly packed; when heated, a solid expands, but only slightly. Because its shape is definite, a solid may not conform to the shape of the container in which it is placed. 14

15 Liquids A liquid is a form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. Examples: Water, blood, mercury 15

16 Liquids The particles in a liquid are not rigidly held in place and are less closely packed than are the particles in a solid. This allows a liquid to flow and take the shape of its container, although it may not completely fill the container. 16

17 Liquids Because of the way the particles of a liquid are packed, liquids are virtually incompressible. Like solids, liquids tend to expand only slightly when heated. 17

18 Gases A gas is a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of its container. Compared to solids and liquids, the particles of gases are very far apart. Because of the significant amount of space between particles, gases are easily compressed. 18

19 Plasma Plasmas or ionized gases can exist at temperatures starting at several thousand degrees Celsius ( C).( Two examples of plasma are the charged air produced by lightning,, and a star such as our own sun. 19

20 Physical Changes A substance often undergoes changes that result in a dramatically different appearance yet leave the composition of the substance unchanged. An example is the crumpling of a sheet of aluminum foil. 20

21 Chemical Changes Chemical properties relate to the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances. A process that involves one or more substances changing into NEW substances is called a chemical change, which is commonly referred to as a chemical reaction. 21

22 Chemical Changes The new substances formed in the reaction have different compositions and different properties from the substances present before the reaction occurred. 22

23 Chemical Changes Rust is a chemical combination of iron and oxygen. In chemical reactions, the starting substances are called reactants and the new substances that are formed are called products. 23

24 Conservation of Mass By carefully measuring mass before and after many chemical reactions, it was observed that, although chemical changes occurred, the total mass involved in the reaction remained constant. 24

25 Conservation of mass The law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction it is conserved. The law of conservation of mass is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. 25

26 Conservation of Mass The equation form of the law of conservation of mass is: 26

27 Review Questions Identify each of the following as an example of a chemical change or a physical change. Moisture in the air forms beads of water on a cold windowpane. An electric current changes water into hydrogen and oxygen. Yeast cells in bread dough make carbon dioxide an ethanol from sugar. 27

28 Review Questions A reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrogen chloride gas produces sodium chloride and water. A reaction of g of sodium hydroxide with g of hydrogen chloride gives off g of water. What mass of sodium chloride is formed in the reaction? 28

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