Events Which Led To Civil War

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1 Events Which Led To Civil War By Kimberly Klepitsch Summer 2012 CIEP 475 Workshop Teaching With Primary Sources Course 1

2 Kim Klepitsch TPS Lesson Plan Title: Events Which Led To Civil War Recommended Background Knowledge: Students should have an understanding of the regional differences which began to take shape in the early to mid late 1800 s in the United States. They were due in big part to the vastly different economies that had developed in the North, South, and expanding West. As the country moved westward, the issue of slavery became more prominent. The states sought to keep a balance of power in Congress, and so the question of WHETHER newly admitted states would be free or slave states became of growing concern. Besides having an understanding of regional differences, students should have already had experience analyzing primary sources and developing strong research questions. Because this is a student- centered activity, the students will need to analyze primary sources and development inquiry- based questions independently. Lesson Overview: The purpose of this activity is to serve as a springboard for preparing students for an inquiry- based research project on the events which led to the Civil War. The students will work in small groups. Each group will receive an Artifact Folder which will contain a set of primary sources focusing on one of the events which contributed to the war. Topics include the Invention of the Cotton Gin, Compromise of 1850, Uncle Tom s Cabin, Fugitive Slave Act, Dred Scott Decision, Bleeding Kansas, and John Brown s Raid on Harper s Ferry. Students will use the Observe, Reflect, Question graphic organizer to document their findings and interpretations. Students will then create questions for further investigation which will direct their research for their final products. Objectives: Students will: Analyze and make interpretations of primary sources which focus on the events which led to the Civil War. Think critically about what they have observed and generate questions they would like to pursue in researching a specific topic regarding events contributing to the Civil War. Work collaboratively in a group on completing the task and creating a plan for research. Create a meaningful context using the primary sources to help further guide them in their research. Become familiar with a variety of events which contributed to the onslaught of the Civil War. 2

3 Common Core Standards: RH Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. RH Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. RH Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. Time Required: 1 2 Class Period (periods = 75 minutes) Recommended Grade Range: 7th 8 th Grades Subject/Topic: Social Studies: Events which led to the Civil War - Ties with Language Arts as well- Materials Used: Observe, Reflect, Question graphic organizer (two three per student based on how many sources they will be analyzing) Poster paper Artifact Folders(Folders each containing two three primary sources focusing on a specific topic) Primary Sources Rubric Resources Used: See Appendix A through G (Primary Sources) Please Note: Citations follow each source. Procedure: 1. Teacher will split students into heterogeneous groups of 3 4. Each group can be randomly assigned an Artifact Folder, or individual members of a group can pick a topic from a hat and that is the folder that they will receive. 2. Students should already be familiar with the Observe, Reflect, Question graphic organizer. If not, the teacher may need to model the process of thinking historically when looking at a primary 3

4 source before students work independently on this activity. The teacher can post several questions under each category to help the students focus on what s important. 3. Allow students sufficient time to work as a team on analyzing the primary sources that they have been assigned. If using two sources, allow at least minutes, if using three sources allow minutes. Remember: This is an introductory activity and students may not have much, if any, background knowledge on the topics they have been assigned. As the students are working in their groups, the teacher should be moving around from group to group, assisting as needed. Really encourage students to pay close attention to all the details in the source they are looking at. 4. When the students come to the end of the graphic organizer, they should formulate questions that will give them direction for further research they will be conducting for their projects. Because they are student- generated questions, it will give the students ownership of their learning and allow them to focus on what they are most interested in while still learning about the topic. 5. Once they are finished working on the graphic organizer, students should recreate a larger version on poster size paper that they can then share with the class. As they are sharing with the class, they should discuss what they observed, their interpretation, and what direction they will head for research. Extension: Students will be given a Menu of Options from which they can choose to later present what they have learned as a result of their research. Because each group will be the experts on a chosen topic, they will later present and teach the rest of the class what they have learned about their topic and how it contributed to the Civil War. Evaluation: While teacher observations and group participation will contribute to evaluation, a rubric will be used to see whether students were able to think critically and analyze the primary sources they are responsible for, and whether they were able to effectively create and meaningful context in which to do further research. 4

5 Appendix A (Invention of the Cotton Gin) 5

6 Title: History of Sea Island cotton URL: Author/Creator: James E. Taylor Date: Created/Published 1869 Title: The First cotton- gin / drawn by William L. Sheppard URL: Author/Creator: William L. Sheppard Date: 1869 Dec. 18 6

7 Title: White cotton, black pickers and a gin. Humble and crude, but the crop Uncle Sam depends on to maintain his gold balance URL: Author/Creator: Unknown Date Created/Published: c

8 Appendix B (Compromise of 1850) 8

9 Title: Congressional scales. A true balance URL: c Author/Creator: N.Y., : Lith. & pub. by N. Currier Date: Title: The National Union URL: Author/Creator: Lee & Walker, Music Publishers ; New- York : Wm. Hall & Son ; N. Orleans : Wm. T. Mayo Date:

10 10

11 Title: A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, URL: bin/ampage?collid=llcg&filename=022/llcg022.db&recnum=538 Author/Creator:Senate, 31st Congress, 1st Session Date: December 3,

12 Appendix C (Fugitive Slave Act) Title: : Anthony Burns URL: Author/Creator: drawn by Barry from a daguerreotype [sic] by Whipple &Black ; John Andrews, sc. Date:, c

13 Title: Effects of the Fugitive- Slave- Law URL: Author/Creator: Signed in reverse: Th. Kaufmann (Theodor Kaufmann?). Publ. by Hoff &Bloede New York Date:

14 Title: Dear Sir: On the promulgation of the Fugitive slave act, a new and large field for benevolence was opened in this city... URL: Author/Creator: Leaflet Date: June 17,

15 Appendix D (Uncle Tom s Cabin)Ref 15

16 Title: Uncle Tom in England. The London times on Uncle Tom's cabin. A review from the London times of Friday, September 3d, Evils of slavery, method of its removal, danger of agitation, colonization URL: Digital ID rbaapc30900 Author/Creator: New York, Bunce& Brother Date Published:

17 17

18 Title: Uncle Tom's cabin URL: Author/Creator: A.S. Seer's Union Square Print. Date: c

19 Title: Uncle Tom's cabin URL: Author/Creator: A.S. Seer Print. Date:

20 Appendix E (Bleeding Kansas) Title: The "mustang" team URL: Author/Creator: Currier, Nathaniel, Maurer, Ludwig Wilhelm, Date:

21 Title: Who are the ruffians, murderers, and robbers in Kansas? URL: Author/Creator: Unknown Date:

22 Title: Forcing slavery down the throat of a freesoiler URL: Author/Creator: J.L. Magee Date:

23 Appendix F (John Brown s Raid on Harper s Ferry) Title: Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court URL: Author/Creator: John Brown Date:

24 24

25 25

26 Title: "A Lecture on John Brown." URL: Digital ID mssmisc ody0308a Author/Creator: Frederick Douglass Date:

27 Title: John Brown ascending the scaffold preparatory to being hanged URL: Author/Creator: Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, v. 9, no. 211 Date:

28 Appendix G (Dred Scott Decision) Title: Now ready: the Dred Scott decision- - Opinion of Chief- Justice Roger B. Taney... URL: Author/Creator: Van Evrie, Horton & Co., No. 40 Ann Street, New York. Date:

29 Title: The political quadrille. Music by Dred Scott URL: Author/Creator: Unknown Date:

30 Title: Visit to Dred Scott - his family - incidents of his life - decision of the Supreme Court URL: Author Creator: o Wood engravings after photoprintgs by Fitzgibbon. o Illus. in: Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, front page Date: June 27,

31 Klepitsch _Historical Background Information Eli Whitney s Cotton Gin Before the invention of the cotton gin, slavery had actually begun to diminish in the United States. Farmers were finding that the cost of maintaining slaves was too expensive in comparison the amount of profit to be made from the cost of harvesting crops such as cotton. The invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry which became highly lucrative and America s leading crop. As cotton became a major export of the South, slaves came high in demand due to the labor that was needed to grow and harvest cotton. By the time of the Civil War, there were approximately four million slaves in the southern United States. Compromise of 1850 Following the Mexican- American War, in an effort to reduce sectional strife that was occurring between the slave and free states, Senator Henry Clay proposed a series of bills which after a great deal of debate resulted in the following: California would enter the Union as a free state; New Mexico and Utah were allowed to use popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery; Texas gave up lands east of the Rio Grande and the government would pay Texas s debt to Mexico; the slave trade, but not slavery, would end in the nation s capitol; the Fugitive Slave Act made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed federal officials to arrest runaway slaves in free areas. This final bill, the Fugitive Slave Act, was highly controversial and actually stepped up the efforts of Abolitionists to end slavery. Fugitive Slave Act Under the Fugitive Slave Act, any slave owner or his slave catcher could claim any black person who fit the description of a runaway slave as a fugitive and could bring him or her before a federal judge to reclaim him or her as the slave owner s slave. If the judge ruled in favor the slave owner, the judge would be paid ten dollars. If the judge ruled in favor of the defendant, the judge would be paid five dollars. In addition, fugitive slaves were not allowed to give testimony on their own behalf. This act stripped away the rights of due process by the law of African Americans. Also under this law, anyone who was caught helping a runaway slave faced a fine of $1,000 and six months in jail. Many Abolitionists and Northerners became concerned over this law for many reasons. First, many free African Americans had been captured as fugitives and returned to slavery in the south. Many disliked the idea of a trial without a jury and disapproved of the commissioners high fees for returning slaves. The outrage that resulted from the Fugitive Slave Act caused many to join the Abolitionists movement. Uncle Tom s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom s Cabin, was the daughter of a Presbyterian minister who had moved to Ohio from Connecticut at the age of 21. There she met fugitive slaves and quickly learned about the cruelties that existed in the system of slavery. The passing of the Fugitive Slave Act enraged Stowe and she decided to write a book that would educate people living in the North to the realities of slavery. Uncle Tom s Cabin is the story of a enslaved African American named Tom, 31

32 who is sold away from his wife into the hands of a cruel slave owner, Simon LeGree. Eventually in the story, Tom is beaten to death under the orders of LeGree. Uncle Tom s Cabin became a national and international hit. It enraged people not only in the North, but in Europe as well. Approximately two million people joined the Abolitionist Movement as a result of the publication of Uncle Tom s Cabin. It is reported that Abraham Lincoln referred to Stowe as the little lady who made this great war. Bleeding Kansas In 1854, the Kansas- Nebraska Act was passed which divided the remaining land from the Louisiana Purchase into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. It allowed the people living in each territory to decide the issue of slavery with popular sovereignty. Antislavery Northerners were outraged since this act would eliminate the Missouri Compromise s restriction on slavery north of the line. Antislavery and proslavery groups rushed to Kansas which resulted in two opposing governments. Widespread violence broke out throughout the state between the two opposing sides in an attempt to gain control. This outbreak of violence became known as Bleeding Kansas. John Brown s Raid on Harper s Ferry John Brown was a radical abolitionist who saw violence as a justifiable means of ending slavery. On October 16, 1859, Brown led a group of men which included his five sons, on a raid of Harper s Ferry, Virginia in an attempt to overthrow an arsenal located there. His plan was to capture the weapons and supply slaves located in Virginia with arms in order to start a slave uprising. After capturing several buildings located in the arsenal, Brown and his men were surrounded, captured or killed. Brown was later tried and hung for treason. While some Abolitionists criticized Browns extreme actions, many mourned him. Many Southerners feared that more like Brown would attack in the South and began talking about leaving the Union. Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was the slave of an army surgeon, Dr. John Emerson of Missouri. Scott had accompanied Emerson on tours of duty in the Illinois and Wisconsin territories. After returning to Missouri, Emerson died and Scott became the slave of Emerson s widow. In 1846 Scott sued for his freedom arguing that he had gained his freedom when living in the free territories of Illinois and Wisconsin. While he won his case in a lower court, it was overturned by the Missouri State Supreme Court. In 1857, Scott s case made it to the U.S. Supreme Court. There the Court ruled that African Americans, whether they were free or slave, were not U.S. citizens and therefore could not sue in federal court. This decision enraged Abolitionists even further since it upheld the view that slaves were property and did not allowed the protection of rights outlined in the Constitution. 32

33 Name Topic Observe Reflect Question 33

34 Key Terms Further Investigation Sources I Might Use 34

35 Name Contributing Factors Which Led To The Civil War: Graphic Organizer Evaluation Observations/Text Evidence Exemplary(10) Good (8) Attempted(7) Unacceptable(5) Students were Students were Students were Students made able to identify able to identify able to identify little attempt to numerous key numerous key some key details identify key ideas, details, ideas, details, and which are related details related to words, as well as words which can to the topic. the topic. more subtle clues be found in each which can be source and are found in each related to the source and are topic. related to the topic. Interpretation or Analysis Students displayed strong critical thinking skills by drawing in- depth, valid conclusions based on the observations made and details noted from the primary source. Students drew valid conclusions based on the observations made and details noted from the primary source. Students drew conclusions based on the observations made and details noted from the primary source, however, they may be inaccurate or unrelated to the topic. Students may not have drawn conclusions or made inferences based on their observations noted in the primary source. Questions for Research Students were able to formulate solid, open- ended research questions that will help guide them in an in- depth study of their topic. Students were able to formulate open- ended research questions that may need to be revised as they conduct research on their topic. Students formulated questions that may be limited to small amounts of research. Students may need to create more questions as they conduct their research on their topic. Students formulated questions that may only require yes/no, or very limited responses. Questions may be more detailed oriented and may not allow for in- depth research. 35

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