Find Fredericksburg, Washington, DC, and Richmond on your map of Virginia and circle these locations.

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1 Animated Map Activity Go to the animated map of Fredericksburg on the Civil War Trust s website, Fill in your paper and maps as you watch the animated map. You will need markers and colored pencils. Italicized sentences mean you complete that task on your map. Name: Answer Key Date: Introduction Find Fredericksburg, Washington, DC, and Richmond on your map of Virginia and circle these locations. On your map of Virginia find the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers and color them in blue. When did the Battle of Fredericksburg take place? Dec. 11,12, &13, 1862 Who was in command of the Union Army of the Potomac at this point? _Gen. Burnside Who had been in command? _Gen McClellan Why was Lincoln frustrated? _McClellan was not pursuing General Lee Find the Shenandoah Valley and Mountains on the map of Virginia and color them brown. Why did the Union Army decide not to go near the Shenandoah Mountains? The army did not go near the Shenandoah Mountains because the flank would be exposed to Stonewall Jackson. Why did it take General Burnside and the Army of the Potomac so long to get across the river and into Fredericksburg? _The pontoon bridges a longer time to arrive than expected. Draw arrows to show the route of the pontoon bridges on your map of Virginia. About how far did the boats travel from Berlin Md. to Fredericksburg, VA? _100 miles While the Army of the Potomac was waiting for the pontoon bridges to arrive what was the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia doing? The Confederate army was bringing more troops to Fredericksburg in preparation for battle.

2 On your map of Fredericksburg draw the locations on the Rappahannock River where the pontoon bridges were placed. On your map of Fredericksburg highlight the city in one color, Marye s heights in another, and the Slaughter Pen Farm in another. On your map of Fredericksburg measure the distance between Marye s heights and the Slaughter Pen Farm. About how many miles apart are these locations?_2 miles

3 Marye s Heights Complete the Marye s Heights portion of the animated map first, and then do the Slaughter Pen Farm. Why do you think the Army of Northern Virginia decided to locate themselves on Marye s Heights? _The Army of Northern Virginia located themselves on Marye s Heights because it was the high ground and they would have the protection of a man made stone wall. What obstacles stood in the way of the Union Army s advance at of Marye s Heights? The stone wall and Mill Run were obstacles which the Union Army had to face in their pursuit of the enemy at Marye s Heights. On your map of Marye s Heights color the stonewall yellow and Mill Race blue. On your map of Marye s Heights draw in the location of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia with a red pencil or crayon. About what time did the fighting begin at Marye s Heights? 10:00 AM Write that time on your map of Marye s Heights. On your map of Marye s Heights using a blue pencil, draw in the location of the Union Army of the Potomac and draw arrows pointing in the direction in which they moved. Describe what happened during the battle at Marye s Heights. _During the battle at Marye s Heights the Army of Northern Virginia stood behind a stone wall while the Potomac Army came through the city, across an open fields until they were in front of the stone wall. The Army of the Potomac could not get close to the Army of Northern Virginia to fight because of the wall and open field. Many Union soldiers were killed. Explain why the Army of Northern Virginia only lost 1,000 men, compared to the Potomac Army s 7,500 men. _The Army of Northern Virginia had the high ground and the protection of the wall from Union fire so they were protected while the Union was in the open with no protection; therefore the Union took many casualties. After the battle what action did the confederate soldier Richard Kirkland take? _Richard Kickland gave water and helped the wounded and dying Union soldiers following the battle. Why do you think both sides cheered Kirkland s actions? _Answers will vary. But students should express something about Richard Kirkland s character and deeds.

4 Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm About what time did the fighting begin at the Slaughter Pen Farm?_10:00 AM Write that time on your map of Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm. On your map of Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm highlight Bowling Green Road and the railroad tracks. On your map of Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm draw in the starting location of the Confederate Army with a red pencil or crayon. On your maps of Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm draw in the starting location of the Army of the Potomac with a blue pencil or crayon. Identify Pelham s position from which he attacked the Union Line and circle this with your red pencil or crayon. What effect did Pelham s attack have on Army of the Potomac? _Pelham killed many Union soldiers and through his position along their side he deceived the Union Army, making them believe that there were more guns in his location. The Union Army was distracted by this. Label the line in the middle of the field Virginia Ditch Fence. Locate the swamp on your Slaughter Pen Farm Map and color it green. On your maps of Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm, using your blue pencil or crayon draw arrows showing the direction in which the Union Army of the Potomac moved. On your maps of Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm, using your red pencil or crayon draw arrows showing the direction in which the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia moved. At what point in the battle did the Army of the Potomac have the best chance of winning the battle by breaking through the lines of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the battle? _The Army of the Potomac had the best chance of winning the battle when they broke through the Army of Northern Virginia s line at the swamp. What happened at the end of the battle at Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm? At the end of the battle the Union Army of the Potomac took great losses and retreated.

5 Wrap up Compare the results at Prospect Hill and Slaughter Pen Farm to those at Marye s Heights? Was the outcome at Slaughter Pen Farm worse, better or the same than Marye s Heights? Explain. _Answers will vary. Both portions of the battle were costly to Union lives and the Confederate Army had the advantage due to their preparation while the Army of the Potomac was waiting for the pontoon bridges. Who do you think won the battle at Fredericksburg? Why? _The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia won the Battle of Fredericksburg because they prevented the Union Army from achieving their goal of reaching Richmond and they suffered less casualties. General Burnside, commander of the Army of the Potomac, had a difficult time communicating with his commanding officers. How do you think General Burnside sent messages? _Either by sending a soldier on foot or horseback with a message Using the distance you measured on your map of Fredericksburg, about how long do you think it took a message to get from Marye s Heights to Slaughter Pen Farm? _Approximately half an hour. What do you think happened because of this? _I think that messages were not received in time, leading to confusion among the commanding officers If the Union Army won at Fredericksburg where did they plan to go next? _Richmond What would have been the advantage to having this location? _By reaching Richmond the Union Army would take the capital city of the Confederacy and if they had done that the war may have been over.

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