The First International Workshop on Prevention and Mitigation of Meteorological Disasters in Southeast A The Palace Side Hotel, Kyoto, Japan, 3-5

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1 The First International Workshop on Prevention and Mitigation of Meteorological Disasters in Southeast A The Palace Side Hotel, Kyoto, Japan, 3-5 March Meteorological Disasters and Early Warnin System Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology Department of Meteorology Prepared by : LONG SARAVUTH

2 Content Introduction Meteorological Disasters Existing EWS in Cambodia National Forecasting Center Recommendation

3 Introduction Kingdom of Cambodia Bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and The Gulf of Thailand Area:181,035 sq. Km. Capital: Phnom Penh, 3 municipalities and 20 provinces Cambodia s land is in lower Mekong basin Mekong River: world s 12th longest river system. Total length of 4,500 km, a drainage area of 795,000 sq. km. The average annual runoff of 475,000 million cubic meters. 500 km of Mekong River bisects Cambodia

4 21 Synoptic Stations in Cambodia CLIMATE: The Monsoon Southwest Monsoon mid May to end of Oct. brings75% to 80% of the annual rainfall. Northeast Monsoon Beginning of Nov to end of Apr with dry wind called hot season Monsoon.

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7 Mekong River, Tonle Sap Lake Flood of 2000, 2001 was Major Natural Disasters in Cambodia

8 Flood Peaks and Flow Characteristics of the Mekong at Stung Treng ( ) Annual runoff in 10 ^9m Average Historical floods Annual peak discharge (m3/s)

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10 FLOOD FLOW DISTRBUTION Right bank Q > m3/s : flow diversion starts < Q < : 50 % spill to left and right bank < Q < : left bank changes from 50 to 60 % right bank changes from 50 to 40 % Kampong Cham Phnom Penh Left bank Source: WUP JICA

11 Disaster Data [1] Total Events People effect People kill D E FLD F W/S LS V ,274, D = drought, E = earthquake, FLD = floods, F = fire, W/S = wind/storm, LS = landslide, V = volcano, O = others [1] Source : CAMBODIA, International Federation of the Red Cross Country Assistance Strategy , June 2000

12 In Cambodia the most frequent and severe disasters are caused by flooding Cambodia is naturally susceptible to annual river flooding during the main monsoon season. Localized flooding caused by monsoon thunderstorms is also a serious threat as they periodically sweep the country

13 Severe flooding has occurred in 1961, 1966, 1978, 1984, 1991, 1996, 2000 and most recently in 2001

14 Table 1: Flood Direct Physical Damages Affected Extent Estimated Cost Wet season rice 616, 750 hectares flooded out of which 347,107 hectares destroyed a) based on market value: US$ 87 million (424, 000 tons of milled rice x 800 riel/kilo) b) based on NCDM report: Other crops (corn, peanuts, soybeans, vegetables, sugar cane, sesame seeds, moonbeams and cassava 51,272 hectares flooded out of which 47, 461 hectares destroyed US$ 57.5 million US$ 8,519, 249 Livestock 2,309 buffaloes and cows, 1,619 pigs US$ 476,704 Schools 860 primary schools US $ 15,200, high schools Hospitals 158 hospitals affected US$ 693,000 Rural Development bridges and pipes in 19 US$ 10,876, 384 US$ 271,500 5,404 US$ 216,160 11,967 wells, pipes, and US$ 479, 574 Water Resources hydrological systems affected in 123 sites covering 123, 265 hectares US$ 16,714, 734 Public Works and Transportation national, provincial and secondary roads- 1,500 km of US$ 44,933, 560 hectares bridges in 115 places-3,024 US$ 1,687,825 1,521 km of train US$ 9,900,150 US$ 44, 621, 385

15 In recent years, there has been an imbalance in the distribution of monsoon rainfall which has resulted in drought in some parts of the country A short dry spell of 20 to 30 days during the rainy season ( May November ) can result to extensive damage to crops Prolonged drought was experienced in 1997 to And in 2001, while still recovering from the effects of the flood of 2000, Cambodia was also affected by severe drought

16 Challenges Most city and towns are not protected against flooding by embankments Agriculture and fisheries depends on floods nutrients and extreme floods causes damages Stable economic development needs accurate and timely flood information (for planning and operation) Rural economy highly dependant on natural resources Early stage of flood information development Low investment in flood information not sustainable Risk of flood damage is increasing

17 Existing EWS in Cambodia 2003: Pilot in 6 villages (Kandal & Prey Veng provinces) 2004: Expansion to 40 villages (Kandal, Prey Veng, Kampong Cham, Kratie and Stung Treng provinces) : Continue in the 40 villages Beneficiaries: Approx. 60,000 people from 40 floodvulnerable villages

18 DONOR EXECUTING ORGANIZATION IMPLEMENTING ORGANIZATIONS Line agency NCDM CRC DOM/DHRW

19 Major Accomplishments Implementation: Understandable, applicable tools and methods available at communities (40 billboards, 142 flood markers, 40 flood emergency response boards) Target areas identified (40 villages, 14 Communes, 6 districts & 5 provinces) 78 RCVs selected for performing project activities 127 project support committee members (PSCs) selected

20 Major Accomplishments (Cont) Capacity local authorities/stakeholders/communities on flood preparedness and flood early warning & dissemination is enhanced. The population understands and has confidence in flood forecasts. The population is more involved in the EWS activities i.e. 68% of people are willing to contribute money and their labor to maintain the flood references (source: end-line survey report) Active support from local authority in the EWS project activities

21 Major Accomplishments (Cont) EWS reinforced the communication and cooperation among RCVs, CCDMC and concerned bodies in their communities 2-way communication from national level to community level is established EWS activities have been replicated in neighboring villages/provinces A training package and guidebooks, poster and leaflet are developed and widely published

22 Reception of Flood Forecast Kandal Prey Veng Kratie Stung Treng RCV FM Radio 92.5MHz Other FM Radio TV EWS Board Number of trained people Number of home flood marker Comparison between number of villagers receiving training and number of flood markers made by villagers 9,000 8,000 8,895 7,872 7,000 6,000 5,000 5,029 4,000 3,000 2,000 2, , ,000 0 Kandal Prey Veng Kratie Stung Treng 69 Number of people receiving the flood imformation Number of flood response activities Comparison between number of villagers daily receiving flood information and number of flood response activities carried out by villagers

23 Home Flood Marker Safe Areas for Livestock House reinforcement Stored firewood

24 Major Accomplishments (Cont) Sustainability: 1. EWS has been integrated into the Commune Disaster Management Plan 2. Active support and participation of the local authorities and stakeholders 3. The PSCs as body of the CCDM are established at the villages 4. In agreement, the long-term Cooperation Agreement between National and Local Authorities for maintaining the EWS activities at 40 villages has been drafted and signed

25 Best Practices RFMMC/DOM/DHRW Before noon 11:00 hrs Headquarter Offices of NCDM and CRC 14:00 hrs 10:00 hrs Provincial Offices of NCDM and CRC 14:30 hrs 09:30 hrs District Offices of NCDM and CRC 15:00 hrs 08:30 hrs Communities and their feedback

26 EWS Operational Structure MANAGEMENT Reporting IMPLEMENTATION National Disaster Management Committee NCDMS Coordination & Assistance CRC Supervision Reporting Provincial Disaster Management Committee PCDMS Coordination & Assistance CRC Branch District Disaster Management Committee Supervision DCDMS Reporting Coordination & Assistance CRC Branch Supervision Reporting Commune Disaster Management Committee PSCs/RCVs

27 National Forecasting Center Meteorological & Weather Forecasting With Respect to Short and Medium Term Flood Forecasting & Early Warning Collaborative effort with International and National Institution (WMO, NOAA,JMA, Typhoon Committee, TMD, MD of VN, DMH of Lao PDR etc.) Encourage inter-sect oral integration and coordination Practical focus such as agricultural planning and management, WR management in addition to disaster oriented etc.

28 Short to Medium Term Flood & Weather Forecasting Integration of Flood Information at national and regional and international level Results oriented not only on flood as disaster but also for maximizing benefit from improving flood info to stabilize and improve economic development Standardize data quality enabling accuracy assessment

29 Data requirement for effective FEW and Preparedness Accurate Water level and discharge at location at risk Local floods and flooding characteristics data Local financial and logistic capacity, flood safe area and self reliance capability of communities Line of command in decision making in place

30 Flood Info for Emergency Management & Reconstruction Flood Information should reach timely agencies responsible for emergency management Expected impact: magnitude and extension Access to affected areas and people incl. logistics arrangement Evacuation routes and means of transportation Estimation of damages to properties, infrastructures and crops. Self reliance capacity built in each of vulnerable communities

31 Opportunities The Cambodian government presently considers more specifically the need of EWS in the poverty reduction and disaster management strategies; The EWS tools developed in Cambodia are simple and easily understandable. These tools can be easily replicated.

32 Recommendation At the early stage of weather forecasting based on simple tools and forecasting techniques No practical numeric weather forecasting and rainfall forecasting capability yet Need medium to long term and comprehensive weather information development including capacity building Forecast should not focus only on disaster prevention but also on maximizing benefit from improving coping capability Reliable and sustainable data collection need high level commitment Longer forecast leading time need rainfall forecast, a comprehensive tool and capability

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